Chapter 29 AP World History Vocabulary

Chapter 29 AP World History Vocabulary

Alexander Kerensky
Headed the Provisional Government in 1917. Refused to redistribute confiscated landholdings to the peasants. Thought fighting the war was a national duty.
Red Army
Military organization constructed under leadership of Leon Trotsky, Bolshevik follower of Lenin; made use of people of humble background.
Council of People’s Comissars
Bolsheviks replace the Provisional Government; Lenin= head; Trotsky= foreign affairs; and Stalin= commissar for nationalities; they make peace in WWI with Germany with the treaty of Brest Litovsk; soon Lenin establishes dictatorship of the Proletariat
Congress of Soviets
Lenin’s parliamentary institution based on Soviets under Bolshevik domination; replaced the Social Revolutionary Party.
Francisco Madero
Early leader in the Mexican Revolution; in 1911 became president of Mexico; wanted land ownership and free, honest elections.
Corridos
Narrative song and poetry form, a ballad, of the mestizo Mexican cultural area.
Mexican Revolution
(1910-1920 CE) Fought over a period of almost 10 years form 1910; resulted in ouster of Porfirio Diaz from power; opposition forces led by Pancho Villa and Emiliano Zapata.
Mariano Azuela
Wrote fictional stories about the Mexican Revolution; tried to inspire others to take part. Famous work: Los de Abajo
Ba Jin
A modern Chinese author born in 1904 who wrote multiple short stories/ novels, including the trilogy Family, Spring, and Autumn, which portrayed a family who’s younger members try to break away from the elder’s Confucian ideas; he sometimes isolated himself in his study for a year
Long March
The 6,000-mile (9,600-kilometer) flight of Chinese Communists from southeastern to northwestern China. The Communists, led by Mao Zedong, were pursued by the Chinese army under orders from Chiang Kai-shek.
Twenty-One Demands
Name for Japan’s demands to the U.S., including its threat to close China to European and American trade. Resolved by the 1917 Lansing-Ishii Agreement, a treaty which tried to settle differences between the U.S. and Japan.
Pablo Picasso
A Spaniard in Paris who formed a movement in 1907 called Cubism. Cubism concentrated on a complex geometry of zigzagging lines and sharply angled, overlapping plane.
John Dewey
He was a philosopher who believed in “learning by doing” which formed the foundation of progressive education. He believed that the teachers’ goal should be “education for life and that the workbench is just as important as the blackboard.”
Syndicalism
The French trade-unionist belief that workers would become the governmental power through a general strike that would paralyze society.
New Economic Policy
Policy proclaimed by Vladimir Lenin in 1924 to encourage the revival of the Soviet economy by allowing small private enterprises. Joseph Stalin ended the N.E.P. in 1928 and replaced it with a series of Five-Year Plans.
Communist Party
A political party practicing the ideas of Karl Marx and V.I Lenin originally the Russian Bolshevik. Thought that one class would evolve, property would all be held in common, and there would be no need for government; the central government directs all major economic decisions.
USSR
The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, or Soviet Union, formed in 1922 by the communists and officially dissolved in 1991. Russia.
Pancho Villa
A popular leader during the Mexican Revolution of 1910. An outlaw in his youth, when the revolution started, he formed a cavalry army in the north of Mexico and fought for the rights of the landless in collaboration with Emiliano Zapata. Mexican Robin Hood.
Lazaro Cardenas
President of Mexico (1934-1940). He brought major changes to Mexican life by distributing millions of acres of land to the peasants, bringing representatives of workers and farmers into the inner circles of politics, and nationalizing the oil industry.
Eva Duarte
Also known as Evita Perón; first wife of Juan Perón; became public spokesperson for Perón among the poor until her death in 1952. Argentina.
Diego Rivera
Mexican Muralist who created artworks in Mexico and the U.S. focusing on political messages.
Guomindang
Nationalist political party founded on democratic principles by Sun Yat-sen in 1912. After 1925, the party was headed by Chiang Kai-shek, who turned it into an increasingly authoritarian movement.
Mao Zedong
This man became the leader of the Chinese Communist Party and remained its leader until his death. He declared the founding of the People’s Republic of China in 1949 and supported the Chinese peasantry throughout his life.
May Fourth Movement
Chinese protest movement triggered by opposition to the Treaty of Versailles; a major step in the path leading to the creation and victory of CCP.
Francisco Franco
Spanish general whose armies took control of Spain in 1939 and who ruled as a dictator until his death (1892-1975)
Kellogg-Briand Pact
Agreement signed in 1928 in which nations agreed not to pose the threat of war against one another. Signed by the Great Power Nations: France, Itlay, Germany, etc…
Interwar Period
1918-1939, rise of Hitler. Germany undergoes resentment of Versailles conditions, hyperinflation of Reichsmark, unemployment. War devastated Europe leaves a power vacuum. Great Depression occurs in US and Europe causing US isolationism and protectionism. The League of Nations exists but doesn’t do much.
Collectivization
System in which private farms were eliminated, instead, the government owned all the land while the peasants worked on it. Was a major fail in Russia.
Joseph Stalin
Russian leader who succeeded Lenin as head of the Communist Party and created a totalitarian state by purging all opposition (1879-1953).
October Revolution
The seizure of power by force by the Bolsheviks from the Provisional Government in November of 1917. After the forceful seizure of power, Lenin set himself up as the first head of a Marxist state with aspirations to change the country, making several decrees in his effort use socialist ideas.
MVD
Ministry of Internal Affairs in Imperial Russia, later USSR, the secret police.
Indigenism
The concern for the indigent peoples and their contribution that was below many reforms after indianization Rivera and Orozco.
Cristeros
Conservative peasant movement in Mexico during the 1920s; most active in central Mexico; attempted to halt slide toward secularism; movement resulted in armed violence.
Mexican Constitution of 1917
Promised land reform, limited foreign ownership of key resources, guaranteed the rights of workers, and placed restrictions on clerical education; marked formal end of Mexican Revolution.
Emiliano Zapata
Leading figure in the Mexican Revolution, which lasted 10 years; 1910-1920; faught for farmers’ rights; gathered army in southern Mexico and urged farmers to join; Liberation Army of the South.
Chiang Kai-Shek
General and leader of Nationalist China after 1925. Although he succeeded Sun Yat-sen as head of the Guomindang, he became a military dictator whose major goal was to crush the communist movement led by Mao Zedong.
Sun Yat-Sen
Chinese nationalist revolutionary, founder and leader of the Guomindang until his death. He attempted to create a liberal democratic political movement in China but was thwarted by military leaders.
Korekiyo Takahashi
Minister of finance in Japan during the 1930s; increased government spending to provide jobs; created export boom and elimination of military spending.
Fascism
A system of government characterized by strict social and economic control and a strong, centralized government usually headed by a dictator. First found in Italy by Mussolini.
Henry Ford
1863-1947. American businessman, founder of Ford Motor Company, father of modern assembly lines, and inventor credited with 161 patents.
Comintern
Was an international communist organization founded in March of 1919 by Lenin, this thing wanted to overthrow the international Bourgeoisie and create a socialist state.
Red Scare
Two periods of time, in the 1920s and 1950s, in which Americans feared the growth of communism. These suspicions led to tests of the civil liberties of people under the Constitution.
Lenin
Founded the Communist Party in Russia and set up the world’s first Communist Party dictatorship. He led the October Revolution of 1917, in which the Communists seized power in Russia. He then ruled the country until his death in 1924.
Bertrand Russell
English philosopher and mathematician who collaborated with Whitehead (1872-1970).
PRI
Institutional Revolutionary Party which dominated Mexican politics and claimed to represent all groups.
Descamisados
Term meaning “the shirtless ones,” popularized by Juan and Evita Perón to refer to the working-class masses and dispossessed.
Revolutionary Alliance
Sun Yat-Sen’s organization of radical groups across China.
Zaibatsu
The large family-controlled banking and industrial groups that owned many companies in Japan before World War II.
Mussolini
Founded fascism and ruled Italy for almost 21 years, most of that time as dictator. He dreamed of building Italy into a great empire, but he led his nation to defeat in World War II (1939-1945) and was executed by his own people.
Roaring Twenties
Nickname for the 1920’s because of the booming economy and fast pace of life during that era.