Chapter 21 test

In regard to the issue of equality, the Constitution states that
A) slaves should be equal to free people.
B) all people are equal in all ways.
C) no person can be denied equal protection of the laws.
D) government cannot draw distinctions between persons and groups.
no person can be denied equal protection of the laws
De jure segregation
A) was the result of laws or other government actions.
B) existed only in the South.
C) no longer exists in this country.
D) is caused mainly by housing patterns.
was the result of laws or other government actions
The continuing theme of immigration policy in the United States has been to
A) allow all refugees a safe haven.
B) help many from other countries become citizens of the United States.
C) exert limited control over who can enter the country.
D) adapt regulations to fit changing conditions at a particular time.
adapt regulations to fit changing conditions at a particular time
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In the past, women have been denied which of the following?
A) the right to own property
B) suffrage
C) all of the above
D) educational opportunities
all of the above
One reason that women earn 80 cents for every dollar earned by men is that
A) on average, only low paying occupations were open to women.
B) on average, women are less capable for business than men.
C) they are in the minority.
D) historically, women have never formed labor unions to achieve equal pay.
on average, only low paying occupations were open to women
Undocumented aliens are those who enter the United States
A) as naturalized citizens.
B) legally to work in seasonal jobs.
C) across the Mexican or Canadian borders.
D) without following proper legal procedures.
without following proper legal procedures
The Constitution’s statement regarding the equality of all persons can be found in both
A) the Due Process Clause and the 5th Amendment.
B) the 14th Amendment and the rational basis test.
C) the 14th Amendment and the Due Process Clause.
D) the separate-but-equal doctrine and the case of Orr v. Orr.
the 14th Amendment and the Due Process Clause
More than a third of the nation’s Native Americans live on the ____ set aside for them by the government.
reservations
The Federal Government’s chief response to the effects of past discriminatory practices based on race, color, and sex is the policy of ____.
affirmative action
____ is the process by which people of one culture merge into and become part of another culture.
assimilation
One test that the Supreme Court uses to determine the validity of laws that discriminate between groups of people is the
A) rational basis test.
B) Equal Protection test.
C) Constitution.
D) Due Process test.
rational basis test
___ is the process of bringing a group into equal membership in society
integration
Alan Bakke charged the University of California with ____ after he was denied admission to their medical school.
reverse discrimination
The United States population can be described as being mainly a nation of ____.
immigrants
An amnesty program was established by the Immigration and Reform Act of 1986 to address which of the following problems?
A) Employers were unwilling to hire undocumented aliens.
B) The establishment of a quota system had angered many immigrants.
C) Undocumented aliens had troubled and divided many groups.
D) There was not enough border patrol officers to combat the problem of illegal immigration.
Undocumented aliens had troubled and divided many groups
Citizenship by birth is determined by the rules
A) of naturalization and denaturalization.
B) set forth in the amendments to the Constitution.
C) of jus soli and jus sanguinis.
D) of individual or collective naturalization.
of jus soli and jus sanguinis
Over time, the makeup of the American population has become
A) less heterogeneous.
B) less ethnic.
C) more diverse.
D) more stable.
more diverse
With ____, the Federal Government hopes to overcome effects of past discrimination.
A) de facto segregation
B) affirmative action
C) reverse discrimination
D) denaturalization
affirmative action
The first major Supreme Court case that challenged affirmative action was
A) Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka.
B) Plessy v. Ferguson.
C) University of California v. Bakke.
D) Hoyt v. Florida.
University of California v. Bakke
Which fact could NOT be used as an example of how minority groups have been treated in the United States?
A) Japanese Americans were moved to “war relocation camps.”
B) Cuban Americans fled the Castro dictatorship.
C) African Americans have consistently faced unjust treatment.
D) Native Americans were forcibly moved to reservations.
Cuban Americans fled the Castro dictatorship
A person can become a citizen of the United States by all of the following means EXCEPT
A) being born in the United States.
B) by an act of Congress or a treaty.
C) being born beyond American jurisdiction to American parents.
D) illegally crossing the Mexican border into Texas.
illegally crossing the Mexican border into Texas
Which part of the Constitution declares that a person can become an American citizen either by birth or naturalization?
A) 13th Amendment
B) the Preamble
C) the Bill of Rights
D) 14th Amendment
14th Amendment
Which of the following statements does NOT accurately describe the Supreme Court decision in Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka?
A) It held that segregation by race in public education is unconstitutional.
B) It reversed the earlier decision in Plessy v. Ferguson.
C) It struck down the separate-but-equal doctrine in education.
D) It quickly brought about integration of schools in this country.
It quickly brought about integration of schools in this country
In an earlier part of United States history, Congress
A) pursued legislation aiding African Americans, but not women.
B) pursued legislation aiding women only.
C) consistently acted for the benefit of minority groups.
D) helped further the discrimination of minorities by inaction.
helped further the discrimination of minorities by inaction
The Civil Rights Act of 1964
A) does not apply to restaurants and eating-places.
B) outlaws discrimination in public accommodations and hiring practices.
C) does not include voting rights provisions.
D) is not a meaningful piece of civil rights legislation.
outlaws discrimination in public accommodations and hiring practices
The action of the Supreme Court in regards to job quotas has been to
A) affirm that race is the only factor in making affirmative action decisions.
B) deny the use of all quotas because they take rights away from people who are equally or more qualified for certain positions.
C) uphold all quotas.
D) uphold quotas when they help overcome effects of long-standing biases.
uphold quotas when they help overcome effects of long-standing biases
Congress did not pass civil rights legislation from the 1870s to the late 1950s MAINLY because
A) people believed that the existing laws were adequate for all.
B) civil rights leaders did not try to make gains for their people.
C) the Constitution had stated the civil rights of all and no further action was needed.
D) those in power were unaware, unconcerned, or strongly opposed
those in power were unaware, unconcerned, or strongly opposed
The response of the Supreme Court to affirmative action programs today can BEST be described as
A) non-supportive until recent years.
B) conservative in rendering decisions.
C) inflammatory in its decisions.
D) completely supportive since its inception.
conservative in rendering decisions
Which is the MOST accurate description of the way minority groups historically have been treated in the United States?
A) with reluctance to accept their equality
B) with a sincere recognition of their cultural differences
C) with willing acceptance of immigrants, but only forced acceptance of those minorities already residing in the United States
D) with complete equality
with reluctance to accept their equality
Laws that treat men and women differently
A) may be passed by Congress but not by States.
B) are always constitutional.
C) may be upheld by the Supreme Court if they meet certain criteria.
D) are always unconstitutional.
may be upheld by the Supreme Court if they meet certain criteria

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