Chapters 5 – 7

Rome was a crucial factor in the development of European civilization because:
Rome connected Europe to the cultural heritage of the Near East.
Virgil’s Aenid built on Homer’s epic literature by:
connecting Roman history to the heroic narrative of the Trojan War.
One way that the Romans were influenced by the Greeks was by:
observing the many Greeks who lived in Sicily and Southern Italy
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Which legend explains the end of the Roman monarchy and the founding of the Republic?
The rape of Lucretia.
The division between Roman Patricians and plebians was
Between the wealthiest and the rest of the people.
After a plebian rebellion in the early fifth century BC:
the patricians accepted the elected tribunes and written laws.
The equestrian order (Roman Knights) was established when:
businessmen who did not become senators wanted privileges.
Once the Romans had effectively gained control of Italy (265 BC):
they started a series of wars to gain control over the Mediterranean.
Why did the Romans regard Carthage as a threat?
The Carthaginian Empire in Sicily and Spain was encroaching on Rome.
Since the Romans employed slaves for all forms of manual labor:
no industrial revolution took place and urban underemployment was common.
The greatest Roman Stoic, Cicero, believed that:
virtue leads to happiness and peace of mind is the highest goal.
When Julius Caesar adopted Octavian as his heir:
Octavian had to kill fight his rivals and kill his republican opponents.
The Augustan system of government:
is known as the early empire or Participate, because Octavian ruled as first citizen.
Roman law consisted of three branches of government:
Civil law, natural law, and law of the people.
The Romans were a military society almost from the moment they settled in Italy because:
they were continually forced to defend their own conquests against invaders.
The fall of the Roman Empire in the fifth century has been much exaggerated because:
Many Roman institutions continued to function.
Realizing that the Roman Empire had become too large for a single ruler to control it:
Diocletian divided the empire in half, trusting a junior colleague to rule the western part.
Economic reforms introduced by the early fourth century Roman Empire included:
wage and price controls fixed by government.
According to Chapter 6, it is probably safe to assume that:
Jesus was a historical figure described by numerous first century sources.
Which statement best describes the position of Sadducees in Palestine during the 1st Century?
Sadducees believed that religious law pertained primarily to the temple priesthood.
Which statement best describes the position of the Pharisees in Palestine during the first century?
Pharisees believed in life after death and a system of individual rewards and punishments.
What point was in dispute between Arians and Euthanasias?
Whether Jesus was of the same being and substance as God the Father.
What were the general results of the doctrinal quarrels of the early centuries?
The dogmas of the Christian Church slowly became fixed.
In terms of organization, the fourth-century Christian church was:
more defined in hierarchial terms, with a clergy distributed among patriarchs, bishops, priests and deacons.
The roots of the papacy lie in:
A passage fro the New Testament Gospel of Matthew.
St. Benedict’s monastic rule differed from St. Basil’s rule:
because it was less austere and more moderate in its demands for monastic life.
During late antiquity, attitudes toward women changed in Roman society because:
Christians asserted that their bodies belonged not to the state but to God.
Romans regarded the Germans as barbarians because:
German society was illiterate, and Germans did not live in cities.
Why did Justinian reconquest of the western Roman Empire fail?
The costs associated with conquering and defending the vast western empire was too great.
The Seventh century AD was a turning point in the history of western civilizations because:
The Greco-Roman world of antiquity divided into Byzantine, Islamic and Latin Christian realms.
It is difficult to date the beginning of Byzantine history with precision because:
the Byzantine empire was the uninterrupted successor of the Roman Empire.
Between 610 and 1071, the major security threats to the Byz Empire came from:
Persia, then the Umayyad and the Abbasids.
The Byzantine religion was known for its
Intense interestin matters of doctrine and orthodoxy.
The Iconoclastic controversy of the eight century was about the:
use or prohibition of images in church, where people might worship the objects.
Although the Iconoclastic Controversy of the eight century BCE was eventually resolved, it’s lasting effects included:
the destruction of nearly all pre-eighth-century religious art in the Byzantine empire.
Women from wealthy Byzantine families:
were educated at home by tutors, and some became literary figures of note.
The Byzantine church of Santa Sophia was influential in the history of architecture because it:
placed a massive dome on a building with a square shape.
In the late 6th century, the economy of Arabia:
became much more commercially sophisticated as a result of changing trade routes.
The Harrah refers to the prophet Muhammad’s move from:
Mecca to Medina
The word Islam means:
Submission
In their worship of Allah, Muslims worship
Muhammad
The Quaran contains:
Revelations sent by God to Muhammad
In camparison to the Umayyad, the Abbasid caliphate:
Adopted more of the style of Persian royal absolutism.
1001 Nights describes the extravagant behavior of the Abbasid caliph:
Heron al-Rushed
Charlemagne and Heron al-Rushed formed an alliance partially because of their shared enemy:
Umayyad
The overall unity of the Muslim world disintegrated during the tenth and eleventh centuries because of:
ethnic tensions among Arabs, Turks, Berbers and Persians.
Muslim art is most strikingly different from the Byzantine, Persian and Hellenistic models upon which it drew:
because Muslim art did not portray the human body.
Compared to medieval Europe in the eleventh and twelfth centuries, the Islamic world was:
more advanced in technological sophistication, science, and philosophy.
Gradual conversion of early medieval European countryside to Christianity was carried out primarily by:
Lay missionaries commissioned by the Pope.
Why were so many convents founded during the seventh century CE/AD?
Convents met a variety of social and spiritual needs for aristocratic families.
The key figure in creating an alliance between the Carolingian family, the papacy, and Benedictine monasticism was:
St. Boniface
As a Christina king responsible for ruling a Christian society, Charlemagne:
Took responsibility for reforming the religious life of his kingdom just as he reformed its government.
Jesus is the central figure in Christianity, but Paul was important:
because he was the founder of the universal church, giving it theology and organization.
Jerome’s most lasting contribution to western Christian culture was:
His translation of the bible into Latin.
Traditional Roman religion included ancestor worship and..
Oligarchs who played dual roles as priests and politicians.
Alexander the Great is a difficult figure for historians to evaluate because:
so many legends grew up around him during his lifetime.
In the early Roman Republic, Rome was technically a democracy but:
the Roman constitution essentially ensured oligarchic rule.
Economic reforms introduced by the early fourth century Roman Empire included:
Wage and price controls fixed by the government (?)
Historians now refer to the period from 284 to 610 CE as the Late Antiquity because:
It is a period of its own themes and developments, neither wholly Roman and not yet medieval.
The Romans were a military society almost from the moment they settled in Italy because:
They were continuously forced to defend their own conquests against invaders.
The Dead Sea Scrolls have helped historians to understand the religious climate of the first century CE by:
drmonstrating the diversity of Jewish religious practice and belief.
To control his newly created empire, Alexander constructed:
Greek-style cities.
Once Constantine I and his successors had converted to Christianity:
it gained power and was designated the only official religion by Theodosius.
During the Second Punic War, the Carthaginian general Hannibal:
brought his entire army, including elephants, over the Alps.
One important difference between Roman religion and Greek religion was the Roman interest of:
household gods.
Those who ruled Rome from 96-180 were called the “Five Good Emperors” because:
they were capable administrators who governed successfully.
In terms of geography and natural resources, the Italian peninsula:
was more fertile than ancient Greece.
The greatest honor a Roman could hope to achieve was:
to sacrifice himself, his family and his friends for the state.
Seneca, Epictetus, and Marcus Aurelius were all:
Stoics (?)
Plato’s primary philosophical concern was:
the doctrine of Ideas or Reforms
In terms of organization, the fourth century Christian church was:
More defined in hierarchical terms, with a clergy distributed among patriarchs, bishops, priests, and deacons.
The differences between the eastern and western parts of the Roman Empire:
In culture, economy, and language were great, and grew larger over time.
The realism and vividness of Roman portrait sculpture before Diocletian:
meant that figures often looked alike, even though they were unrelated.
The vikings settled in what is known today as:
Normandy
Which was a significant event in creating Byzantine hostility toward the Latin Christian world?:
the coronoation of Charlemagne as Roman emperor on Christmas Day, 800
Underlying the Carolingian Renaissance was the basic conviction that
classical learning was the foundation on which Christian wisdom rested
The Shiite party arose among Muslims because:
of a dispute about the proper succession of caliphs in 7th century Arabia
Islam spread so quickly in the 7th and 8th centuries because
the Byzantines and Persians had become exhausted by their long wars against each other

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