Childhood

Positive behaviour/environment unit questions 010&011 1. Describe what is meant by a positive environment and identify the requirements that underpin a positive environment. The layout of a physical environment is the collegues responsibility and contributes to giving each child positive outcomes in their learning and development. The available space will influence the way the furniture and equipment is set out. While it is important to create an attractive environment, everything should be safe, secure and have a purpose that supports each area of the children’s development.

All legislative requirement for children under five years can be found in EYFS statutory guidance on the department of education website (www. education. org. uk). All settings with children under 16 for more than two hours each day will be regulated by Ofsted. When they inspect the settings, they will want to see a positive environment in which childrens individual needs are being met. 2. Explain how a positive environment helps to support the emotional needs of children and young people. A positive environment supports these needs by ensuring and providing * A sense of identity Confidence * Socialising with other children and adults * Independence, creating and choosing own activities * Positive behaviour * Safe but enjoyable areas to play * Interaction 3. Explain how to effectively care for children and young people’s skin, hair, and teeth Babies have different needs to older children and young people. As children grow up they become more independent in their skin and haircare routines. You must work with parents to find out about a child’s skincare and haircare routines. Every family has different routines, needs and traditions.

The parents will also be able to advise on the best products to use if their child has an allergy or irritation. Skincare Skincare helps to stop infection to the rest of the body. If a child has dirty skin or an infection, he or she will feel uncomfortable. Encourage the habit of washing hands. HairCare * Find out about a children’s needs by talking to them or their parents. * African-Carribean children often have oil rubbed in hair, wear braids and need less frequent hair washing * Allergies will require specific products Head lice are common. Treatment varies and can include special combs and lotions Toothcare

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It is considered important that children are given opportunities to develop their gross motor skills indoors as well as outdoors. Such opportunities may be provided by designated areas such as a soft play area. Children with additional special needs may have limited play opportunities. It is the settings role to ensure that they can do as many activities as possible, for example, by adapting equipment. 5. Describe ways to ensure that personal attitudes or beliefs do not obstruct the quality of work. Keeping your personal views and your work separate Our own attitudes and beliefs shape us as individuals and make us ‘unique’.

Our own attitudes and beliefs stem from a variety of sources including our own childhood, our prior experiences and the attitudes of those close to us. Everyone is entitled to an opinion shaped by their beliefs, but it is important that the opinions of others shaped by their beliefs are not dismissed or challenged negatively. It is important to ensure that your own opinions and attitudes do not have an undesired impact on your work. 6. Describe the sorts of behaviour problems that should be referred to others and to whom this should be referred to. Biting Most children stop biting by three years.

Biting is common in toddlers and is linked to frustration, as they are not yet talking. If older children are biting, there needs to be some investigation. Aggression While most children will squabble and toddlers will hit out, older children should be more controlled. Aggressive acts such as hitting another child for no reason. Change of behaviour Children whose behaviour changes on certain days or who were fine before may need additional support. There are many reasons why children’s behaviour may change suddenly including abuse, family separation or bereavement.

Sometimes a change in children’s is a sign of and that they need help. Attention seeking While all children need attention, most children as they get older find appropriate ways of getting this attention. Attention-seeking behaviours such as shouting, tipping things on the floor or deliberately being unco-operative may be a sign of an underlying difficulty. Bullying/Name calling Children who call names and make offensive remarks are often repeating comments that they have heard. Remarks such as ‘fatty’ or ‘stupid, need to be challenged but in such a way that children are not blamed for what they have said. To refer or not to refer?

Some children’s behaviour may be a sign that they need additional support. This means that as a setting and childcare worker you need to recognise when children need to be referred to another collegue or a professional. As you have read, the starting point for responding to inappropriate behaviour is to consider whether the behaviour is linked to the child’s development. This is important as, while you do not want to encourage this behaviour, you must not make a fuss over it either as it is likely to be temporary. When working with children under three, it is likely for example, that there will be some instances of snatching and biting.

This type of behaviour needs, managing, but it is not likely to need a referral as most children with support will grow out of it. On the other hand, if a child of four years is still biting, this will need referring. 7. Make a list of the different reasons why people communicate with one another. People communicate to; * Give information * Receive information * Give instructions * Receive instructions * Discuss a situation * Make a point or outline a concern * Express a need * Negotiate * Develop learning 8. Explain why it is important to observe an individual’s reactions when communicating with them.

When you communicate with children or adults it is important that you take into account what each individual is feeling and what they want to say. You can do this by carefully observing a variety of reactions. Some adults or children are confident enough to express themselves verbally, but for some you may only be able to gauge their response by observing their facial expressions, body language or what they do not say it is therefore important that you develop the skills to ‘read’ children and adults by understanding their non-verbal as well as their verbal reactions. Observing reactions You will discover that individual reactions may relate to personality, religion or culture. * Sometimes you will have to adapt the way you communicate because of the way a child or adult reacts to you. * It is important that you observe a range of different reactions so that you know how to respond to a child or adult * You need to understand that children or adults express what they may not be able to put in words in a variety of ways. This may be as simple as lowering their eyelids with embarrassment or biting a lip through nervousness. * You also need to be aware that expressions can have different meanings for different cultures.

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