Chapter 2: Population

Chapter 2: Population

The current population of the world is approximately what?
Seven Billion People
Name three of the most densely populated regions of the world.
East Asia, South Asia, Western Europe, Nile Region, North Eastern U.S.
Describe the difference between Total Fertility Rate (TFR) and Crude Birth Rate (CBR).
TFR is the number of children a woman can expect to have in her life. CBR is the number of children born for every 1000 members of the population regardless of age or sex.
What is Natural Increase Rate (NIR)?
This is the difference between Crude Birth Rate and Crude Death Rate. It helps determine how quickly a population will grow without taking immigration or emigration into account.
Malthus said what about population growth?
Human population growth will eventually outpace people’s ability to produce food, leading to widespread starvation and disease.
At what stage in the Demographic Transition Model will population rapidly increase?
Stage 2
The fact that some Florida towns would have an “upside down” population pyramid indicates that taxpayers would be interested in funding what types of activities?
Golf Courses, Retirement Communities, etc.
What regions of the world are most likely to have population pyramids that are shaped like pyramids?
Lower Developed Countries (LDC) Areas of Africa, Asia, South America
What regions of the world are most likely to have population pyramids that are shaped like cylinder?
More Developed Countries (MDC) Western Europe, Anglo America
Age-Sex Distribution
A model used in population geography that describes the ages and number of males and females within a given population; also called a population pyramid.
Arithmetic Density
The number of people living in a given unit area.
Baby Boom
A cohort of individuals born in the United States between 1946 and 1964, which was just after World War II in a time of relative peace and prosperity. These conditions allowed for better education and job opportunities, encouraging high rates of both marriage and fertility.
Carrying Capacity
The largest number of people that the environment of a particular area can sustainably support.
Baby Bust
Period of time during the 1960s and 1970s when fertility rates in the United States dropped as large numbers of women from the baby boom generation sought higher levels of education and more competitive jobs, causing them to marry later in life. As such, the fertility rate dropped considerably, in contrast to the baby boom, in which the fertility rates were quite high.
Census Tract
Small country subdivisions, usually containing between 2,500 and 8,000 persons, delineated by the U.S. census bureau as areas of relatively uniform population characteristics, economic status, and living conditions.
Child Mortality Rate
Number of deaths per thousand children within the first five years of life.
Cohort
A population group unified by a specific common characteristics, such as age, and subsequently treated as a statistical unit.
Crude Birth Rate
The number of live births per year per 1,000 people.
Crude Death Rate
The number of deaths per year per 1,000 people.
Demographic Accounting Equation
An equation that summarizes the amount of growth or decline in a population within a country during a particular time period taking into account both natural increase and net migration.
Demographic Transition Model
A sequence of demographic change in which a country moves from high birth and death rates to low birth and death rates through time.
Demography
The study of human populations, including their temporal and spatial dynamics.
Dependency Ratio
The ratio of the number of people who are either too old or young to provide for themselves to the number of people who must support them through their own labor. This is usually expressed in the form of n:100 where n equals the the number of dependents.
Doubling Time
Time period required for a population experiencing exponential growth to double in size completely.
Exponential Growth
Growth that occurs when a fixed percentage of new people is added to a population each year. Exponential growth is compound because the fixed growth rate applies to an ever-increasing population.
Geodemography
A division of human geography concerned with spatial variation in distribution, composition, growth, and movements of population.
Generation X
A term coined by artist and author Douglas Coupland to describe people born in the United States between the years 1965 and 1980. This post-baby boom generation will have to support the baby boom cohort as they head into their retirement years.
Infant Mortality Rate
The percentage of children who die before their first birthday within a particular area or country.
Life Expectancy
The average age individuals are expected to live. which varies across space, between genders, and even between races.
Thomas Malthus
Author of Essay on the Principle of Population (1798) who claimed that population grows at an exponential rate while food production increased arithmetically, and thereby that, eventually, population growth would outpace food production.
Maternal Mortality Rate
Number of deaths per thousand of women giving birth.
Natural Increase Rate
The difference between the number of births and number of deaths within a particular country.
Neo-Malthusian
Advocacy of population control programs to ensure enough resources for current and future populations.
Overpopulation
A value judgment based on the notion that the resources of a particular area are not great enough to support that area’s current population.
Physiologic Density
A ratio of human population to the area of cropland, used in less developed countries dominated by subsistence agriculture.
Population Density
A measurement of the number of people per unit land area.
Population Geography
A division of human geography concerned with spatial variations in distribution, composition, growth, and movements of population.
Population Pyramid
A model used in population geography to show the age and sex distribution of a particular population.
Total Fertility Rate
The average number of children born to a women during her childbearing years.
Zero Population Growth
Proposal to end population growth through a variety of official and nongovernmental family planning programs.
What region is currently experiencing the fastest population growth?
Tropical Africa
Most of the world’s people live where?
The world’s poorest countries
Throughout human history, world population has what?
Grown most rapidly over the last 200 years
What occurs when a population is adding a fixed percentage of people to a growing population each year?
Exponential Growth
Where has life expectancy increased?
Worldwide
The number of live births per thousand people per year is called the what?
Crude birth rate
What country is most likely to be showing the lowest natural increase rate?
Liechtenstein
Total fertility rate is NOT closely correlated with what?
Industrial Output
The demographic accounting equation does NOT take into account what when calculating a country’s population?
Natural Increase over time
What happens with overall life expectancy in the United States?
It varies between various cohorts within the large population.
What did Thomas Malthus Predict?
Population would outpace food production
Give an example of a country in stage 2 of the demographic transition model?
Nigeria
What does a rectangle-shaped population pyramid indicate?
Growing slowly or not at all
What fostered the Baby Boom?
Was fostered by economic prosperity and relative peace
When baby boomers have reached retirement age, what will the population pyramid for the United States look like?
Relatively rectangular, with a slight bulge near the top.
Give an example of a country you would expect to have the densest population?
Belgium
Carrying Capacity is a function of what?
Technology, Natural Resources, and Limiting Factors
Population Policy usually involves limitations on what?
Fertility Levels and Immigration Levels
India and China are the world’s two most populous countries. While China has instituted a strict population policy, India what?
Encourages lower fertility through education and access to family planning.
Give an example of a country with a population pyramids that has a large base.
Nigeria
The Demographic Transition model suggests as countries industrialize….
Birth and Death Rates decrease over time
What does the first stage of the Demographic Transition model indicate?
Total population is low and constant with high birth rates and high death rates.
What is not a contributing factor to the low birth rates in stage 4 of the demographic transition model?
Reliance on Subsistence Agriculture
According to Thomas Malthus’s population theory, what is an example of a preventive check on population?
Moral Restraint
Give an example of population control that Thomas Malthus supported
The upper class utilizing moral restraint to limit family size.
China’s one-child policy is an example of what theory?
Optimum Population Theory
Give examples that result in Overpopulation
Squatter Settlements in Rio de Janeiro, Deforestation in Madagascar, Overcrowding in Mumbai, Lack of access to food in Manila.
What region has the highest rate of natural increase?
Sub-Saharan Africa
How do you calculate Arithmetic Population Density?
Total population divided by total land area
In the United States suburbanization increased in the 1960s and resulted in what?
Loss of tax base and increased poverty rates in city centers
The population of developed nations can be described as having what?
Lower natural increase than undeveloped countries
Between 1990 and 1999, population increased in the United States primarily because of what factor?
Increased immigration
Food availability, which can control population size, is an example of what?
Limiting Factor
What is true about carrying capacity and population?
Above carrying capacity, population size decreases
In order for doubling time to be accurately predicted, what assumption must be true?
The population growth is constant over a long period of time
The age-specific fertility rate (ASFR) among women in the United States fro 1955 to 1995 indicates what?
Women are having fewer children and starting families later in life
Baby Booms are generally associated with what?
Periods of Economic Prosperity
What is the primary purpose of demographic data?
Describe the characteristics of populations
A high dependency ratio suggests that a large percentage of the population is what ages?
Under 14 years old and over 65 years old
What is true regarding older populations in developed countries?
The majority of old people are women
Give an example of a country that has an incredibly low life expectancy at birth
Zimbabwe
Generation X, which is a group of individuals all born within a defined time interval, is an example of what?
Cohort
What region experiences the highest diffusion of fertility control?
Middle East
What is a population continuing to grow following a fertility decline due to the large percentage of young people?
Demographic Momentum
Influenza is an example of what type of disease diffusion?
Contagious
What does the term Ecumene refer to?
The amount of land that is built on and the amount of land not developed yet.
Neo-Malthusian theory builds on Malthus’s overpopulation theory by considering which two additional factors?
Population growth of underdeveloped countries and the outstripping of other resources beyond food.
The maximum reproductive capacity of a population is known as what?
Fecundity
What is it called when a population distribution is evenly spread over a landscape typically in low density?
Dispersed Distribution
What does the rule of 70 refer to?
The approximate amount of time it takes for a population to double
What does a J-curve on a population graph indicate?
Exponential Population Growth
Malaria, which is present in many populations living in tropical or sub-tropical regions, is an example of what?
Endemic
What is true regarding least developed countries (LDCs) and most developed countries (MDCs)
MDC have lower illiteracy rates than LDC
Give an example of a Consequence of Zero Population Growth
Reduced strain on available resources
What is not true about the total fertility rate equation
Total Fertility rate can be negative
In what area of the world would countries in stage one of the demographic transition model most likely be found?
Western and Southern Africa
Give an example of an idea that does not accurately reflect the attitudes of Thomas Malthus towards the poor
A surplus population of poor people was necessary to provide a stable workforce.
The United Kingdom has a higher death rate than Costa Rica. This is due to the fact that
Costa Rica’s population is younger than the United Kingdom’s population
In the next 50 years, the population of the world
is expected to rise to approximately 9 billion
Over the past 200 years, the population of the world
has increased by approximately more than 5.5 billion