Childcare Level 4 Keeping Children Safe
Unit 4 – Keeping children safe E1/D1 Five main laws that underpin the provision of health, safe and secure environments for young children are: Health and Safety at Work Act 1974Under the act 1974, both employers and employees have duties. Employers must produce a written policy explaining how they will ensure the health, safety and welfare of all people who use the premises. Employees must cooperate with these arrangements and take reasonable care of themselves and others. Employers have a duty to display a health and safety law poster.
The Reporting of Injuries, Diseases and Dangerous Occurrence Regulation (RIDDOR) 1995This regulation requires accidents, diseases and dangerous occurrence to be recorded. An accident book must be kept in order for staff to record an incidents occurred in the setting. It is very important to record any incidents that have happened in the setting. The purpose of doing this is to attend the child welfare and safeguarding. The records could be used by doctors if the child was to develop any further injury. Settings require parents to inform staff of any illness or allergies their child may have. This protects the child and staff.
The Control of Substances Hazardous to Health (COSHH) Regulations 2002This regulation states that substances which can make people ill or injure them must be stored and used appropriately. In a setting substances hazard to health are locked away and out of the reach for children. Only a few members of staff have the key and only they can open the cupboard unless given permission by someone else to. If someone new comes to work in the setting it is the supervisor’s duty to tell them where these substances are kept. Substances accessible to children are generally chemical and toxic free and safe to use.
All objects safe to use either have a kite mare, lion mark or CE mark. The marks reassure that the product is safe for the child. Personal Protective Equipment at Work (PPE) Regulations 1992The regulation states employers must make sure there is suitable protective equipment available for employers who are exposed to a risk to their health and safety at work. Staff in a childcare setting should be provided with equipment if they are doing any activities that are a risk to there health. It is important that staff wear the protective clothing/equipment to prevent injuries.
Equipment such as gloves, goggles, science jackets etc are there to prevent us from haring that part of our body. Gloves are used when handling bodily fluids to protect the hand from burns or reaction to the substance. Food Handling Regulation 1995This regulation states if you are preparing or handling food you must; Wash hands, Make sure the surface is clean and hygienic, Make sure food is stored at the correct temperature, Dispose of waist hygienicallyIn a setting cooks are requires to tie their hair back and wear hair nets and apron. There are different c olour chopping boards for dealing with different kinds of foods, e. . meat and vegetables. Surfaces are cleaned thoroughly with bacterial sprays to ensure the food is prepared in the cleanest way. Food inspector’s regularly come in to settings to ensure cooks are storing food correctly and at the right temperature. If everything is done to satisfaction the setting is often awarded with a certificate. In the setting there are labels and signs to show what goes where and how they should be used. Children are encouraged to abide by this regulation as well, when they do cooking activities. Children are told to wash their hands when handling and consuming food.
Staff will plan activates that will teach children how to safely prepare food. Staff ma organise with the cook to have the children watch how they prepare their food in the kitchen. E2 Bump on head –a bump on the head is a common injury in young children. If it happens in the setting it should be noted down in the accident book which every childcare setting must have. Then the injury should be treated with an ice pack. The child should be closely supervised as the injury could cause them to become drowsy. Parents should be given a copy of the accident form or a letter must be sent home.
It depends on the procedure of the setting. The parent should always be informed of the accident when they come to collect their child. Asthma attack –a child having an asthma attack needs to be comforted and taken to a quiet place away from the other children. The child is then given an inhaler. Staff must call the parent/career straight away informing them about what has happened to their child. Staff should reassure the child by telling them every thing is going to be ok and try to steady the child breathing by breathing with them slowly which will allow air to get to their lungs. The child should never be left alone.
Sickness and Diarrhoea – if a child has diarrhoea the parent/ career must be informed and ask to pick up the child immediately. If the child has vomited then children should be moved away from the area and staff must clean it up, wearing protective clothing such as gloves which must be disposed after as it will protect them from infection or catching the illness. Personal Protective Equipment at Work (PPE) Regulations 1992. A child with diarrhoea should be given plenty of fluid; if the child cannot keep the fluid down then the child should be taken to the hospital as soon as possible.
It is best the child stays of school for at least two days before returning. This is normally a health and safety procedure in a setting. E3 11 year old 9:00am The children are dropped of and say goodbye to parent. 9:15am A register is taken. This is done so that staffs are aware of all children who are in the setting on that day. 9:30am Children have social time. They play with each other and with activities set out for them in the baby room. 10:15am Children have their nappy change, their hands get washed and prepare them for snack time. 0:30am put the children in their baby chairs and give them milk, water, fruit or a snack to eat and drink. assist any child who needs help with feeding. 11:00am The children are taken out side for some fresh air. put the children in their buggies or if the weather is good they can crawl around and play in the sand pit. It is important staff check the outside area every day. 11:30am The children return back to the baby room. Change of nappies and clothing is done if needed and wash the face and hands of the child. 11:45am: Children are put in their baby chairs and are told what they are going to have for lunch.
Staff in the kitchen should follow the Food Handling Regulation 1995, to make sure food is prepared safely. It is very important to check that the food prepared will not affect children with allergies. 12:00pm Lunch Time – Children eat their lunch and when they are finished they are put back in the baby room to play with resources around them. 1:00pm: nap time 2:30pm: The children have their nappies changed and their face cleaned. Staff must were protective clothing such as disposable aprons and gloves. 2:45pm Staff and children bonding time.
Sing songs play with instruments, read books, plays with toys and communicate with them. 3:15pm: We prepare the children for home time. It is important staffs are aware of who is collecting the children. Parents who normally collect their child should inform the setting that someone else will be collecting their child. The setting should never give the child to anyone else if not permitted by the parent. E4 – Routine for a child age 39:00am Children arrives at nursery and is greeted by the teacher. 9:15am Children sit down on the carpet and the morning register is taken. Then issue each group their activity. :30am Children go off in their groups and do there activity each group has 30 minutes to do their activity before having to move on to do another activity. 10:00am Groups change to do a new activity 10:30am Children tidy up there activity 10:45am Children put on their coats if needed collect fruit, snacks and drinks and go outside to play11:00am Children return back to the classroom and groups are change so their doing a different activity. 11:30am Groups change for the last time12:00pm Children are sent off to wash their hands and line up for lunch. Posters are placed in toilets on how to wash hands to promote hygiene.
Washing hands prevents the children from infection and disease. 12:15pm Children eat their lunch. Staff are supervising the children at their table Meals are nutritional and should follow the health eating regulations. Once they have finished they go outside to play. 1:00pm Children return back to the classroom and an afternoon register is taken. 1:15pm Depending on which day of the week it is children will either have a music lesson or a P. E lesson or art lesson. A P. E lesson will allow the children to take risk and do challenging activities. It is important staff do risk assessment of any activities they have planned. :00pm Children go out to play to get fresh air and exercise. Children can explore the setting. There must be at least two members of staff supervising the children. 2:15pm Children return back to the classroom and either have golden time or free play. 3:00pm story or song time 3:30pm Children collect their jackets. Staff should only give the child to the parent or anyone given permission by the parent to collect the child. E5 In a setting staff try to offer an exciting range of experiences to the children which will stimulate and extend their skills in all areas of development.
Child Care and Education. Tina Bruce. Pg 273in a setting staff should supervise the children; there must be enough staff to look after the children. All care in the setting should avoid danger in order to maintain the safety and security of the child. Children need challenging play in order to develop, risk taking will occur in these types of activities so staff must supervise these areas for the health and safety of the child. “Close supervision is the most effective way of ensuring children’s safety”. Care and Education. Tina Bruce.
Pg 273Staff should always remember it is their responsibility to keep children safe in the childcare setting. Children are individuals and develop at different stages so we must have in mind all children may not be able to do the same thing at the same time. Children with special needs may need special equipment and playing resources in order to participate safely in activities in any setting. It is important we make all children feel included when panning activities in challenging environments at no time should a child feel different due to their needs or abilities.
The weather can be an issue for planning. Before outdoor play, the area must be checked. Icy or slippery surfaces are dangerous for all activities planned for the children. If staffs do decide to let children play outside despite any weather children should be suitably clothed and equipped for it. Children should always be dressed according to the weather. A challenging environment will always involve risk and this is why staff should risk assess. Risk assessment is important however we need to create and enabling environment whilst thinking about the child’s safety.
Before planning we need to think and asses the possible outcomes. An activity can be well planned but if a child get injured from it then the activity is worthless. There should always be a record of safety issues that occur E6/C1 Forest SchoolsChildren seem to thrive and their minds and bodies develop best when they accessible to stimulating outdoor environments for learning through play. A forest school is a unique educational experience. The purpose of it is to adapt an education curriculum to a participants learning style.
The philosophy is to inspire individuals through achievable goals and make them independent. The benefit of a forest school are: * that its child led and initiated * it helps to work towards goals in the Early Years Foundation stage (EYFs) * beneficial to children with emotional and behavioural difficulties * encourages creativity and self awareness * uses the child centred approach * child need an interested is always catered to“It is important that children’s basic needs are met before higher learning can take place”. Maslow Hierarchy of Needs.
Forest schools are a unique way of building independence and self-esteem in young children. They originated in Sweden in the 1950s as a way of teaching children about the natural world. Children with challenging behaviour or identified as having additional or specific needs tend to develop control over behaviour, improved concentration and independence and develop their social and emotional skills. Children who are shy and timid and lack in confidence in a normal nursery environment become confident in their own abilities within the forest and lessen to rely on adults.
Being in a forest school allows children to freedom, oxygen and space. Children can explore wildlife and the growth of things in the outside world. Children should learn and develop on first hand experience. Children are more social as they interact with the other children more. They become more confident in what they do and may speak to other children. The can explore together and discuss things they find. This can not necessarily be done in a classroom. Children respond to the sense of freedom given to them in the forest school.
Children are encouraged to move away from adult interaction and become more responsible for themselves and others. Children take manageable risk in a forest school they use full size adult tools, light fires, and build dens and plenty more other challenging activities. The child knowledge and understanding of the world, language, mathematics, creative, physical, personal and social development underpins the whole forest school philosophy. Learning Outside the Classroom (LOtC)In November 2006 the government launched the Learning Outside the Classroom Manifesto.
It was made so that children have a variety of high quality learning experiences outside the classroom. Learning outside the classroom thrives to: * develop children learning in the environment * nurture creativity * provide opportunities for informal learning through play * reduce behaviour problems an improve attendance * stimulate, inspire and improve motivation * provide challenging the opportunity to take acceptable levels of risk * improves young children attitude to learning * improves academic levels achievements * develops skills and independence in a widening range of environment ( Tasoni, 2007. The government believes children should learn and experiment the world beyond the classroom. Children construct their own learning in the world around them. Learning is more engaging and relevant to the children. E7 Risk taking benefits the development of children as it influences their perception of themselves and self –esteem, it provides excitement and pleasure for the child. A child needs to take risk in order to develop risk competence.
Children seem to have fewer accidents when they are more risk taking as they are more knowledgeable and skilled in assessing risk and can takes risks more safely. Panic ZoneLearning ZoneComfort ZoneOnce the appropriate risk assessments have been carried out in the setting, activities can be planned to enable children to learn from their environment while taking managed risks. Children must have the opportunity to explore their physical environment. By making children take risk we are playing an important role in developing their independence.
It helps children to develop their physical development and social development as they can help other children to keep themselves safe. If we do not allow children to take risk then they will not develop to the next stage of development. A child who is not allowed to take risk will not enjoy the thrill of achieving or try new challenges. The opportunity to play in and experience different environments is important in allowing children to experience challenges. If children are helped to take risk then they will develop their skill and confidence in what they do.
Many settings thrive to manage risk and challenges and allow children to take risk by providing them with challenging play, experience and activities. Children learn through play. Climbing, building dens and tree housed, gardening, cooking, science experiment, bonfires etc allows the child to develop their control and coordination of their bodies. When you implement all these health and safety restrictions children will stop learning. Some parents may not allow their child to take risk as they are far too protective or scared of their child’s safety.
This can prevent the child from having no independence and they will not be aware of their own danger when unsupervised and the risk they can actually manage, which may result to the child seriously hurting themselves. Children should have some awareness of the risk and challenges they can take. Being oblivious to risk is worse than a child taking risk, they can put themselves in serious danger as they don’t know the different levels of risk they can and cannot take. Parents should be the once to reinforce this. Children need to be supported by the adults to take risk.
Children need to be told about any accidents that could happen so that when they are playing they are responsive of this. We as the adult in the setting should think about: * talking to children about the potential risk in the environment * encouraging children to think of ways to manage the risk the may come across. This can be done by making the child take upon some responsibility and indentifying and reporting hazards. * encouraging older children to take acre of younger ones where there are potential risks * agreeing appropriate behaviour.
Child Care and Education 4th edition, Penny Tasoni, 2007. Pg 195Children should always be reassured by the adult that they are here to help as this boost the child confident in what ever they do. If a child is scared to do something the adult should provide support and encourage the child to do it. The child then know they can do it and that the adult is their to help if something goes wrong. E8 D2 Each setting should have a Health and Safety policy. It should contain the overall guideline for employers, employees and any other staff.
It should state the values of the setting regarding health and safety. It should state the procedures that are regarded to be followed in the setting. All procedures should be names in the Health and Safety policy. They should be regularly revised and all staff should be advised of the procedure of the setting before starting work. Every childcare setting is required by law to have an accident book in a safe place in the setting and to maintain a record of accidents init.
This makes the parents and staff aware of about any accidents that have happed. The book requires the following informationName of person injured: Date and time of injury:Where the accident took place:What exactly happened:What injury occurred:What treatment was given: Name and signature of person dealing with accident:Signature of witness to the report:Signature of parent:If an accident happens to the child you should call or send for first aide. He or she will provide the best care for the injury. If needed call for the supervisor as well.
If the accident is serious parent/career must be informed immediately or if less serious inform them at the end of the day when they come to pick up their child. Record the accident in the accident book and ensure the parent signs it. The accident book should be kept in safe place where it is easy to access. Children contacts numbers should assessable in alphabetical order so any member of staff can find who the want quickly. In a setting there should normally be pictures of staff who are first aiders.
The setting should be kept tidy so visitors and parents know there child is being left in a safe environment and staff should encourage children to tidy up after themselves as well. If a child is ill whilst in the setting the child should be removed from the classroom and taken to the first aider where the parents should be informed immediately and told to come and collect their child. If needed the child should be cleaned and changed and a member of staff should comfort him or her, until the parent comes for them. First aider should advice the parent to take the child to the family doctor if necessary.
Signs of serious illness includes: * High temperature * Continual vomiting * Unexplained pain * Unusual crying in a babyChild Care and Education 4th edition, 2007, Pg 182This is when a child should be taken to see a doctor. If a child has a contagious illness, e. g. swine flu, parents and local authorities must be notified that the illness is in there setting. Children who have on going illness e. g. have allergic reactions, should be kept a record of. Staff must have a have a note of all medication the child needs including how much the child needs to intake and how frequently the child needs it.
All setting should have a policy of parents informing them of all the illnesses and medical attentions their child needs. Posters of the child should be made including information of what the child is allergic to, and should put up in staff rooms and places visible for all staff to see and be aware of. Children in the setting should be encouraged to keep hygienic therefore washing hands before meals and after play. The must know about germs and bacteria and how they spread and cause infections and illnesses if they don’t hygienically maintain there body as child like to but the hands in their mouth and dig their noises.
If an emergency happens, e. g. a fire in kitchen, the fire alarm must be raised and everyone must evacuate the building immediately. Keeping the environment safe to support the procedure means keeping corridors clear and fire exits, ensuring everyone in the setting is aware of the assembly point children’s contact details are up t date and that it is always kept the same. It important that in the setting all staff know what to do in an emergency, practices need to be held regularly and signs and notices must be kept in visible places.
Drills and practices should be taken seriously, as if it is really happening and should be recorded as the Early Years Foundation stage (EYF) states…http://www. eriding. net/resources/fndtn/management/101125_sclark_eyfs_safeguarding. pdf B1 There are many ways to maintain the safety and privacy of children. “Supervision is the most effective way of ensuring children’s safety. ” Child Care and Education, 2007, Pg 273Children should be treated as individuals as they have their own individual needs.
Babies have no awareness of their danger and are totally dependant on their parent/carer for protection and safety. In a setting children are to be changed in a separate section in the setting and the practitioners should also be accompanied by another person just to protect themselves. When changing a child it should never be done in a place where the child is not exposed to other people and children, or where the other children are playing. Doing this is respecting the privacy of children, as the UN Convention states that all children have the right to privacy.
All settings will have information about each child stating where they live and parent/career phone number etc this information should be kept in a secure place, insured to protect it from being disclosed to anyone other that member of staff in that setting. Doing this is respecting their confidential needs. Parents will inform staff about illnesses or personal information about their child and family this should not be shared with friends or other member of staff unnecessarily. Children have rights as the Children Act clearly states and it is important that we value and respect them and put them into practice in the setting.
Practitioners must be aware of the policies and procedures in their setting as it inform staff how to keep the children safe. Abraham Maslow developed the Hierarchy of Needs theory. Safety needs is one on the five stages a human needs in order to for fill their full potential (self-actualisation) therefore; if a child does not feel safe they will not reach their full potential (self-actualisation) where personal growth and fulfilment takes place. The setting should always provide a safe and secure environment for the children meaning, ensuring the environment and equipment is checked and safe to use.
Staff should check the outside area everyday before the children arrive as needles, sharp objects and other harmful object can fall into the setting. Equipment in the setting should be tested if needed to make sure it work properly and in no way may harm the child using it. Toys in the setting should have a water mark on it clearly indicating that the toy has been tested and is safe to use. Special needed children may need special equipment and play resources in the setting, in order to participate safely in the daily activities or just need to have changes made to the environments to suit their need.
However they should never be made to feel they can’t do things by themselves and they don’t always need assistance. We have to be careful not to scaffold the child to much as they can make choices for themselves. Staff in the setting or on duty can only deal with and watch over a certain amount of children at a time. It would be a good idea for staff to encourage children to be aware of their own safety and the safety of others. So lessons on why and how to keep your self safe would be beneficial for the staff and more importantly the children. As they can use their own initiative and indentify what is and what is not safe to do.
They become more self aware. There should be a time where staffs have one to one time with children in the setting. This time could be where children tell you how thy feel or about something that may be bothering them. What ever has been said in that conversation should only stay between you and that child as they choice to tell you because they knew that they can confide and trust you. If the child has told you something that is putting them in danger then that is the only time matter must be taken into someone else’s hands and it would be best to tell the child before doing so, just so that they are aware. A When working with children, a practitioner can have both negative and positive effect. Negatively the demands of a childcare job can seem extremely challenging. Tiredness, stressed, boredom, all factors that can’t be avoided in this type of job. Working hours are generally from 8:00am to 3:30pm and staff’s are always on their feet as children need consistent supervision. Children need routine and staff must stick to it…doing the same thing everyday becomes very boring. “Boredom is the deadliest poison. ” William F. Buckley, JR.
Stress can be caused by this type of work as practitioners have to maintain and work at high standards. “Stressed caused by work is the second biggest occupational health problem in the UK,” Child Care and Education, 2007, Pg 329. This is because staffs are unable to cope. The work load may interfere with private, social or family life, too much to do or simply believing childcare isn’t the right job for them. As well as the above, practitioners can be physically affected. Back problem is the biggest occupational health problem in the UK. Childcare involves picking up children.
Continuously bending over and stooping to the child’s level. Children at a young age are not yet independently hygienic and are vulnerable to colds becoming ill and picking up infections. These things can easily be passed on to practitioners. Parents/careers put their child’s safety in the practitioner’s hands as they are mostly with the child during the settings hours. So a lot of pressure is on the practitioner, if any thing happens to the child accidentally or not they feel as if they where the one to blame and some parents are not very reasonable or understanding.
Practitioners could become too attached to the child involving themselves in things that do not really concern them. This could be difficult for some. Some children in the setting may tell practitioners moving information. That their being abused, have difficulties, etc and they could then become emotionally attached to the child, showing love to the chid, love they may not receive at home or from their parents. Positively there are joys and happiness to the job. When children achieve and do well in things it makes the practitioner feel happy as they helped the child to achieve that goal.
Learning new things from the children and putting it into practice. Bonding with the child finding out what they like and dislike show the practitioner that the child can confide in them and feels safe around them. Set routines will eventually develop the child to know what is coming next and they will independently get ready for it putting least pressure on the practitioner to have to run after them. Practitioner’s in the setting do all they can to support and care for the child that is why routines and doing things at certain time are in place.
However some people may agree with the way the setting does things due to their own views and beliefs. Comparatively, all children need similar care but when working with different children who come from different background whose parents have different religious requirements or do not want their child eating certain foods; it can be difficult for the practitioner. Practitioners will have parents that will not agree with everything they have to say or made to feel uncomfortable with what is happening in a setting. If this happens the supervisor or tutors are there to support and discuss how you will need to deal with the ituation. The practitioner should keep themselves up to date with any changes in practices and legislations. Practitioners should not put themselves in risky situation e. g. being left alone with a child. Just to avoid accusations being made as “The number of children contacting a sexual abuse helpline service has increased by almost 50% in three years”. http://news. bbc. co. uk/1/hi/scotland/7877823. stm. There are websites and books available to practitioners that can support them and give information about how to deal with problems they have.
In all setting there are policies and guidelines to help them meet the care needs of children such as health and safety, confidentiality and protection polices. It is vital that procedures are followed to protect themselves. This in itself causes fewer problems. E9 Books * Bruce, T ,( 2007) Child Care and Education, * Pound L, (2005) How children learn, Step Forward Publishing Ltd (United Kingdom) * Tasoni P , (2007) Child Care and Education 4th edition, Websites http://news. bbc. co. uk/1/hi/scotland/7877823. stmhttp://www. eriding. net/resources/fndtn/management/101125_sclark_eyfs_safeguarding. pdf