Chapter 3 US History Test

merchantilism
country’s ultimate goal was self-sufficiency and taht all countries were in a competition to acquire the most gold and silver
favorable balance of trade
sell more than we buy
Navigation Acts
restrict colonial trade, the colonies were only allowed to trade with England
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revocation of Massachusetts Bay charter, 1684
united the Dominion of England to make one charter
James (Stewart) II
1685, brother of Charles II, created Dominion of New England
The Dominion of New England
south Maine to New Jersey
Sir Edmund Andros
royal governor of New England chased out and then given charters back
Increase Mather
most prominent minister in Massachusetts intellectual
the Glorious Revolution
1688, parliament pushes out James II, no Catholic can rule, power over monarch
William and Mary
only two English monarchs to rule together/jointly
salutary neglect
leaving colonies alone as long as goods and other trades were given to England, more smuggled goods during this time
self-government evolves in colonies
eventually created conditions for rebellion
merchant marine
countries commercial ships
privateers
other ships of countries
plantation economy
large farms growing cash crops
cash crop
raised large scale for soil
German settlers
Eastern Pennsylvania, Mass., Del
Scot-Irish
many in Virginia, Celtic music, Blue Grass, hills and valleys
small farmers
majority of rural population
planters
majority of economic and political power
role of women
second-class citizenship, few legal or social rights, not afforded education
indentured laborers
white men traded life of prison or poverty in Europe for limited term of servitude in North America
Bacon’s Rebellion
1676, organization, rebellious militia and went down to capitol colony’s former indentured servents, burned capitol of Jamestown
triangular trade
merchants carried rum and other goods from New England to Africa, in Africa: they traded there merchandise for enslaved people, who them transported to the West Indies and sold for sugar and molasses, these goods were shipped to New England
Middle Passage
voyages that brought Africa to West Indies
Stono Rebellion, 1739
20 slaves gathered at Stono Rebellion Southwest of Charlestown, killed several planter families
diversed economies, agricultural and commercial
northern colonies produced several crops instead of just one like in the South, wheat, corn, cattle, hogs, grinding wheat, harvesting fish, sawing lumber were thriving industries
norther ports
Boston, NYC, Philadelphia
diverse society
germans and Skots-Irish were largest non-English immigrante groups, Mennonites, Quakers, Dutch, Scandinavians, Jews, did not always mix
slavery in the northern colonies
raising tobcacco and ride is less incentive to turn to slavery, greater legal standing, could su, be sued, right to appeal to the highest courts
women in northern society
extensive work responsibilites but few legal rights, could not vote, enter into contracts, buy or sell property, keep own wages
Salem witch trials
religious fanaticism, women’s roles, social tensions, trained relations with Native Americans, false accusations, poor against rich residents, women who were too independent, accused governors wife, ended 19 people hanged, 150 imprisoned
The Englightenment
and 18th Century intellectual movement that emphasized the use of reason and the scientific method as means of obtaining knowledge
Benjamin Franklin
Enlightenment, obtained truth through experimentation and reasoning, flying kite in thunderstorm
the great awkaening
a revival of religious feeling in the american colonies during 1730s and 1740s
Jonathan Edwards
member of the clergy who sought to revive the intensity and commitment of the orginal Puritan vision, preached taht church attendance was not enough for salvation, acknowledge their sinfulness and feel God’s love for them
George Whitefield
British minister, major force behind the Great Awakening
New France
the French colony in North America, 70,000 people, for traders, Catholic priests who wanted to convert Native Americans
George Washinton
established out post at Fort Necessity, his militia attacked a small detachment of French soldiers, had to surrender
French and India War
fourth war between GB and France, Fort Necessity was opening
William Pitt
new leader of government chosen by King George II in 1957, reinvigorated British army finally began winning battles
Poniac
1763, Ottawa leader, loss of French was loss of Native Americans
Proclamation of 1763
issued by British government to avoid further conflicts with NA, banned all settlement west of the Appalachiands, Proclamations line
George Grenville
financial expert chosen by King George III to serve as prime minister in 1763, angered merchants, prompted sugar acts
Sugar Acts
halved the duty on foreign-made masses, placed duties on certain imports, strengthened the enforcement of the law allowing prosecutors to try smiggling in a vice-admiralty court rather than in a more sypathetic colonial court

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