Chapter 5 Language

Chapter 5 Language

accent
distinctive manner of oral expression.
dialect
the usage or vocabulary that is characteristic of a specific group of people.
Esperanto
an artificial language based as far as possible on words common to all the European languages
Extinct language
A language that was once used by people in daily activities but is no longer used.
Ideogram
picture that symbolizes an idea or action
Isogloss
A boundary that separates regions in which different language usages predominate
Isolated language
A language that is unrelated to any other languages and therefore not attached to any language family.
Mutual intelligibility
The ability of two people to understand each other when speaking.
Renfrew hypothesis
hypothesis developed by British scholar Colin Renfrew where in he proposed that three areas in and near the first agricultural hearth, the Fertile Crescent, gave rise to 3 lang. families:Europe’s indo-European lang. North African and Arabian languages and the languages in present-day Iran, Afghanistan, Pakistan and India.
Romance languages
Languages (French, Spanish, Italian, Romanian, and Portuguese) that lie in the areas that were once controlled by the Roman Empire but were not subsequently overwhelmed.
Language
A system of communication through the use of speech, a collection of sounds understood by a group of people to have the same meaning.
Language branch
A collection of languages related through a common ancestor that existed several thousand years ago. Differences are not as extensive or old as with language families, and archaeological evidence can confirm that these derived from the same family.
Language group
A collection of languages within a branch that share a common origin in the relatively recent past and display relatively few differences in grammar and vocabulary.
Language family
A collection of languages related to each other through a common ancestor long before recorded history.
Linga franca
a language used among speakers of different languages for purposes of trade and commerce.
Literary tradition
A language that is written as well as spoken
mono, bi, multi-linguality
One, two, Speaking several languages.
Dialect chains
a set of contiguous dialects in which the dialects nearest to each other at any place in the chain are most closely related
Backward reconstruction
the tracking of sound shifts and hardening of consonants backward toward the original language.
Germanic languages
Languages (English, German, Danish, Norwegian, and Swedish) that reflect the expansion of peoples out of Northern Europe to the west and south.
Official language
The language adopted for use by the government for the conduct of business and publication of documents.
Orthography
a method of representing the sounds of a language by written or printed symbols
Pidgin
an artificial language used for trade between speakers of different languages
Standard language
The form of a language used for official government business, education, and mass communications.
Toponym
the name given to a place on earth.
Trade language
A language used between native speakers of different languages to allow them to communicate so that they can trade with each other.
Vernacular
everyday speech; slang.
Discuss the importance and role of language as an element of culture.
Language is an essential element of culture, possibly the most important medium by which culture is transmitted. Languages even structure the perceptions of their speakers. Attitudes, understandings, and responses are partly determined by the words available.
Explain how language families, branches, and groups are classified and related.
languages—> Group
Groups—> Branch
Branches—> Family
ex:
English+German=Western Germanic Group
Western Germanic+Eastern Germanic Groups= Germanic Branch
Germanic+Baltic Branches=Indo-European Family.
Map the distribution of major language families worldwide.
*MAP*

Indo-European (East Europe)
Sino-Tibetan (China)
Afro-Asiatic (North Africa)

Show the division of Europe into the following language groups and give specific examples of each:
-Germanic
-Slavic
-Romance
*MAP*

Germanic (Northern Europe) English
Slavic (Eastern Europe) Russian
Romance (South Western) Spanish

Describe the following characteristics of English:
-Its origin and historical development
-Its worldwide diffusion
-Its spatial variation
-Its cultural role
Diffused throughout the world by hundreds of years of British colonialism. Brought to the New world and many coastal countries by British colonies in 1600s. English has also become and important global lingua franca (When two completely different groups decide on a common language in order to easily communicate for trade and commerce purposes.
Explain the how, why, and where of language change.
Where? Wherever two or more languages interact.
How? Sharing of ideas and slang that could change how a language is already spoken. A common factor in this is lingua franca.
Why? This will allow two different groups to communicate easily even though they are from different backgrounds and languages.
Discuss the regional and local variety in language using the following terms:
-Slang
-Isogloss
-Accent
An area can have multiple accents, all unique depending on where the person originated from. When two or more groups of different languages or accents come together, either through an isogloss or trade/commerce, they can produce new ways of speaking their language that allows both sides to understand what the other is trying to communicate. This is called slang.
Explain how toponyms are derived and classified and give examples.
Toponyms are the names given to a place. These are language on the land, reflecting past inhabitants and their relation to the land.