Chapter 26 Review

1) The first genetic material was most likely a(n)

A) DNA polymer.
B) DNA oligonucleotide.
C) RNA polymer.
D) protein.
E) protein enzyme.

C) RNA polymer.
2) Which gas was probably least abundant in Earth’s early atmosphere?

A) O2
B) CO
C) CH4
D) H2O
E) NH3

A) O2
3) In their laboratory simulations of the early Earth, Miller and Urey observed the abiotic synthesis of

A) amino acids.
B) complex organic polymers.
C) DNA.
D) liposomes.
E) nucleoli.

A) amino acids.
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4) Which putative early Earth condition did Miller and Urey’s experimental apparatus not attempt to simulate
directly?

A) presence of water vapor
B) intense lightning storms
C) warm seas
D) intense UV bombardment
E) reducing atmosphere

D) intense UV bombardment
5) Which of the factors below weaken the hypothesis of abiotic synthesis of organic monomers in early
Earth’s atmosphere?

1. the relatively short time between intense meteor bombardment and appearance of the first life forms
2. the lack of experimental evidence that organic monomers can form by abiotic synthesis
3. uncertainty about which gases comprised early Earth’s atmosphere

A) 1
B) 2
C) 3
D) 1 and 3
E) 2 and 3

D) 1 and 3

1. the relatively short time between intense meteor bombardment and appearance of the first life forms

3. uncertainty about which gases comprised early Earth’s atmosphere

6) The early atmosphere of Earth probably retained all of the following molecules in substantial amounts
except

A) H2.
B) CH4.
C) CO2.
D) N2.
E) H2O.

A) H2.
7) Which of the following has not yet been synthesized in laboratory experiments studying the origin of life?

A) liposomes
B) liposomes with selectively permeable membranes
C) oligopeptides and other oligomers
D) protobionts that use DNA to program protein synthesis
E) amino acids

D) protobionts that use DNA to program protein synthesis
8) In what way were conditions on Earth more than 2 billion years ago different from those on Earth today?

A) The early Earth had water vapor in its atmosphere.
B) The early Earth was intensely bombarded by large space debris.
C) The early Earth had an oxidizing atmosphere.
D) Less ultraviolet radiation penetrated the early atmosphere.
E) The early atmosphere had significant quantities of ozone.

B) The early Earth was intensely bombarded by large space debris.
9) What condition would have made the primitive atmosphere of Earth more conducive to the origin of life
than the present one? The primitive atmosphere

A) had a layer of ozone that shielded the first fragile cells.
B) removed electrons that impeded the formation of protobionts.
C) may have been a reducing one that facilitated the formation of complex substances from simple molecules.
D) had more oxygen than the modern atmosphere, and thus it successfully sustained the first living
organisms.
E) had less free energy than the modern atmosphere, and thus newly formed organisms were less likely to be destroyed.

C) may have been a reducing one that facilitated the formation of complex substances from simple molecules.
10) What is true of the amino acids delivered to Earth within carbonaceous chondrites?

A) They have the same proportion of L and D isomers as Earth does today.
B) The proportion of the amino acids are similar to those produced in the Miller-Urey experiment.
C) There were fewer kinds of amino acids on the chondrites than are found in living organisms today.
D) They were delivered in the form of polypeptides.
E) Upon entry into Earth’s oxidizing atmosphere, most were destroyed.

B) The proportion of the amino acids are similar to those produced in the Miller-Urey experiment.
11) Which of the following is the correct sequence of these events in the origin of life?

I. Formation of protobionts
II. Synthesis of organic monomers
III. Synthesis of organic polymers

A) I, II, III
B) I, III, II
C) II, III, I
D) III, I, II
E) III, II, I

C) II, III, I

II. Synthesis of organic monomers
III. Synthesis of organic polymers
I. Formation of protobionts

12) What characteristic would all protobionts have had in common?

A) the ability to synthesize enzymes
B) a surrounding membrane or membrane-like structure
C) RNA genes
D) a nucleus
E) the ability to replicate RNA

B) a surrounding membrane or membrane-like structure
13) Although absolute distinctions between the “most evolved” protobiont and the first living cell are
unclear, biologists generally agree that one major difference is that protobionts could not

A) possess a selectively permeable membrane boundary.
B) perform osmosis.
C) grow in size.
D) perform controlled, precise reproduction.
E) absorb compounds from the external environment

D) perform controlled, precise reproduction.
14) Which of the following statements about the origin of genetic material is most probably correct? The
first genes were

A) DNA produced by reverse transcriptase from abiotically produced RNA.
B) DNA molecules whose information was transcribed to RNA and later translated in polypeptides.
C) self-replicating, catalytic RNA molecules.
D) RNA produced by autocatalytic, proteinaceous enzymes called ribozymes.
E) protobionts produced by dehydration syntheses of nucleic acids.

C) self-replicating, catalytic RNA molecules.
15) RNA molecules can be both self-replicating and catalytic. This probably means that

A) RNA was the first hereditary information.
B) protobionts had an RNA membrane.
C) RNA could make energy.
D) free nucleotides would not have been necessary ingredients in the synthesis of new RNA molecules.
E) RNA is a polymer of amino acids.

A) RNA was the first hereditary information.
16) What probably accounts for the switch to DNA-based genetic systems during the evolution of life on
Earth?

A) DNA is chemically more stable and replicates with fewer errors (mutations) than RNA.
B) Only DNA can replicate during cell division.
C) RNA is too involved with translation of proteins and cannot provide multiple functions.
D) DNA forms the rod-shaped chromosomes necessary for cell division.
E) Replication of RNA occurs too quickly.

A) DNA is chemically more stable and replicates with fewer errors (mutations) than RNA.
17) The synthesis of new DNA requires the prior existence of oligonucleotides to serve as primers. On
Earth, these primers are small RNA molecules. This latter observation is evidence in support of the
hypothesized existence of

A) a snowball Earth.
B) an RNA world.
C) the abiotic synthesis of organic monomers.
D) the delivery of organic matter to Earth by meteors and comets.
E) the endosymbiotic origin of mitochondria and chloroplasts.

B) an RNA world.
18) How could RNA have become involved in the mechanism for protein translation?

A) Only ribozymes were available as catalysts.
B) RNA replication is enhanced if proteins are produced.
C) Natural selection acted against autocatalytic protein formation.
D) DNA was not available for protein translation.
E) Natural selection favored RNA molecules that synthesized catalytic proteins.

E) Natural selection favored RNA molecules that synthesized catalytic proteins.
19) If the half-life of carbon-14 is about 5,730 years, then a fossil that has one-eighth the normal proportion of carbon-14 to carbon-12 is probably ________ years old.

A) 1,400
B) 2,800
C) 11,200
D) 16,800
E) 22,400

D) 16,800
20) Which measurement would help determine absolute dates by radiometric means?

A) the accumulation of the daughter isotope
B) the loss of parent isotopes
C) the loss of daughter isotopes
D) all three of these
E) only A and B

E) only A and B

A) the accumulation of the daughter isotope
B) the loss of parent isotopes

21) How many half-lives should have elapsed if 12.5% of the parent isotope remains in a fossil at the time of analysis?

A) one
B) two
C) three
D) four
E) five

C) three
22) Approximately how far back in time does the fossil record extend?

A) 6,000 years
B) 3,500,000 years
C) 6,000,000 years
D) 3,500,000,000 years
E) 5,000,000,000,000 years

D) 3,500,000,000 years
23) What was the consequence of the release of oxygen gas by plant and bacterial photosynthesis? It

A) made life on land difficult for aerobic organisms.
B) changed the atmosphere from oxidizing to reducing.
C) made it easier to maintain reduced molecules.
D) made Earth an oxidizing environment.
E) prevented the formation of an ozone layer.

D) made Earth an oxidizing environment.
24) Arrange these events from earliest to most recent.

1. emission of lava in what is now Siberia at time of Permian extinctions
2. emission of lava that solidified at the same time as iron-bearing terrestrial rocks began to rust
3. emission of lava that solidified at the same time as the first banded iron formations formed
4. emission of lava in what is now India at time of Cretaceous extinctions

A) 3, 1, 2, 4
B) 3, 2, 1, 4
C) 3, 1, 4, 2
D) 1, 3, 2, 4
E) 1, 2, 3, 4

B) 3, 2, 1, 4

3. emission of lava that solidified at the same time as the first banded iron formations formed
2. emission of lava that solidified at the same time as iron-bearing terrestrial rocks began to rust
1. emission of lava in what is now Siberia at time of Permian extinctions
4. emission of lava in what is now India at time of Cretaceous extinctions

25) The ancestors of which free-living cells were the earliest autotrophs to contribute to the formation of
Earth’s oxidizing atmosphere?

A) cyanobacteria
B) chloroplasts
C) mitochondria
D) seaweeds
E) endosymbionts

A) cyanobacteria
26) Elemental sulfur is to hydrogen-sulfide-splitting prokaryotes as ________ is to water-splitting
prokaryotes.

A) H+
B) H2
C) OH
D) O2
E) H2O

D) O2
27) All are true of the photosynthetic machinery of cyanobacteria, except

A) it involved a modified version of electron transport.
B) it was assembled from two anaerobic systems that had originated in different types of bacteria.
C) it evolved relatively late in the evolution of prokaryotes, sometime after eukaryotes had arisen.
D) it obtains electrons by splitting water.
E) it caused Earth’s atmosphere to become an oxidizing one.

C) it evolved relatively late in the evolution of prokaryotes, sometime after eukaryotes had arisen.
28) At the time when Earth’s atmosphere was becoming increasingly oxidizing, which reaction could have
helped to prevent damage to oxygen-sensitive enzymes and structures. In which prokaryotes might such a reaction have been expected to occur? (Note: these reactions are not balanced.)

A) e- + H+ + O2 → H2O, alpha proteobacteria
B) e- + H+ + S → H2S, non-purple sulfur bactria
C) e- + H+ + CO2 → H2CO3, obligate anaerobes
D) H2O → e- + H+ + O2, cyanobacteria
E) H2S → e- + H+ + S, purple sulfur bacteria

A) e- + H+ + O2 → H2O, alpha proteobacteria
29) Which of the following statements provides the strongest evidence that prokaryotes evolved before
eukaryotes?

A) the primitive structure of plants
B) meteorites that have struck Earth
C) abiotic laboratory experiments that produced liposomes
D) Liposomes resemble prokaryotic cells.
E) The oldest fossilized cells resemble prokaryotes.

E) The oldest fossilized cells resemble prokaryotes.
30) How would the chief hypothesis concerning the origin of the ER and Golgi apparatus be described?

A) endosymbiosis
B) serial endosymbiosis
C) genetic annealing
D) infolding of the plasma membrane
E) outfolding of the nuclear lamina

D) infolding of the plasma membrane
31) Which is an actual observation that provides the strongest evidence for the possible origin of the
eukaryotic cytoskeleton?

A) Prokaryotic flagella possess microtubules in the 9 + 2 pattern.
B) Only certain bacteria possess flagella.
C) Homologs of actin and tubulin are found in certain bacteria.
D) There is a lamina located within prokaryotic nuclei.
E) The flagella of prokaryotes are hollow, like the microtubules of eukaryotic flagella.

C) Homologs of actin and tubulin are found in certain bacteria.
32) Certain protists, namely the parabasalids and diplomonads, have tiny mitochondrial “remnants” that lack DNA. Where, in these organisms, would one look if one were trying to confirm the hypothesis that the lack of mitochondrial DNA is due to horizontal gene transfer?

A) centrioles
B) cilia and flagella
C) chloroplasts
D) transport vesicles
E) nucleus

E) nucleus
33) The photosystems of cyanobacteria are embedded in plasma membranes and, in some cases, in internal membranes derived from the plasma membrane. Where would one expect to find the homologous photosystems in green plant cells?

A) plasma membrane
B) outer membrane of chloroplasts
C) inner compartments (stroma) of chloroplasts
D) inner membranes of chloroplasts
E) the membranes of other organelles (amyloplasts and tonoplasts)

D) inner membranes of chloroplasts
34) The ATP synthase of most mitochondria

A) consists of protein subunits synthesized by ribosomes within the mitochondria.
B) consists of protein subunits synthesized by ribosomes in the surrounding cytoplasm.
C) is a component of a metabolic process that requires oxygen as a final electron acceptor.
D) both A and C
E) A, B, and C

E) A, B, and C

A) consists of protein subunits synthesized by ribosomes within the mitochondria.
B) consists of protein subunits synthesized by ribosomes in the surrounding cytoplasm.
C) is a component of a metabolic process that requires oxygen as a final electron acceptor.

35) The hypothesis of “genetic annealing” is used to account for the origin of

A) double-stranded DNA.
B) the mitochondrial genome.
C) the processes of mitosis and meiosis.
D) the nuclear genome.
E) DNA ligases.

D) the nuclear genome.
36) Which process is most directly associated with genetic annealing?

A) binary fission
B) horizontal gene transfer
C) mitosis
D) meiosis
E) membrane invagination

B) horizontal gene transfer
37) Which genetic process requires one cell or structure to lose genetic material to another cell or structure to which it was not previously genetically identical?

1. binary fission
2. mitosis
3. bacterial conjugation
4. horizontal gene transfer

A) 1 only
B) 3 only
C) 1 and 2
D) 1 and 3
E) 3 and 4

E) 3 and 4

3. bacterial conjugation
4. horizontal gene transfer

38) What is the correct sequence of these events, from earliest to most recent, in the evolution of life on
Earth?

1. origin of mitochondria
2. origin of multicellular eukaryotes
3. origin of chloroplasts
4. origin of cyanobacteria
5. origin of fungal-plant symbioses

A) 4, 3, 2, 1, 5
B) 4, 1, 2, 3, 5
C) 4, 1, 3, 2, 5
D) 4, 3, 1, 5, 2
E) 3, 4, 1, 2, 5

C) 4, 1, 3, 2, 5

4. origin of cyanobacteria
1. origin of mitochondria
3. origin of chloroplasts
2. origin of multicellular eukaryotes
5. origin of fungal-plant symbioses

39) Recent evidence indicates that the first major diversification of multicellular eukaryotes may have
coincided in time with the

A) origin of prokaryotes.
B) switch to an oxidizing atmosphere.
C) melting that ended the “snowball Earth” period.
D) origin of multicellular organisms.
E) massive eruptions of deep-sea vents.

C) melting that ended the “snowball Earth” period.
40) Which event may be associated in time with the end of the period known as snowball Earth?

A) oxygenation of Earth’s seas and atmosphere
B) evolution of mitochondria
C) Cambrian explosion
D) evolution of true multicellularity
E) Permian extinction

C) Cambrian explosion
41) Assuming total ice cover, which of these would have been the most likely location for the oxygenic
photosynthesizers to have survived snowball Earth?

A) deep-sea vents
B) shallow alpine “lakes”
C) at mid-depth in oceans
D) at depth, distant from deep-sea vents
E) in close association with oceanic ice flows

E) in close association with oceanic ice flows
42) In order for a beneficial mutation to be transmitted across generations, the mutation must occur in

A) a zygote.
B) a sperm cell.
C) an egg cell.
D) a mother cell about to undergo meiosis.
E) any of the above.

E) any of the above.
43) The snowball Earth hypothesis provides a possible explanation for the

A) diversification of animals at the start of the late Proterozoic.
B) oxygenation of Earth’s seas and atmosphere.
C) colonization of land by plants and fungi.
D) origin of O2-releasing photosynthesis.
E) existence of hydrothermal vents on the ocean floor.

A) diversification of animals at the start of the late Proterozoic.
44) If two continental land masses converge and are united during continental drift, then the collision should bring about

A) a net loss of intertidal zone and coastal habitat.
B) the extinction of species adapted to intertidal and coastal habitats.
C) an overall increase in the surface area located in the continental interior.
D) an increase in climatic extremes in the interior of the new supercontinent.
E) all of the above

E) all of the above

A) a net loss of intertidal zone and coastal habitat.
B) the extinction of species adapted to intertidal and coastal habitats.
C) an overall increase in the surface area located in the continental interior.
D) an increase in climatic extremes in the interior of the new supercontinent.

45) A major evolutionary episode that corresponded in time most closely with the formation of Pangaea was the

A) origin of humans.
B) Cambrian explosion.
C) Permian extinctions.
D) Pleistocene ice ages.
E) Cretaceous extinctions.

C) Permian extinctions.
46) What kind of evidence has recently made it necessary to assign the prokaryotes to either of two different domains, rather than assigning all prokaryotes to the same kingdom?

A) molecular
B) behavioral
C) nutritional
D) anatomical
E) ecological

A) molecular
47) What important criterion was used in the late 1960s to distinguish between the three multicellular
eukaryotic kingdoms of the five-kingdom classification system?

A) the number of cells present in individual organisms
B) the geological stratum in which fossils first appear
C) the nutritional modes they employ
D) the biogeographic province where each first appears
E) the features of their embryos

C) the nutritional modes they employ
48) As the number of kingdoms increased from two to three, what was true of the kingdom Protista?

A) It was used to harbor all prokaryotes.
B) All photosynthetic organisms were assigned to it.
C) Viruses were assigned to this kingdom.
D) Unicellular organisms of all kinds were placed here.
E) It was used for organisms that did not fit clearly into the other two kingdoms.

E) It was used for organisms that did not fit clearly into the other two kingdoms.
49) The best classification system is that which most closely

A) unites organisms that possess similar morphologies.
B) conforms to traditional, Linnaean taxonomic practices.
C) reflects evolutionary history.
D) corroborates the classification scheme in use at the time of Charles Darwin.
E) reflects the basic separation of prokaryotes from eukaryotes.

C) reflects evolutionary history.
The questions below refer to the following list, which uses the five-kingdom classification system.

1. Plantae
2. Fungi
3. Animalia
4. Protista
5. Monera

50) Which obsolete kingdom includes prokaryotic organisms?

A) 1
B) 2
C) 3
D) 4
E) 5

E) 5

5. Monera

The questions below refer to the following list, which uses the five-kingdom classification system.

1. Plantae
2. Fungi
3. Animalia
4. Protista
5. Monera

51) Members of which kingdom have cell walls and are all heterotrophic?

A) 1
B) 2
C) 3
D) 4
E) 5

B) 2

2. Fungi

The questions below refer to the following list, which uses the five-kingdom classification system.

1. Plantae
2. Fungi
3. Animalia
4. Protista
5. Monera

52) Which kingdom has been replaced with two domains?

A) 1
B) 2
C) 3
D) 4
E) 5

E) 5

5. Monera

The questions below refer to the following list, which uses the five-kingdom classification system.

1. Plantae
2. Fungi
3. Animalia
4. Protista
5. Monera

53) Which eukaryotic kingdom is polyphyletic and therefore not acceptable, based on cladistics?
A) 1
B) 2
C) 3
D) 4
E) 5

D) 4

4. Protista

The questions below refer to the following list, which uses the five-kingdom classification system.

1. Plantae
2. Fungi
3. Animalia
4. Protista
5. Monera

54) Which kingdoms include free-living photosynthetic organisms?

A) 1 and 5
B) 2 and 4
C) 1, 2, and 5
D) 1, 4, and 5
E) 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5

D) 1, 4, and 5

1. Plantae
4. Protista
5. Monera

Match the scientists below with their accomplishments.

A. Carl Woese
B. Cech and Altman
C. Oparin and Haldane
D. Miller and Urey
E. Robert Whittaker

55) discovered ribozymes

B. Cech and Altman
Match the scientists below with their accomplishments.

A. Carl Woese
B. Cech and Altman
C. Oparin and Haldane
D. Miller and Urey
E. Robert Whittaker

56) used SSU-rRNA sequences to propose major modifications to the “tree of life”

A. Carl Woese
Match the scientists below with their accomplishments.

A. Carl Woese
B. Cech and Altman
C. Oparin and Haldane
D. Miller and Urey
E. Robert Whittaker

57) synthesized organic monomers in an apparatus designed to simulate early Earth’s conditions

D. Miller and Urey
Match the scientists below with their accomplishments.

A. Carl Woese
B. Cech and Altman
C. Oparin and Haldane
D. Miller and Urey
E. Robert Whittaker

58) proposed the five-kingdom classification system

E. Robert Whittaker
Match the scientists below with their accomplishments.

A. Carl Woese
B. Cech and Altman
C. Oparin and Haldane
D. Miller and Urey
E. Robert Whittaker

59) early proponent(s) of the idea that a reducing atmosphere and energy inputs might have been sufficient to introduce organic monomers to Earth’s environment

C. Oparin and Haldane
60) The first prokaryotic cells appeared during the

A) Jurassic.
B) Cretaceous.
C) Paleozoic.
D) Triassic.
E) Precambrian.

E) Precambrian.
61) Most modern animal phyla evolved during the ________ era.

A) Paleozoic
B) Permian
C) Cenozoic
D) Mesozoic
E) Precambrian

A) Paleozoic
62) Which of these events occurred earliest in the history of Earth?

A) formation of oxygen
B) first humans
C) evolution of land plants, fungi , and land animals
D) origin of eukaryotes
E) origin of multicellularity

A) formation of oxygen
63) Which of these events occurred during the Paleozoic?

A) origin of Earth
B) colonization of land by plants
C) origin of eukaryotes
D) origin of multicellularity
E) first humans

B) colonization of land by plants
64) In the two-kingdom system, why were fungi classified in the kingdom Plantae?

A) They are sedentary.
B) They are heterotrophs.
C) They lack cell walls.
D) They are unicellular.
E) They are autotrophs.

A) They are sedentary.

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