Chicago Author-Date Referencing 2007 The Chicago Author-Date referencing style has two basic systems of documentation. There is the humanities style (which can also be known as the footnote and endnote or the notes and bibliography style), as well as the au- thor-date style. This guide follows the author-date system of referencing. This involves citations within the text cor- responding to a full bibliographic entry in the reference list at the end of the document. The in-text citations include the author’s last name, followed by the date of publication in parentheses.
The bibliographic entry in the reference list includes all the other necessary publication information. When using EndNote, it is recommended that the style system to use is Chicago Curtin 2007. Note: this page is only an introduction to the Chicago Author-Date referencing system. Curtin University Library provides a modified version of the author-date system presented in: The Chicago manual of style. 2003. 15th ed. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press. How to cite references: Chicago style. 2006. http://wwwlib. murdoch. edu. au/find/citation/chicago. html
It is very important that you check your department or school’s assignment guide as some details, eg. punctuation, may vary from the guidelines on this page. You may be penalised for not conforming to your school’s requirements. The information and examples contained on this page are chiefly derived from the above sources. What is Referencing? Referencing is a standardised method of acknowledging sources of information and ideas that you have used in your assignment in a way that uniquely identifies their source. Direct quotations, facts and figures, as well as ideas and theories, from both published and unpublished works must be referenced.
There are many acceptable forms of referencing. This information sheet provides a brief guide to the Chicago Author-Date referencing style. Within the text of the assignment the author’s name is given first, followed by the publication date. A reference list at the end of the assignment contains the full details of all the in-text citations. Why Reference? Referencing is necessary to avoid plagiarism, to verify quotations, and to enable readers to follow-up and read more fully the cited author’s arguments. Steps Involved in Referencing 1.
Note down the full bibliographic details including the page number(s) from which the information is taken. In the case of a book, ‘bibliographical details’ refers to: author/editor, year of publication, title, edition, volume number, place of publication and publisher as found on the front and back of the title page. (Not all of these details will necessarily be applicable). In the case of a journal article, the details required include: author of the article, year of publication, title of the article, title of the journal, volume and issue number of the journal, and page numbers.
For all electronic information, in addition to the above you should note the date that you accessed the information, and database name or web address (URL). 2. Insert the citation at the appropriate place within the text of the document (see examples below). 3. Provide a reference list at the end of the document (see examples below). In-Text Citations Use the name of the author, followed by the year of publication when citing references within the text of an assignment. Where authors of different references have the same family name, include the author’s initials in the in-text citation i. . (Hamilton, C. L. 1994) or C. L. Hamilton (1994). If two or more authors are cited at the same point in the text then they are included in the same in-text citation, separated by a semicolon e. g. (Brown 1991; Smith 2003). They are presented alphabetically by author. When directly quoting from another source, the relevant page number must be given and quotation marks placed around the quote. When paraphrasing or referring to an idea from another source which is a book or lengthy text, include the relevant page number, as this might be useful to the reader. How to Create a Reference List
In general, page numbers should be included in all in-text citations, as many schools insist on this practice. A reference list only includes books, articles etc that are cited in the text. A bibliography is a list containing the sources used in developing a publication and other sources the author considers might be of use or interest to the reader. The reference list is arranged alphabetically by author. Where an item has no author it is cited by its title, and ordered in the reference list or bibliography alphabetically by the first significant word of the title. The Chicago style requires the second and subsequent lines of the reference o be indented, as shown in the examples below, to highlight the alphabetical order. 2 Examples of Referencing Books| In-Text Example| Reference List Example| EndNote X (which reference type? )| Single author| ‘The theory was first propounded in 1982’ (Horwood 1982, 65)OR‘Horwood (1982, 65) claimed that…’| Horwood, J. 1982. Comfort. London: Unwin Paperbacks. | Book| 2 or 3 authors| (Madden and Hogan 1997, 22)ORMadden and Hogan (1997, 22) dis- cuss this idea…OR(Jones, Madding and Davis 1998, 34)| Madden, R. , and T. Hogan. 1997. The definition ofdisability in Australia: Moving towards national consistency.
Canberra: Australian Institute of Health and WelfareORJones, J. , M. Madding, and B. Davis. 1998. How to ride a pony. Sydney: Australian Aquarian Press. | Book| More than 3 authors| (Leeder et al. 1996, 2)| Leeder, S. R. , A. J. Dobson, R. Gibbers, N. R. Patel, P. S. Mathews, D. A. Williams, and D. Mariot. 1996. TheAustralian film industry. Adelaide: Dominion Press. | Book| Unknown authorshipor anonymous works| (Advertising in the Western Cape1990, 74). | Advertising in the Western Cape. 1990. Cape Town: ABC Publishers. | Book| Multiple works bysame author| ‘University research (Brown 1982, 1988) has indicated that…’| Brown, P. 982. Corals in the Capricorn group. Rock- hampton: Central Queensland University. Brown, P. 1988. The effects of anchor on corals. Rockhampton: Central Queensland University. Order chronologically in the reference list. | Book| 3 of 11 Multiple workspublished in the same year by the same Author| ‘In recent reports (Napier 1993a, 55)…’Use a/b etc. to differentiate between works in same year. | Napier, A. 1993a. Fatal storm. Sydney: Allen & Unwin. Napier, A. 1993b. Survival at sea. Sydney: Allen & Unwin. Order alphabetically by title in the reference list. | Book| Editor| Kastenbaum 1993, 91-2)| Kastenbaum, R. , ed. 1993. Adult development. Phoe- nix: Oryx Press. | Edited Book| Different Editions| Neil Renton (2004, 75) suggests that…| Renton, N. 2004. Compendium of good writing. 3rd ed. Milton: John Wiley & Sons. An edition number is placed after the title of the work – this is not necessary for a first edition. | Book(put 3rd in Edition). | No date| (Housley [2006? ])OR(Housley n. d. )| Housley, N. [2006? ]. Contesting the crusades. Malden, MA: Blackwell. ORHousley, N. n. d. Contesting the crusades. Malden, MA: Blackwell. | Book(put [2006? ] or n. d. in Year). Encyclopedia/ Dictionary| ‘In the section on Sleepwalking in the Encyclopedia of Sleep andDreaming (Mahowald 1993, 578)’| Entries in an encyclopedia or dictionary are not listed in the reference list. | Enter the in-text citation manually. | Article or chapter in a book| As discussed by Blaxter (1976, 120-35)…OR(Blaxter 1976, 120-35)| Blaxter, M. 1976. Social class and health inequalities In Equalities and inequalities in health, ed. C. Carter and J. Peel, 120-35. London: Academic Press. | Book Section| Article or chapter in a book – no author| (Solving the Y2K problem 1997, 23)| Solving the Y2K problem. 997. In Technology today and tomorrow, ed. D. Bowd, 23-35. New York:Van Nostrand Reinhold. | Book Section| Brochure| (Research and Training Centre 2003)| Research and Training Centre on Independent Living. 2003. Guidelines for reporting and writing about people with disabilities [Brochure]. Melbourne: Research and Training Centre. The publisher’s name may be abbreviated if it is also the author. | BookType [Brochure] manually after the Title. | E-book| (Pettinger 2002)| Pettinger, R. 2002. Global organizations. Oxford: Capstone Publishing. http://www. netlibrary. com. dbgw. lis. curtin. edu. au/ Details. spx (accessed September 28, 2004). | Electronic Book(put September 28, 2004 in Date Accessed)| Thesis| (Jones 1998, 89)| Jones, F. 1998. The mechanism of Bayer residue flocculation. PhD diss. , Curtin University ofTechnology. http://adt. curtin. edu. au/theses/ available/adt-WCU20020610. 142909/ (accessedNovember 28, 2006). | Thesis(put PhD diss. in Thesis Type)| ConferenceProceeding| (Hill 2000, 112)| Hill, R. 2000. Proceedings of the Ninth Meeting of the International National Trust, March 3-5, 2000: TheNational Trust into the new millennium. Alice Springs, NT: Australian Council of NationalTrusts. http://search. informit. om. au. dbgw. lis. curtin. edu. au/search;rec=11;action= showCompleteRec (accessed November 29, 2006). | Conference Proceeding(put 2000 in Year of Conference, The National Trust into the new millenniumin Title Proceedings of the Ninth Meeting of the International National Trust in Conference Name, March 3-5 in Date,Alice Springs, NT in ConferenceLocation, Australian Council of National Trusts in Publisher). | Annual report of an organisation| (Department of Transport and Regional Services 2001)OR(Billabong International Ltd 2005)| Department of Transport and Regional Services. 2001. Annual report 2001-02. Canberra: DTRS.
ORBillabong International Ltd. 2005. Annual report 2005 – brands. http://www. connect4. com. au. dbgw. lis. curtin. edu. au/products/ar/index. html (accessed November 29, 2006). | Report(put DTRS in Institution)| Image in a book| The poster ‘Buy Australian Apples’ (Cowle and Walker 2005, 65)| Cowle, C. , and D. Walker. 2005. The art of apple branding [Image]. Hobart: Apples from Oz. | BookType [Image] manually after the title. | Print Journals| In-Text Example| Reference List Example| EndNote X (which reference type? )| Article| As mentioned by Wharton (1996, 8)| Wharton, N. 1996. Health and safety in outdoor activity centres.
Journal of Adventure Educationand Outdoor Leadership 12 (1): 8-23. | Journal Article| Article – no author| ‘It’s a growing problem in the UK. ’ (Anorexia nervosa 1969, 17)| Anorexia nervosa. 1969. British Medical Journal 12 (2): 6-19. | Journal ArticleYou will need to edit the in-text citation for it to appear in italics. | Newspaper, feature ormagazine article| (Towers 2000, 3)| Towers, K. 2000. Doctor not at fault: Coroner. The Australian, January 18. | Newspaper Article(put January 18 in Issue Date)| Newspaper, feature ormagazine article – no author| ‘The Sydney Morning Herald (21 Jan. 2000, 12) reported…. | Provide all the details in the in-text citation – no need for an entry in the reference list. | | Press release| …. ’in the press release on 1 March,BHP enters new era, Watersmith ex- plains……’| Treated like an unpublished document. No need for an entry in the reference list. | You will need to enter the in-text citation manually. | Electronic Journals| In-Text Example| Reference List Example| EndNote X (which reference type? )| Full text from anelectronic database| (Madden 2002, 562)| Madden, G. 2002. Internet economics andpolicy: An Australian perspective. Economic Record 78 (2): 551-78. Informit Online. http:// search. nformit. com. au. dbgw. lis. curtin. edu. au/fullText;dn=200208736;res=APAFT (accessed October 16, 2003). | Journal Article(put Informit Online in Name of Database, http://search. informit. com. audbgw. lis. curtin. edu. au/fullText;dn=200208736; res=APAFT in URL, October 16, 2003 in Access Date). | Full text from anelectronic database – no author| ‘The internet has had a huge impact on the Australianeconomy’ (Internet economics and policy 2002, 350)You will need to edit the in-text citation for it to appear in italics. | Internet economics and policy: An Australian perspective. 2002. Economic Record 78 (2): 551-78. Informit Online. ttp://search. informit. com. au. dbgw. lis. curtin. edu. au/fullText;dn=200208736;res=APAFT (accessed October 16, 2003). | Journal Article(put Informit Online in Name of Database, http://search. informit. com. au. dbgw. lis. curtin. edu. au/fullTextdn=20020 8736;res=APAFT in URL, October 16, 2003 in Access Date). | 6 of 11 Full text newspaper,newswire or magazine from an electronic database – no author| (Cup lifts Seven out of ratings blues 2006, 33)| Cup lifts Seven out of ratings blues. 2006. The Australian, November 13. Factiva. http://global. factiva. com. dbgw. lis. curtin. edu. au/ha/ default. aspx (accessed November 24, 2006). Newspaper Article(put November 13 in Issue Date,Factiva in Name of Database, http:// global. factiva. com. dbgw. lis. curtin. edu. au/ ha/default. aspx in URL, November 24, 2006 in Access Date). | Full text from the Internet| It was proposed by Byrne (2004, 2) that…| Byrne, A. 2004. The end of history: Censorship and libraries. The Australian Library Journal 53 (2). http://www. alia. org. au/publishing/alj/53. 2/full. text/ byrne. html (accessed November 13, 2004). | Journal Article(put http://www. alia. org. au/publishing/ alj/53. 2/full. text/byrne. html in URL). | Article from Curtin E- Reserve| (Andersen 2002, 343)| Andersen, J.
A. 2002. Organizational design: Two lessons to learn before re-organizing. International Journal of Organizational Theory and Behavior 5 (3/4): 343. Curtin University Li-brary E-Reserve. http://edocs. lis. curtin. edu. au/eres_display. cgi? url=DC65012621. pdf (accessed November 24, 2006). | Journal Article(put Curtin University Library E-Reserve in Name of Database, http://edocs. lis. curtin. edu. au/eres_display. cgi? url=DC650 12621. pdf in URL, November 24, 2006 in Access Date). | Article from databaseon CD-ROM (BPO)| (La Rosa 1992, 58)| La Rosa, S. M. 1992. Marketing slays the downsizing dragon.
Information Today 9 (3): 58-9. UMI Business Periodicals Ondisc (accessed November 24, 2006). | Journal Article(put UMI Business Periodicals Ondisc inURL). | Secondary Sources| In-Text Example| Reference List Example| EndNote X (which reference type? )| Book| (Lewis and Carini 1984)Cite the source the quotation is from. | Lewis, E. N. , and P. V. Carini. 1984. Nurse staffing and patient classification: strategies for success. Rockville, Md: Aspens Systems Corp. Quoted inG. A. Thibodeau and K. T. Patton, eds. , The hu- man body in health and disease (St Louis, Mo. : Mosby, 2002), 77. | Enter the in-text citation manually. | of 11 Journal Article| (Ebell 2006)| Patton, K. T. Neuralgia and headaches. Science 314 (December 2006): 2153-5. Ebell, M. H. 2006. Diagnosis of migraine headache. American Family Physician 74 (Dec. ): 2087-8. Quoted in Patton 2006, 2153. | Enter the in-text citation manually. | World Wide Web| In-Text Example| Reference List Example| EndNote X (which reference type? )| Document on WWW| ‘It’s essential you learn how to reference’ (Dawson et al. 2002). | Dawson, J. , L. Smith, K. Deubert and S. Grey-Smith. 2002. ‘S’ Trek 6: Referencing, not plagiarism. http://studytrekk. lis. curtin. edu. au/ (accessed October 31, 2002). Web Page| Document on WWW –No author| (Leafy seadragons and weedy seadragons 2001)| Leafy seadragons and weedy seadragons. 2001. http://www. windspeed. net. au/~jenny/seadragons/(accessed July 14, 2001). | Web Page| Document on WWW –No date| (Royal Institute of British Architects n. d. )| Royal Institute of British Architects. n. d. Shaping the future: Careers in architecture. http://www. careersinarchitecture. net/ (accessed May 31, 2005). | Web Page(put n. d. in Year)| Image on the web| The image of the bleached coral (Coral bleaching and massbleaching events 2002)| Coral bleaching and mass bleaching events [Image]. 002. http://www. gbrmpa. gov. au/corp_site/ info_services/science/bleaching (accessed September 2, 2005). | Web Page(type [Image] manually after the title of the image)| 8 of 11 Government Publications| In-Text Example| Reference List Example| EndNote X (which reference type? )| Act of Parliament| The Commonwealth’s Copyright Act 1968…[future references do not include date]| Legislation is included in a list of references only if it is important to an understanding of the work. Setthe list apart from the main body of the reference under the subheading ‘Legislation’. Essential elements: Short title Date (Jurisdiction) eg.
Copyright Act 1968 (Cwlth). If legislation is obtained from an electronic database, add a URL as forelectronic journal articles. | Enter in-text citation manually. | Cases| The State of New South Wales v. The Commonwealth (1915) 20 CLR54| Legal authorities are included in a list of references only if they are important to anunderstanding of the work. Set the list apart from the main body of the reference under thesubheading ‘Legal Authorities’. | Case(put 1915 in Year, The State of New South Wales v. The Commonwealth in Case Name, 20 in Reporter Volume, CLR in Reporter Abbreviation, 54 in Page Cited). Australian Bureau ofStatistics Bulletin| (Australian Bureau of Statistics 1999)| Australian Bureau of Statistics. 1999. Disability, ageing and carers: Summary of findings, Cat. no. 4430. 0. Canberra: ABS. | Report(put Cat. no. 4430. 0 in Accession Number, ABS in Institution). | Australian Bureau ofStatistics from AusStats| (Australian Bureau of Statistics 1999)| Australian Bureau of Statistics. 1999. Disability, ageing and carers: Summary of findings, Cat. no. 4430. 0. Canberra: ABS. http://www. abs. gov. au/Ausstats/ [email protected] nsf/94713ad445ff1425ca25682000192af2/e4cb97884898ec4bca2569de00221c84!
H. in Inventor, US inCountry, Patent 4,554,399 inPatent Number, Nov. 28 1985 in Date, Feb. 11 1988 in Issue Date). | Standard| (Standards Australia 1997)| Standards Australia. 1997. Size coding scheme for infants’ and children’s clothing – underwear andouterwear. AS 1182-1997. Standards Australia Online. http://www. saiglobal. com. dbgw. lis. curtin. edu. au/online/autologin. asp (accessedJanuary 10, 2006). | Report(put AS 1182-1997 in Accession Number| Other Sources| In-Text Example| Reference List Example| EndNote X (which reference type? )| Personalcommunication, e-mail and discussion lists with no web archive. ‘It was confirmed that an outbreak occurred in London in 1999’ (S. Savieri, pers. comm. ). | Not included in the reference list. | Enter in-text citation manually. | UnpublishedInterviews| (Campbell 2006, 2)| Campbell, B. 2006. Interview by A. Bond. Tape recording. December 1. CurtinUniversity of Technology, Perth. | Personal Communication(put Campbell, Billie in Author, Interview with Andrea Bond in Title, Tape recording in Description, December 1 in Date, Curtin University of Technology in Publisher, Perth in City). | Films and videorecordings| (Grumpy meets the orchestra 1992)| Grumpy meets the orchestra. 992. DVD. Written and directed by G. Smithson. Melbourne:Australian Broadcasting Corporation. | Film or Broadcast(put DVD in Format, Written and directed by George Smithson in Credits, Melbourne in Country, Australian Broadcasting Corporation in Distributor). | 10 of 11 Television and radioprogrammes| (What are we going to do with the money? 1997)| What are we going to do with the money? 1997. television program. Sydney: SBS Television, 8August. | Film or Broadcast(put television program in Format, Sydney in Country, SBS Television in Distributor, 8 August in Date Released). Podcasts| (The wings of a butterfly –children, teenagers and anxiety2005)| The wings of a butterfly – children, teenagers and anxiety. 2005. podcast radio program. Sydney:ABC Radio National, 10 September. http:// www. abc. net. au/podcast/default. htm#mind (accessed September 16,2005). | Film or Broadcast(put podcast radio program in Format, Sydney in Country, ABC Radio National in Distributor, 10 September in Date Released, September 16, 2005 in Access Date). | CD-ROMS| (Kingsley 1998)| Kingsley, S. 1998. Dr Brain thinking games. Torrance, California: Knowledge Adventure Inc.
CD-ROM. | Computer Program(put Kingsley, S. in Programmer, Torrance, California in City, Knowledge Adventure Inc. in Publisher, CD-ROM in Type). | ERIC document (microfiche)| Davis and Lombardi (1996)put forward the proposal that…| Davis, R. K. & T. P. Lombardi. 1996. The quality of life of rural high school special education graduates. In Rural goals 2000: Building programs that work. microfiche. ERIC Document No. 394765. | Generic(put Rural goals 2000: Building programs that work in Secondary Title, microfiche in Type of Work, ERIC Document No. 94765 in Publisher). | E-mail discussion list– web archive| According to John Little’s post on the ECPOLICY discussion list onApril 16, 2002 (http:// www. askeric. org/Virtual_Listserv_Archives/ECPOLICY/2002/Apr_2002/Msg00003. html), it was determined that……| Provide all the details in the in-text citation – no need for an entry in the reference list. | Enter the in-text citation manually. | It is very important that you check your department’s or school’s assignment guide as some details e. g. punctuation, may vary from guidelines on this