civilization chap 9,10, 15

Which of the following was not a major turning point in Japanese history?
the arrival of Islam in the 9th century CE
The Yayoi revolution included
the agricultural, bronze, and iron revolutions
The Records of Ancient Matters were
among the earliest Japanese accounts of its own history
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According to Chinese chronicles, Pimiko was
a shaman who ruled in the 3rd century CE
The basic unit of Yamato aristocratic society was
the extended family or clan
Confucianism and Buddhism both arrived in Japan in what century?
6th century CE
“Shinto” in the Japanese language means
“the way of the Gods”
The Shinto erligion of Japan is best described as
a type of animistic nature worship
Nara and Heian Japan refers to an age where
Jaan made contact with china and adopted their culture
The twin centers of Japanese culture in the Nara and Heian periods were
Buddhist monasteries and the imperial court
As a ruler of Japan in the 7th century CE, Temmu is famous for his
use of Chinese ideas and practices to consolidate his rule
The emperors of the Nara and Heian courts were both
Confucian and Shinto rulers
After the “equal field system” failed in Japan, what taxation system was adopted?
quota system
Samurai warriors were recruited from
the local nobility
In the Nara and Heian eras, the most militerized area of Japan was
the eastern regions, which were the staging ground camaigns against tribal peoples in the north
The most important clan that became preeminent from 986-1086 was the
Kiyomori secured rule by
eliminating all familiar rivals to the throne
The writngs of the courtiers of the Heian period
scorned the lower classes
In general, the aristocratic culture of Nara and Heian Japan was
remote from and scornful of lower class popular culture
From the Nara period to the 19th century, most histories of Japan were written in
The first writers of Japanese language was
The Tale of Genji written by Murasaki Shikibu around 1000 CE is famous
as the world’s first novel with sophisticated delineation of individual characters
Buddhism in Japan was
given official govenment support
The most importnt attraction of Buddhism to ordinary Japanese during the Nara and Heian eras was its
colorful and elaborate rituals
The two great new Buddhist sects of the Heian era were
Tendai and Shingon
Which of the following is a characteristic of early Shinto?
the importance of sacrifices when calling upon the gods
How was the second invasion of Japan by the Mongols of Kublai Khan repulsed?
a powerful storm or “divine wind” sank much of the invasion fleet
Who was responsible for the first bakufu?
The government system of the shoguns in the Kamakura era is best described as a
decentralized military government
The Ashikaga shogunate that ermerged from the chaos of the early 1300s is best described as
a regional multistate system centered in Kyoto
The daimyo were
powerful regoinal warlords who ruled much of the Japanese countryside
Give the correct chronological order for the different periods in Japanese history.
Nara/Heian, Taira, Kamakura, Ashikaga
Why did the Parthians rely more on Persian traditions in religious and cultural affairs during the last century or so of their rule?
It was a reaction to the constant warfare with Rome and Kush
How did Parthian rule lay the groundwork for the nationa;ostoc emphasis of the Sasanids?
The Parthians attempted to collect the oral Zorostrian textual heritage
The language of the Parthian Arsacid empire was
Parthian religious policy is best described as
support for Zoroastrianism but toleration of other religions
The Zoroastrian orthodoxy recognized four classes in Sassanid society.
priests, warriors, scribes, and peasants
The capital of the Sasanid Empire was
In Sasanid society, there was
a great divide between a rich minority and an impoverished majority
The basis of the Sasanid economy was
As part of their effort to reclaim the glory of the Persian past, the Sasanid rulers used the title Shahanshah, which is best translated as
“King of Kings”
The chief rival of the Sasanid Empire for predominance in the Near East from the 3rd to 7th century CE was
the Byzantine EMpire
The greatest emperor of the 6th century Sasanid Empire was
State monopolies of the Sasanid government included
both silk and glass
The academy at Jundishapur recieved refugee scholars from the
Byzantine Empire
The basis of Sasanid culture was
a revived version of Zoroastrianism
The greatest figure in Sasanid religious history is Katir, who
sought to impose Zoroastrian orthodoxy throughout the empire.
“Pahlavi” refers to
the offocial imperial language of the Sasanid culture
During the Sasanid hegemony, the priests
increased their power
The Mazdakite movement arose in the response to the
unequal distribution of the Sasanid empire’s bounty and social justice
A faith not spread along the silk route to centeral Asia was
The “Golden Age” of Indian civilization was the
Gupta period
During the “Golden Age” of Indian civilization, the culture was generally transmitted in which direction?
One of the most important indices of culture in the Gupta era was
a strong emphasis on education
Jati groupings in India included all of the following except
religious practice
“Bhakti” can best be translated as
loving devotion
“Dharma” can best be translated as
apporpriate duties and responsibilities
Which of the following was not amoung the four basican Aryan varnas
“Brahman” can best be translated as
The Pranas became an important part of the Hinduism during and after the Gupta dynasty was the
growth and devotional cults to specific deities
invaded Italy and proclaimed himself king. he put the church under more royal control
Otto I
separation of Church and state, and the celibacy of the catholic clergy
Cluny Reform
wanted independence from Pope Gregory VII and started the investiture controversary
Henry IV (Germany)
Henry IV agreed not to invest bishops and recognized the emperor’s right to grant bishops secular fiefs.
Concordat of Worms
religions wars directed by the church against infidels and heretics
was chagrined by the misdirection of the crusade he was running, but once Constantinople was in Latin hands he changed his mind
Pope Innocent III
an association of merchants or craftsmen that offered protection to its members and set rules for their work and products
long distance traders
skilled workers at making things by hand
doctrine that truth already exists
monks who lived according to rule
Regular Clergy
lived among laity in the world. Had cardinals, archbishops, and bishops
Secular Clergy
armored soldiers
laid claim to the English throne
Duke William of Normandy
Battle that crowned Duke William king of England
Battle of Hastings
taxed heavily and force to sing the Magna Carta
John I
last ruler of the Capetian Dynasty and during the dynasty, the kings wisely concentrated their limited resources on securing territory surrounding Paris, by the center of the French government and culture
Phillip II “Augustus” (France)
the first of the Hohenstaufens, reestablished imperial authority but also initiated a new phase in the contest between popes and emperors
Frederick I Barbarossa
war between France and England for land conquest and it lasted 116 years
Hundred Years War
put a sense of self confidence in the English army
Joan of Arc
plague that killed 1/3 of Europe’s population
Black Death
issued the papal bull Clericis Laicos, which forbade taxation of the clergy without prior papal approval. He also issued the bull Unam Sanctum which means the church has the most power over anything.
Boniface VIII
released anti-papal campaign against Boniface and sends troops to Rome to beat Boniface’s army
Philip IV “The Fair” (France)
papal government
the split of the church and the appearance of at times three rival popes
Great Schism
the revival of ancient learning and traditions
revival of the classics that was more scientific thinking of the world
program during the Renaissance that studied and embraced grammar, poetry, history, philosophy, and politics
Studia Humanitas
father of humanism
Francesco Petrach
wrote a divine comedy and was the first to write in Italian (not the language of the church)
Dante Alighieri
the use of shading to enhance naturalness in painting and drawing
style of art that permitted artists to express their own feelings
became famously cynical and admired the heroic acts of Roman rulers
Niccolo Machiavelli
direct tax imposed by the French on land owned by non nobles
made Kiev capitol of Russia
time of great Mongol rulers
Golden Horde
takes capitol from Kiev to Moscow
Ivan III “The Great” (Russia)
king of port city in Spain
Ferdinand of Aragon (Spain)
queen of rock sheep land in Spain
Isabella of Castille (Spain)
war between Lancasters and Yorks were fighting over power because they were the two most powerful families. Called this because both family crests were Roses
War of the Roses
kills Duke of York and sees that marriage between Lancasters and Yorks will make England strong. Marries Elizabeth and the nation is united and powerful
Henry VI (England)
argument of appointment of Bishops
Investiture Controversary
Each of their cities included a ball court for a game they believed maintained the sun and moon cycles and brought rain were this civilization.
First group to worship a god known as Quetzalcoatl.
Developed a 260-day religious calendar and 365-day solar calendar that were linked together.
Built villages of adobe compounds known as pueblos.
First known civilization in Mesoamerica.
Built Monte Alban,the first real urban center in the Americas.
This group lived in the Andes Mountains of Peru in cities including Machu Picchu.
Built Tenochtitlan on an island in Lake Texcoco.
Lived in the “Four Corners” area of modern Utah,Arizona,Colorado,and New Mexico.
Practiced human sacrifice on a massive scale because of their belief that the sun would not rise without the nourishment of human blood.
Built cities such as Tikal in northern Guatemala.
Group that created huge drawings on the plains of southeastern Peru.
The extensive road system built by this group linked their major cities including their capital of Cuzco.
Developed a system of glyphs that was the most advanced writing system in the ancient Americas.
Montezuma II ruled this group in the early 16th century.
Includes the group known as Mississippians who lived at Cahokia.
Mound Builders
Practiced some human sacrifice at Chichen Itza.
Early civilizations in Peru that developed irrigation systems and decorative arts such as textiles and pottery.
Nazca and Moche
Lived in the woodlands east of the Mississippi River.
Mound Builders
Developed early forms of hieroglyphic writing and a calendar system.
Built massive stone monuments at San Lorenzo and La Venta.
Group of tribes who lived in the eastern Great Lakes region.
Mayan Government
1. lived in city-states.
2. Had a hereditary ruler. (Ruler comes from a ruling family)
3. Royal house = complete control and authority.
Mayan Society
1. Temples used for main gathering places.
2. buildings and houses made of stone.
3. Hieroglyphic writing system.
Mayan Religion
1. polytheistic (belief in many gods)
2. Most important god was the god of Maize.
3. used human sacrafices
Incan Government
1. hereditary ruler – called “The Inca”
2. Had 4 provinces: each had a governor.
3. Seperate chains of command for military and religion.
Incan Society
1. First to perform skull surgery successfully.
2. Grew crops and fished.
Incan Religion
1. polytheistic
2. Most important of the gods was The Sun god called “The Inti”
3. Sacrificed llamas and humans.
Aztec Government
1. Used a Tribute System (type of tax system)
2. emperor is chosen by the elders.
3. Emperor and elders work together.
Aztec Society
1. Had a class system: nobility, peasants, artisans/warriors, slaves.
2. good education
3. built cities and canals.
Aztec Religion
1. polytheistic
2. used human sacrifices.
religious wars directed by the church against infidels and heretics
an association of merchants or craftsmen that offered protection to its members and set rules for their work and products
method of study based on logic and dialectic that dominated the medival schools. it assumed that truth already existed; students had only to organize, elucidate, and defend knowlegde learned from authoritative texts, especially those of Aristotle and the church fathers
monks and nuns who belong to religious orders
regular clergy
parish clergy who did not belong to a religious order
secular clergy
the “great charter” limiting royal power that the english nobility forced king john to sign in 1215
Magna Carta
the appearance of two and at times three rival popes between 1378 and 1415
Great Schism
the papal govenment
the revival of the old roman empire based mainly in Germany and northern Italy that endured from 870 to 1806
Holy roman empire
the revival of ancient learning and the supplanting of traditional religious beleifs by new secular and scientific values that began in italy in the 14th and 15th centuries
the study of the latin and greek classics and of the church fathers both for their own sake and to promote a rebirth of ancient norms and values
during the Renaissance a liberal arts program of study that embaced grammar, rhetoric, poetry, history, philosophy, and politics
studia humanitatis
the everyday language spoken by the people as opposed to latin.
the use of shading to enhance naturalness in painting and drawing
a style of art in the mid to late 16th century that permitted artists to express their own “manner” or feeling in contrast to the symmetry and simplicity of the art of the high renaissance.
the direct tax on the french peasantry
name given to the Mongol rulers of Russia from 1240 to 1480.
golden horde
the bubonic plague that killed millions of europeans in the fourteenth century
black death

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