Chapter 9 History

Chapter 9 History

Constantinople
the center of the Byzantine Empire – crossroads of trade routes which made it very wealthy
What happened as German invaded Rome? where did they move and what did they rebuild?
-As German invaders invaded Rome, Constantine and successors moved their base to the eastern Mediterranean – rebuilt Byzantium and named it Constantinople
-Grew out from the city and a new empire formed
What was Constantinople’s natural barriers? Importance?
-Constantinople had a great harbor that was protected by natural barriers – built land and sea walls to make an even better defense system
-Location linked the Mediterranean and Black seas
-Connected trade routes between Asia and Europe
Lives of Emperors and empresses
Emperors and empresses lived lives of luxuries – chariot races, fancy clothes
Eventually, the whole Byzantine empire declined to what
Byzantine empire eventually declined to just Constantinople and the surrounding areas
Justinian
-emperor from 527-565
-Byzantine empire reached its height under his rule – wanted to revive ancient Rome by taking back land conquered by invaders
The Byzantine armies reconquered where?
Byzantine armies reconquered North Africa, Italy, southern Iberian peninsula under general Belisarius
Byzantine armies
Great feat, but weakened treasury and defenses – successors would lose the land again
What devistation happened in 532
riots and a fire destroyed much of Constantinople
What was one of the major improvements after the destroyed Constantinople
Rebuilt the Hagia Sophia – improved on earlier Roman buildings
What else did people do to rebuild the empire
Also reformed the law – collected, revised, and reorganized the laws of ancient Rome
Justinian’s Code
– laws passed by Roman emperors, legal writings, handbook for students
Justinian ruled as a what?
autocrat
autocrat
sole ruler with complete authority -Also had power over the Church – Christ’s co-ruler on Earth
who helped Justinian?
Theodora helped him with his rule – served as advisor and co-ruler
What still was kept when Western Europe suffered
A strong economy was kept.
-Peasants worked the land, paid taxes, and served as soldiers
-Trade and industry flourished in the cities
-The Byzantine gold coin was circulated from Europe to China
Justinian’s military force
Strongest military forces in the world
Greek fire
liquid that would ignite on contact and couldn’t be put out with water
What happened after Justinian?
empire faced attacks – served as a buffer for Western Europe between the Western Church and the Eastern Church
Byzantine emperor later appointed a what the would do what? this is the…
patriarch – highest church official
-Rejected the pope’s claim to authority over all Christians
Byzantine Christianity significance?6
• Emperor controlled church affairs and elected patriarchs but was not the priest
• Priests Kept their right to marry
• Christians reject popes claim to authority over all Christians
• Greek was the language in Church
• Holy day was Easter- less emphasis on Christmas
• Prietsts can have beards
Western Christianity significance?5
• Emperor was not in charge of affairs
• Latin was the language in Church
• Holy day was Christmas
• Clergy did not marry
• Priests- couldn’t marry (remain celibate- clean-shaven)
similarities between Byzantine and Western Christianity
• Icons become a divisive issue
What happened to these 2 branches during the Middle Ages
These 2 branches split even more during the Middle Ages
Dispute over the use of icons
Great Schism
1054 split between eastern and western Christianity
-Byzantine empire was in decline by the time of the schism – local lords gained control or large areas and invaders attacked
Trade rivalry during the crusades sparked what?
Trade rivalry during the later crusades sparked violence between Byzantine empire and Venice
-1204 – knights in the Fourth Crusade attacked Constantinople
-Burned and plundered the city
Western Christians ruled Constantinople till when? what happened to the empire?
Western Christians ruled Constantinople until the 1260s – empire never totally recovered
who posed a threat
Ottoman Turks
what did Ottoman do during 1453
1453 – Ottoman forces attacked Constantinople
Siege for 2 months – Turks stormed the broken walls afterwards
City was renamed Istanbul – became center of Muslim culture
Russia had what 3 broad geographical zones
-North = forests for lumber, hunting
-South (kiev) = fertile land, first civilization in Russia
-Southern Steppe = open, treeless grassland for herds of horses and nomadic peoples
Steppe
had no natural barriers – basically a highway for nomads to travel
Transportation linked from where to where
Lots of transportation routes to link people throughout and around Russia – linked to Byzantine world in the south
Kiev
center of first Russian state (now capital of Ukraine)
Slavic people
-Slavic peoples lived from Poland and Belarus into Ukraine – spread east into Russia and south toward Byzantine
-Organized into clans with simple political organization, small farming villages with trading
Vikings traveled where and did what?
Vikings traveled south and collected tribute from the Slavs and traded with Constantinople – Kiev was at the heart of this trade network
Rurik and the Rus
Viking prince, Rurik and the Rus (his tribe) settled and expanded to Kiev in 862
What happened in 957?
Princess Olga of Kiev converts to Byzantine Christianity – spread widely during the rule of grandson Vladimir
Vladimir
He made Orthodox Christianity the religion of the Rus – aligned his kingdom politically and culturally with the Byzantine
Yarolslave
(son of Vladimir) spread Christianity, blended the church and the government, code of law
What happened in Early 13th century (mongols)
Early 13th century – Genghis Khan united the Mongols of central Asia and overran lands from China to Europe
Batu
grandson of Genghis led Mongol armies into Russia between 1236 and 1241
Golden Horde
his army of invaders that looted and burned Russian towns, including Kiev
Many Russians were killed
Ruled Russia for 150 years – if an area wasn’t under direct control, it was attacked and raided constantly
Mongols rulers
weren’t super involved rulers – demanded tribute and acknowledgement of their power, but let Russian princes rule on their own
Mongols feeling towards the Russian Orthodox Church, what happened?
Mongols tolerated the Russian Orthodox Church, brought peace to the areas between China and Eastern Europe, helped Russian merchants
What did the Mongol rule do to Russian princes
Mongol rulers inspired Russian princes to rule with absolute power, but also cute them off from Western Europe and their advancements
Kahn appointed a what?
a Grand Prince
Grand prince
GP- collect tribute from other princes and gives it to the Mongols
Moscow princes
Moscow princes increased their power during Mongol rule – located near important trade routes, were tribute collectors for the Mongols
when did Moscow become really powerful
when the Russian Orthodox Church made it the capital
When did the Moscow princes take on new roles
as the Mongols declined
Ivan (III) the Great
– brought a lot of northern Russia under his rule from 1462 -1505
-Absolute rule – tried to limit the power of the landowning nobles (boyars)
-Adopted Byzantine court rituals
Referred to himself as tsar – Russian word for Caesar
Ivan IV (Ivan the Great’s grandson)
was the first Russian ruler crowned tsar (1547)
Centralized royal power – limited privileges of boyar families; granted land to nobles for military or other service
Became unstable with violent fits – killed his own son
Oprichniki
agents who enforced the tsar’s will; slaughtered rebellious nobles, sacked towns
Ivan the Terrible
How did its location help Constantinople thrive
It was a harbor city on a trade route guarded by water
One of Justinians most important accomplishments was a
revised code of Roman laws and writing
What was one difference between the Roman and Byzantine Churches before the Great Schism?
Byzantine Christinas rejected the popes claim to authority over all Christians
The Crusades began when Seljuk Turks
threatened Jerusalem
An important contribution of the Byzantine empire was its
blending of Christianity and Greek culture
Russia’s rivers linked early Russians to
the Byzantine empire
What Russian city was at the center of a vital trade network
Kiev
Which event occurred during the rule of the Mongols in Russia
The Princes of Moscow gained power and influence
How did Mongol rule affect Russia’s relations with Western Europe?
It isolated Russia from European advances in science and art
What tradition did Ivan the Terrible introduce that shaped Russian history into the twentieth century
extreme absolute power
How did Eastern Europe’s geography affect its development
Goods and cultural influences traveled along the region’s rivers
Jewish refugees fled Western Europe because
of persecution and expulsion
Poland was unlike Russia or Western Europe in
allowing nobles more power than the monarch
The Magyars were raiders from the Asian steppes who settled in
Hungary
The Serbian state reached its height of power under
Stefan Dusan
The South Slav country of Serbia was conquered in the late 1300s by
the Ottoman Turks
What did Ivan the Great do
set up the framework for Russian rules
Why did Ivan the great want to adopt Byzantine court rituals
strong and fair government; heir to Byzantine Empire
Byzantine= what christianity
E.O christianity
German knights and missionaries
R.C christianity
Ottoman invasions
Islam