Chapter 2 AP World History Vocabulary Flashcards

Confucius
major Chinese philosopher born in 6th century BCE; sayings collected in Analects; philosophy based on the need for restoration of social order through the role of superior men.
Daoism
philosophy associated with Laozi; individual should seek alignment with Dao or cosmic force
Feudalism
social organization created by exchanging grants of land (fiefs) in return for formal oaths of allegiance and promises of loyal service; typical of Zhou dynasty
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Great Wall
Chinese defensive fortification built to keep out northern nomadic invaders; began during the reign of Shi Huangdi
Han
dynasty succeeding the Qin ruled from 202 BCE to 220 CE
Laozi
Chinese Daoist philosopher; taught that governments were of secondary importance and recommended retreat from society into nature
Legalists
Chinese school of political philosophy; stressed the need for the absolute power of the emperor enforced through strict application of laws
Mandate of Heaven
the divine source of political legitimacy in China; established under Zhou to justify overthrow of Shang
Qin
dynasty (221-207 BCE) founded at the end of the Warring States period
Shi Huangdi
first emperor of China; founder of Qin dynasty
Warring States Period
time of warfare between regional lords following the decline of the Zhou dynasty in the 8th century BCE
Xianyang
capital of the Zhou dynasty
Zhou
originally a vassal family of the Shang; possibly Turkic-speaking origin; overthrew Shang and established 2nd Chinese dynasty (1122-256 BCE)

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