Chpt. 19 – A History of World Societies – 10th edition.

Chpt. 19 – A History of World Societies – 10th edition.

Copernican Hypothesis
The idea that the sun, not the earth, was the center of the universe
Law of inertia
A law formulated by Galileo stating that motion, not rest, is the natural state of an object and that an object continues in motion forever unless stopped by some external force.
Law of universal gravitation
Newtons laws that all objects are at texted to one another and that the force of attraction is proportional to the objects quantity of matter and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them.
Empiricism
A theory of inductive reasoning that calls for acquiring evidence through observation and experimentation rather than reason and speculation.
Enlightenment
An intellectual and cultural movement in the late 17tj century and 18th century in Europe and its colonies that used rational and critical thinking to debate issues such as political sovereignty, religious tolerance, gender roles, and racial differences.
Sensationalism
An idea, espoused by John Locke, that all human ideas and thoughts are produced as a result of sensory impressions.
Philosophes
A group of tench intellectuals who proclaimed that they were bringing the light of knowledge to their fellow creatures in the age of enlightenment.
Deism
Belief In a distant, noninterventionist deity, shared by many enlightenment thinkers.
General Will
A concept associated with Rousseau, referring to the common interests of all people, who have replaced the power of the monarch.
Economic Liberalism
The theory, associated with Adam smith, that the pursuit of self interest in a competitive market sufficed to improve living conditions, rendering government intervention unnecessary and undesirable.
Enlightened Absolutism
Term coined by historians to decide the rule of the 18th century monarchs who without renouncing their own absolute authority, adopted enlightenment ideals of rationalism, progress and tolerance.
Haskalah
A newish enlightenment movement led by Prussia philosopher Moses Mendelssohn.
Enclosure
The controversial process of fending off common land to create privately owned fields that increased agricultural production at the cost of reducing poor farmers access to land.
Cottage Industry
Manufacturing with hand tools in lessens cottages and work sheds, a form of economic activity that became important in 18th century Europe.
Public Sphere
An idealized intellectual spade that emerged in Europe during the enlightenment. Here, the public came together to discuss important social and political issues.
Salons
Regular social gatherings held by talented and Rick Parisian women in their homes, where philosophers and their followers met to discuss literature, science and philosophy.
Renaissance
1400’s-1500’s: rebirth of antiquities and values of knowledge.
Scientific Revolution
Development In science, significant infielder on European intellectual culture.
Geocentric Model
Aristotle (300 BC) believed everything revolved around the earth.
Copernican Hypothesis
Heliocentric Model. Didn’t reveal his findings until the year of his death because he didn’t want to be ridiculed by colleagues.
Kepler
Three laws of planetary motion. Orbits are elliptical, planets move at different speeds and orbit time is related to the distance of sun.
Encyclopedie
Rational dictionary of science and arts. Catholic and France didn’t want it printed.
Brahe
Royal astronomer. Observation and data collector. Drunk and ate himself to death.
Galileo
Supported by the Medicis. Law of inertia. Put under house arrest.
Isaac Newton
Father of modern physics. Law of universal gravitation. Wrote “Principia”.
Baron
Empiricism. All knowledge is gained through the senses.
Rene Descartes
Rationalism. I think Therefore I am.
Vesalius
Dissecting a human body (1543).
Immanuel Kant
German philosopher, “Century of Light”. Dare to know.
John Locke
Essay on Human Understanding. 1690, Tabula Rasa.
Montesquieu
Decoration of powers. “The Sprit of Laws”.
Candide
Voltaire, Deism. God is a clockmaker.