Chapter 7 Assessment

– VOCAB –
Ellis Island
New York Harbor Immigration station for European immigrants
Gentlemen’s Agreement
Agreement when Japan agreed to curb the number of workers coming to the US and in exchange Roosevelt agreed to allow the wives of the Japenese men already living in the US to join them, Restricted japanese immigration to the United States
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Americanization Movement
Program to teach American culture to immigrants
Jane Addams
Prominent social reformer who was responsible for creating the Hull House. She helped other women join the fight for reform, as well as influencing the creation of other settlement houses.
Political Machine
An unofficial city organization designed to keep a particular party or group in power and usually headed by a single, powerful boss
Graft
the illegal use of political influence for personal gain.
Boss Tweed
Leader of the Democratic Tammany Hall, New York political machine
Patronage
granting favors or giving contracts or making appointments to office in return for political support
Rutherford B. Hayes
19th president of the united states, was famous for being part of the Hayes-Tilden election in which electoral votes were contested in 4 states, most corrupt election in US history
Pendleton Civil Service Act
1883 law that created a Civil Service Commission and stated that federal employees could not be required to contribute to campaign funds nor be fired for political reasons
– MAIN IDEAS –
What trends or events in other countries prompted people to move to the United States in the late 19th and early 20th centuries?
war and poverty, a lack of available jobs, political turmoil, social upheaval, food shortages, low wages, scarce land, and revolutions prompted people from other countries to move to the United States because the United States had the opposite of each of those.
What difficulties did many of these new immigrants face?
They have left their friends and families, and learn the language and customs of the country they have immigrated to.
Why did cities in the United States grow rapidly in the decades following the Civil War?
many soldiers returned home which boomed population, jobs, and production.
What problems did this rapid growth pose for cities?
This rapid growth caused cities to have a lack of housing and thus overcrowded housing, unsanitary conditions, polluted water, easy dispersion of disease, increased crime rate, and fires from the new housing being made of wood and the use of kerosene heaters.
What solutions to urban problems did the settlement house movement propose?
providing housing to those who could not provide one for themselves, teaching about health, and learning about the problems caused by urbanization firsthand to help create more solutions.
Why did machine politics become common in the cities in the late 19th century?
They were helping immigrants get jobs and homes
What government problems arose as a result of patronage?
people held government jobs who were not certified to and sometimes used their positions for personal gain.
Summarize the views of Grover Cleveland and Benjamin Harrison on tariffs.
Grover Cleveland said tariffs needed to be reduced, and called for tariff revenue only. Benjamin Harrison supported high tariffs.
– CRITICAL THINKING –
diagram
Increased Immigration- Urbanization, Overcrowded
Increased Machine Politics- Patronage, Pendleton Civil Service Act
In the 1860s, Horace Greeley, editor of the New York Tribune- remarked, “we cannot all live in the cities, yet nearly all seem determined to do so.” do you think this was true at the end of the 19th century do you think it is still true? why or why not?
Yes I think it is true and it still is today because lots of people want to move to the cities because they think that they can accomplish anything there. There was a shortage of jobs back then and sometimes there still is today.
How were politicians like Boss Tweed similar to industrial magnates like Carnegie and Rockefeller?
Politicians like Boss Tweed were similar to industrial magnate like Carnegie and Rockefeller because they all had a large amount of control over things such as oil, railroads, and political machines which ultimately meant that they played a role in what happened to the country at that time such as the U.S. economy and government.

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