Chemistry 105 Final

Chemistry 105 Final

Sulfur oxides have been implicated as important contributors to the problem of acid rain. What is the principle anthropogenic source of these compounds?
Coal fired power plants
Which anthropogenic pollutants are implicated in the formation of most acidic precipitation?
Nitrogen oxides and Sulfur oxides NOX and SOX
A polar covalent bond is created when….
Two atoms share their bonding electrons unequally
Molarity=…
Moles of Solute/Liters of Solution

*Don’t forget to change L to mL*

Moles=….
(Molarity)(Volume)
[H+]=
1 x 10^-14 – [OH-]
[OH-]=
1 x 10^-14 – [H+]
[H+] + [OH-]
1 x 10^-14
Every increase in one pH unit indicates
10 times LESS hydrogen ions in a solution
Predict the product of this reaction KNO3 + HNO3 –>
KNO3 + H2O

This is a neutralization reaction, which means that H2O is always formed along with a salt (NaCl, KNO3)

Most aquatic life in lakes cannot survive in water with a pH less than
5

Normal aquatic life: 7-8
Most fish disappear at 5 and less

The acid neutralizing capacity of a lake or stream most often derives from the presence of ______ in the surrounding soil or rock.
CaCO3
Which reaction accounts for the fact that the pH of rain is slightly acidic?
CO2 + H2O –> H+ + HCO3-
Potable water is…..
Water that is safe to drink and cook with
Which nitrogen containing substance is generally unreactive
N2
Most polyatomic ions
Are composed of more than two atoms
The pH of rain water falling through an unpolluted atmosphere is closest to:
5.4

Normal rain is between 5-6
Pure water is 7

The air we breath is…..
a mixture
How to you go from ppm to percentage?

Ex: EPA limit for CO is 9ppm what is percentage?

Move 4 places to the left

0.0009%

What two factors are considered when determining the risk assessment for air pollutants?
Toxicity and Exposure
Which two gases make up most of the gases we breath?
O2 and N2

78% Nitrogen, 21% Oxygen, 0.9% Argon, 0.1% Other

As the ozone hole gets more pronounced, with time, one expects the incidence of skin cancer to…
increase worldwide
LOOK AT NUMBER 12 ON EXAM 1
The two main products of the combustion of gasoline in an automobile engine are…
Water and Carbon Dioxide
Catalytic converters reduce the amount of ______ in car exhaust
CO
Which correctly pairs an indoor pollutant with its source?
O3 and electrical arcing
How many protons, neutrons, and electrons are in this neutral atom of
19
9 *F*
Protons: 9
Neutrons: 10
Electrons: 9

Protons and electrons are always the same and neutrons are the weight – atomic number

HFC’s may be used to replace CFC’s. Which compound is a HFC?
CF3CH2F
You wear sunscreen on your skin in order for the sunscreen to _____________, thereby protecting your skin from some of the sun’s radiation.
Absorb UV-A and UV-B radiation
The speed of light in air
Is independent of the wavelength and the frequency
Which is/are part of the Chapman cycle in the stratosphere
Ozone is removed by interaction with UV radiation and it reacts with oxygen atoms to form oxygen molecules
The goal of the Montreal Protocol in 1987 was to
All of these choices are correct
1) Reduce the amount of new production of chlorofluorocarbons in developed countries
2) Recycle existing chlorofluorocarbons rather than release them into the air
3)encourage research into substitutes for chlorofluorocarbons
Which color of the rainbow has the longest the wavelength?
Red
————————- ROYGBIV————————>
longest—————–wavelength—————>shortest
–Radio–Micro—Infra—Visible—UV—Xray—Gamma–>

Raging Martians Invaded Venus Using X-ray Guns

Chlorofluorocarbons rise to the stratosphere and
Interact with UV energy to produce free radicals that destroy ozone.
DNA the genetic material of living organisms, is damaged by light in the…
ultraviolet region, especially below a wavelength of 320 nm
O2 and O3 molecules are..
allotropes
HCFC’s, the current CFC replacement, is preferred over CFC’s because
they decompose in the troposphere
Even though the Montreal Protocol greatly decreased the stratospheric chlorine there is still an ozone hole. Why?
CFC’s are catalyst to the ozone depletion process and remain in the stratosphere for long periods of time.
Scientists believe that they know the average global temperature over the last 160,000 years. Which property of the ice core samples from Antarctica provides this information?
the 1H/2H ratio
Which atmospheric component does not contribute to global warming?
N2
Neither N2 nor O2 are greenhouse gases because
their overall electric charge does not change when they vibrate
What international agreement attempted to reduce greenhouse gas emission?
Kyoto Protocol
Scientists have correlated average global temperature with atmospheric carbon dioxide levels for the last 160,000 years using ice cores from Antarctica. How is the carbon dioxide level determined?
by measuring the CO2 concentration on trapped air bubbles in the ice layer
Which practices might be considered carbon sequestration?
I and III only
I) Planting tress
III) Pumping carbon dioxide deep into the ocean
Which country has the highest per capita emission of carbon dioxide?
United States
The history of average global temperature for the last 160,000 years is derived from isotopic analysis of ice layers in Antarctica. Scientists study the ______ ratio in _______.
1H/2H

H2O

The Industrial Revolution is a key point in the Earth’s atmospheric history because…
prior to that time large deposits of petroleum an coal were not being used as energy sources
Identify the single most effective strategy to reduce cardon dioxide emissions
develop alternate energy sources that do not rely on fossil fuels
The energy that flows from a warmer body to a colder body is called
heat