Chapter 20 AP World History Vocabulary

Polygyny
A polygamous mating system involving one male and many females.
Obeah
A religious belief of African origin involving witchcraft and sorcery was practiced in parts of the West Indies and tropical Americas.
Middle Passage
A voyage that brought enslaved Africans across the Atlantic Ocean to North America and the West Indies.
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Nzinga Mvemba
King of Kongo south of Zaire River from 1507 to 1543; converted to Christianity and took title Alfonso I; under Portuguese influence attempted to Christianize all of kingdom.
Mfecane
Wars of 19th century in southern Africa; created by Zulu expansion under Shaka; revolutionized political organization of southern Africa.
Boer
A white native of Cape Province who is a descendant of Dutch settlers and who speaks Afrikaans.
Candomble
African religious ideas and practices in Brazil, particularly among the Yoruba people.
Triangular Trade
A three way system of trade during 1600-1800s Africa sent slaves to America, America sent raw materials to Europe, and Europe sent guns and rum to Africa.
Great Trek
Movement of Boer settlers in Cape Colony of southern Africa to escape influence of British colonial government in 1834; led to settlement of regions north of Orange River and Natal.
Zulu
The name of a tribe of South Africa people who live in the northern part of Natal. They were the dominate tribe in the late 19th century when European Imperialism began. They resisted both the Boers and the British, but ultimately lost their homeland and freedom by 1879.
Swazi
New African state formed on model of Zulu chiefdom; survived mfecane.
Afrikaners
South Africans descended from Dutch and French settlers of the seventeenth century. Their Great Trek founded new settler colonies in the nineteenth century. Though a minority among South Africans, they held political power after 1910.
Factories
Trading stations with resident merchants established by the Portuguese and other Europeans.
Asante
African kingdom on the Gold Coast that expanded rapidly after 1680. Asante participated in the Atlantic economy, trading gold, slaves, and ivory. It resisted British imperial ambitions for a quarter century before being absorbed into Britain. 1902.
William Wilberforce
British statesman and reformer; leader of abolitionist movement in English parliament that led to end of English slave trade in 1807.
Dahomey
(ca. 1650- 1894) African kingdom in present day southern Benin, reaching its height of influence in the eighteenth century. Its leaders sought regional power by raiding for slaves in other kingdoms and then selling the, for firearms and other European goods.
Cape Colony
Dutch colony established at Cape of Good Hope in 1652 to provide a coastal station for Dutch ships traveling to and from the East Indies; settlers expanded and fought with Bantu and other Africans.
Creole Slaves
American-born descendants of saltwater slaves; result of sexual exploitation of slave women or process of miscegenation.
Fulani
Pastoral people of western Sudan; adopted purifying Sufi variant of Islam; under Usuman Dan Fodio in 1804, launched revolt against Hausa kingdoms; established state centered on Sokoto.
Lesotho
Southern African state that survived mfecane; not based on Zulu model; less emphasis on military organization, less authoritarian government.
Kongo Kingdom
Based on agriculture; formed on the lower Congo River by late 15th century; capital at Mbanza Kongo; ruled by hereditary monarchy.
Shaka
A Zulu chief in Southern Africa who used soldiers and good military organization to create a large centralized state.
Diaspora
The dispersion of the Jews outside Israel from the destruction of the temple in Jerusalem in 587-86 BC when they were exiled to Babylonia up to the present time.

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