Chp 2 History of Crisis Intervention
ABC Model of Crisis Intervention
One way to structure crisis intervention that includes (A) developing and maintaining contact, (B) identifying the problem, and (C) coping.
behavioral problem-solving model
Approach focusing on goal setting, problem solving, and brainstorming alternatives.
Focuses on changing longer-standing behavior patterns rather than on only the current percipitating event (crisis intervention).
Father of crisis intervention; worked with Eric Lindemann on the Wellesley Project after Coconut Grove fire.
Coconut Grove fire
Nightclub fire in 1942 where many died and survivors were in crisis; major event leading to development of crisis intervention.
Approaches focusing on a person’s perceptions and thinking processes and how these lead to crisis states.
Community Mental Health Centers Act of 1963
Legislation enacted during Kennedy administration directing all states to provide mental health treatment for people in crisis.
critical incident debriefing
A process of helping victims of natural disasters and other unexpected trauma deal with loss and stress reactions.
existential theory’s influence on crisis intervention
Influences include anxiety as a motivator for change and mastering anxiety realistically by making choices and accepting responsibility for them.
Upward movement from local groups in 1960s and 70s leading to creation of agencies to meet needs of various populations not being helped by traditional governmental agencies.
Crisis intervention for working with survivors and family members of victims in the Coconut Grove fire.
health maintenance organizations (HMOs)
Current trend in health insurance focusing on maintaining health rather than curing illness; orientation of mental health care under this style of management is crisis intervention.
Model using person-centered approach in developing rapport; counselor uses basic attending skills to focus on inherent growth potential in client.
Worked with Gerald Caplan on Wellesley Project and helped create crisis intervention; recognized for contribution to grief work.
Originally community volunteers; not professionally trained to conduct crisis intervention.
Term Caplan used to describe his work with surviviors of Coconut Grove fire and others going through crises.
Psychiatric Emergency Team (PET)
Professionals designeated by county/hospital to assess whether someone should be involuntarily hospitalized due to a mental disorder.
psychoanalytic theory’s influence on crisis intervention
Influences include idea of finite amounts of psychic energy to deal with life’s stressors; idea of ego strength.
Founder of person-centered therapy and contributor to Humanistic approaches.
Family Systems term to describe a crisis state in a family unit.
strategic family therapy
An approach for treating entire family when crisis affects all or any members; brief and focused on solving problems and reaching goals; largely based on family systems theory.
structural family therapy
Focuses on boundaries and roles of family members and the crises that arise when families must adjust to changing roles as they evolve.
systems theory’s influence on crisis intervention
influences include idea that family is self-regulating system and when member behaves outside family norms, other members cope through counteraction. When counteraction fails, a runaway develops and family is in crisis.
First organized attempt at introducing crisis intervention into community, developed by Caplan and Lindemann.