Chapter 33

Chapter 33

Archduke Ferdinand
Was heir to the Austria-Hungarian throne. He was assassinated in Sarajevo. And he also started World War I.
Kaiser Wilheim
German Emperor during World War I, and was the last German emperor and king of Prussia. He Gave up his throne when he was defeated. So he went into exile.
T.E. Lawrence
British colonel fighting in the Middle East, he later became known as “Lawrence of Arabia”.
Mustapha Kemal
Turkish war hero commanded forces in World War I. Formed an elected government and became president. He also wanted to modernize the country.
V.I. Lenin
Led the communist revolution, was the leader of the Bolsheviks, and also ruled Russia.
Woodrow Wilson
Was the 28th president of the United States. After World War I this president sought to reduce the risk of war by writing the Fourteen Points that influenced the creation of the League of Nations.
Dreadnought
Class of modern battleship launched by Britain before the war. This triggered naval rivalry, especially with Germany.
Balkan Wars 1912-1913
From 1912-1913 Bulgaria, Greece, Montenegro, Serbia, and Romania fought two wars in order to gain possesion of European territories that the Ottoman Empire had. These wars helped to add tension to already stressed circumstances that led to the Great War.
Allies
In World War I the alliance of Great Britain and France and Russia and all the other nations that became allied with them in opposing the Central Powers.
Central Powers
In World War I the alliance of Germany and Austria-Hungary and other nations allied with them in opposing the Allies.
Schlieffen plan
Germany’s military plan at the outbreak of World War I. In this German troops would rapidly defeat France and then move east to attack Russia after.
Gallipoli
British plan on attacking Constantinople with a naval attack. Ottoman empire fired upon the British leaving 100,000 British dead.
Bolsheviks
Led by Vladimir Lenin it was the Russian communist party that took over the Russian government during World War I.
Lusitania
British passenger boat sunk by a German submarine that claimed 1,000 lives. One of main reasons Amereica decided to join the war.
Treaty of Versailles
The treaty imposed on Germany by the Allied powers in 1920 after the end of World War I which demanded reparations from the Germans.
League of Nations
An organization of nations formed after World War I to promote cooperation and peace among the nations.
Mandate System
Allocation of former German colonies and Ottoman possessions to the victorious powers after World War I, to be administered under League of Nations supervision.
The spark for World War I was provided when Gavrilo Princip assassinated
Francis Ferdinand.
The First total war in world history was
World War I
The term for the idea that people with the same ethnic origins, language, and political ideals had the right to form sovereign states was
self-determination
The nationalistic aspirations of subject minorities was most threatening to a state such as
Austria-Hungary
Slavic cultural unity was actively promoted by
Russia
In 1914, England’s share of the world’s industrial output stood at
14%, roughly the same as Germany.
The members of the Triple Alliance were
Germany, Austria, and Italy
The French were deeply suspicious of German expansion because of
the inability of the French to forget their humiliating defeat in the Franco- Prussion war
The military plan that called for an invasion of France through Belgium was called
Schlieffen Plan
The soldiers who marched off in 1914 to fight in World War I were mostly
Wildly enthusiastic
The German offensive of 1914 was halted at
The Marne River, the somme
The western front in World War I was
A bloody stalemate
The massive German assault on the western front in 1916 was
Verdun
The Somme was
a English assault in 1916 that gained a few thousand yards.
In World War I, the eastern front was
ultimately a spectacular German success
THe Twenty-One Demands were issued
by Japan to China
The Japanese fought in World War I due to their
desire to acquire German colonies in Asia
The last tsar of Russia was
Nicholas II
THe main reason for the failure of the provisional government in Russia in 1917 was
its inability to satisfy popular demands for an end to the war.
The Treaty of Brest-Litovsk
ended Russian participation in World War I
One of the major problems of the Paris peace negotiations that led to the Treaty of Versailles was
Russia’s absence from negotiations
Woodrow Wilson agreed to many harsh stipulations to the Treaty of Versailles
in return for the creation of the League of Nations
The mandate system
was little more than a glorified form of imperialism