Chapter 22 World History

Scientific revolution
a major change in European thought, starting in the mid-1500s, in which the study of the natural world began to be characterized by careful observation and the questioning of accepted beliefs.
Heliocentric theory
the idea that the earth and the other planets revolve around the sun.
scientific method
a logical procedure for gathering information about the natural world, in which experimentation and observation are used to test hypotheses.
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enlightenment
an 18th century European movement in which thinkers attempted to apply the principles of reason and the scientific method to all aspects of society
social contract
people give up some rights to have a strong ruler
natural rights
the idea that all humans are born with rights, which include the right to life, liberty, and property
philosophe
one of a group of social critics in France during the Enlightenment.
separation of powers
The division of power among the legislative, executive, and judicial branches of government.
Nicolaus Copernicus
Came up with the heliocentric theory. Did not publish his work because it clashed with the church.
Johannes Kepler
Showed that planets orbit the sun in elliptical orbits, not circular ones. Supported Copernicus
Galileo Galilei
This scientist proved Copernicus’ theory that the sun was the center of the solar system and developed the modern experimental method. Put in prison for much of his life.
Francis Bacon
Said scientists should make their conclusions based on information and experiments. Developed scientific methods
Rene Descartes
Came up with analytical geometry. Developed logic
Isaac Newton
Came up with the concept of gravity and the theory of motion
John Locke
Came up with the idea of a “social contract”; also said people have natural rights to life, liberty and property
Voltaire
used satire in his literature to criticize French society
Montesquieu
French philosophe who believed in separation of powers
Jean Jacques Rousseau
Said valid government only came from consent of the governed. Believed all people were equal. Inspired French Revolution.
Mary Wollstonecraft
Argued for women’s rights
The Enlightenment was the Age of __________
Reason
Hobbes believed that humans were __________ and __________.
selfish and wicked
Hobbes believed in the Social _________
Contract
What type of government did Hobbes believe was best?
Absolute Monarchy because it was strongest
What was the name of Hobbes book?
Leviathan
John Locke believed people could govern ___________
themselves
Locke believed every man was born with ___________
natural rights
Locke’s 3 natural rights
life, liberty, and property
what did Locke believe was the purpose of government?
to protect men’s natural rights
French philosophes believed in 5 concepts:
Reason, Nature, Happiness, Progress, Liberty
Who was the most influential French philosophe?
Voltaire
What happened to Voltaire?
He was exiled from France
Montesquieu believed in what branches of government?
executive, legislative and judicial
Beccaria promoted the idea of
Criminal justice
Beccaria believed that a punishment should be based on what?
the seriousness of the crime
Enlightenment believed that human reason could solve what?
social problems
During the Enlightenment, people began to question religion and _____
God
Paris salons
held in women’s homes to discuss the enlightenment
People shared ideas in three ways:
books, magazine articles, personal letters
Neoclassical borrowed ideas from
Greece and Rome
What class of people liked neoclassical stuff?
Middle class
What is a novel
a work of prose fiction
Frederick the Great was king of ________
Prussia
What freedoms did Frederick the Great grant?
religious freedom, got rid of censorship, and improved education
Joseph of Austria’s reforms
Freedom of press and freedom of religion. Abolished serfdom and said everyone had to be paid for their work.
Huguenots were French ______
protestants
What dynasty did Henry begin in France?
Bourbon
How old was Louis XIV when he took power?
23
What was another name for Louis XIV?
The Sun King
Who John Baptiste Colbert?
Minister of Finance
Two ways Colbert made France more self-sufficient
Expanded manufacturing and encouraged colonies
Who was Louis XIV’s minister when he first became king?
Cardinal Mazarin
What was Cardinal Mazarin’s greatest success?
Ended the 30 years war
Two reasons the people hated Mazarin?
He increased taxes and strengthened the central government.
What happened at the St. Bartholomew’s Day massacre?
the French people started killing the Huguenots.
Henry of Navarre converted to __________
Catholicism
Henry of Navarre passed the Edict of Nantes which granted Huguenots ____________
religious freedom

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