Chapter 21 study guide

More than a third of the nation’s Native Americans live on the ____ set aside for them by the government.
reservations
____ is the process by which people of one culture merge into and become part of another culture.
assimilation
The Federal Government’s chief response to the effects of past discriminatory practices based on race, color, and sex is the policy of ____.
affirmative action
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The United States population can be described as being mainly a nation of ______.
immingrants
______ is the process of bringing a group into equal member ship in society.
integration
Which is the MOST accurate description of the way minority groups historically have been treated in the United States?
with reluctance to accept their equality
In regard to the issue of equality, the Constitution states that what?
no person can be denied equal protection of the laws.
With _____, the Federal Government hopes to overcome effects of past discrimination.
affirmative action
A person can become a citizen of the United States by
being born in the United States.
being born beyond American jurisdiction to American parents.
by an act of Congress or a treaty.
Over time, the makeup of the American population has become
more diverse.
In the past, women have been denied what?
the right to own property
educational opportunities
suffrage
Laws that treat men and women differently
may be upheld by the Supreme Court if they meet certain criteria.
What is De jure segregation?
was the result of laws or other government actions.
The Civil Rights Act of 1964
outlaws discrimination in public accommodations and hiring practices.
The continuing theme of immigration policy in the United States has been to
adapt regulations to fit changing conditions at a particular time.
One reason that women earn 80 cents for every dollar earned by men is that
on average, only low-paying occupations were open to women.
In an earlier part of United States history what did Congress do in regards to discrimination?
helped further the discrimination of minorities by inaction.
Undocumented aliens are those who enter the United States
without following proper legal procedures
Give example of how minority groups have been treated in the United States
African Americans have consistently faced unjust treatment.
Native Americans were forcibly moved to reservations.
Japanese Americans were moved to “war relocation camps.”
One test that the Supreme Court uses to determine the validity of laws that discriminate between groups of people is the
rational basis test.
What accurately describe the Supreme Court decision in Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka?
It reversed the earlier decision in Plessy v. Ferguson.
It held that segregation by race in public education is unconstitutional.
It struck down the separate-but-equal doctrine in education.
Congress did not pass civil rights legislation from the 1870s to the late 1950s MAINLY because
those in power were unaware, unconcerned, or strongly opposed.
The Constitution’s statement regarding the equality of all persons can be found in both
the 14th Amendment and the Due Process Clause.
What is a FACT about race in American society?
The population of the United States is predominantly white.
Consequences of the historical bias against Native Americans in this country include what?
the life expectancy of Native Americans.
the infant mortality rate of Native Americans.
the unemployment rate among Native Americans.
The percentage of Hispanic Americans in the United States has overtaken that of African Americans because
the number of both groups has grown, but the number of Hispanic Americans has grown more.
Much of the discrimination against Asian Americans in the mid-1800s can be traced to
competition for jobs.
Which of the following paved the way for nearly 60 years of continued segregation in the United States?
the separate-but-equal doctrine
In addition to the Court’s decision in Brown v. Board of Education, desegregation also needed the support of _____ before it could make any real progress.
Congress
The text states that those who claimed to be the victims of housing discrimination were left to enforce the Civil Rights Act of 1968. They would probably have gone about doing this through
the courts.
Undocumented aliens working in seasonal jobs are in this country illegally. This situation might lead to what?
mistreatment of those illegal workers
By making it illegal for undocumented aliens to claim Social Security or welfare benefits, Congress tried to
reserve those benefits for citizens.
ease the burden on State budgets.
eliminate one of the inducements to illegal entry.
Briefly describe the historical treatment of minority groups in the United States. List examples of discrimination.
Minority groups have been consistently discriminated against with poll taxes, literacy test, segregation, and even war camps.
Briefly describe the trends in race over the course of American history.
The United States began as a predominantly white country and became more so over time. The last 40 years there has been a sharp rise in the rate of minority, non white population growth.

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