Classical India AP World History

Classical India AP World History

How is the focus in India different than in China?
India – less focus on politics, greater contact with other societies, political traditions
Who laid the Foundations for Indian Civilizations? Who controlled much of the farmland?
Large States ruled by kings controlled much of the farmland.
The Nomadic Aryans laid the foundations for Indian Cultures.
Who are Brahmans?
priests- dominant forces
Define Buddha
creator of a major Indian and Asian religion, born in 6th century B.C.E. as a son of a local ruler among Aryan Tribes near the Himalayas.
When was the Mauryan Dynasty and how did it collapse?
late 4th century C.E.; nomadic invasions, large empire, short lived
Where and when did the Gupta rise?
early 4th century C.E., north India
What religion was practiced and how were Brahmans seen?
Hinduism, The Brahmans were seen as high priests and political advisers.
What were the similarities and differences of focus on China and India?
India was focused on religion and social structures that would help a Hindu way of Life. China- focused on a way of life that would help a Confucianist’s way of life, politics.
India had a less cohesive and less important political culture.
Both used agriculture to support themselves. Both had a patriarchy in the family. Both built great cities.
What did Alexander the Great do for India?
made it possible for India to come in contact with Hellenistic culture. New artistic styles and political styles.
How did the Himalayas help India?
linked India to other civilizations in the Middle East.
What helps explain why India was more invaded often than China?
Location- India was more open to the influences of the Middle East.
What was the Vedic and Epic Age?
1500 to 1000 B.C.E. Indian agriculture extended from the Indus to Ganges river valley. The Vedas, the oldest scriptures of Hinduism, were composed.
Who were the Aryans?
Indo European nomadic pastoralists who replaced Harappan civilization -militarized societies Aryans brought distinctive religious ideas to India.
What is Sanskrit? What are Vedas?
Sanskrit is the sacred and classical Indian language. Written by the Aryans became the first literary language.
The Vedas were Aryan hymns written down in sacred books for from the 6th century B.C.E.
What was the Rig Veda? What were the Upanishads?
Rig Veda- the first epic, consisted of 1028 hymns dedicated to the gods- composed by priests.
Upanishads- epic poems with a mystical religious flavor
Describe Indian society and politics.
Top: Governing and warriors- Kshatriyas
Next: Priestly Class- brahmans
Then: Vaisyas- traders
Next: Sudras- common laborers
Finally: untouchables- bad jobs
Indian caste system enforced rules about social behavior.
What type of religion did the Aryans bring to India?
Gods that resembled Greek or Scandinavian
Human sacrifice
Polytheistic
gods with human qualities, fire, sun, death, animals
Describe Chuandragupta Maurya.
Founder of the first empire the Maurya Dynasty- borrowed ideas from Persians. Young soldier who seized power along the Ganges. Had large armies and a post office,
What was Chandragupta’s political style?
Autocratic- relied on personal power.
Who was Ashoka?
Grandson of Chandragupta, converted to Buddhism, Brought Buddhism to India, Extended Empire by killing
Helped form better trade and community.
What religion did Ashoka convert to? What were his beliefs?
Buddhism; believed in the Law of Moral Consequences- the dharma sponsored shrines
What happened after Ashoka died? Who were the Kushans?
The Empire fell into regional kingdoms. The Kushans were invaders from Africa who invaded Central India.
When was the Gupta Kingdom?
320C.E.- 535 C.E.
How was the Mauryan dynasty different from the Gupta?
The Gupta preferred to negotiate with local princes and intermarry within their families, which expanded influence without constant fighting. Gupta had a larger territory.
What were the most persistent political features of India?
Regionalism and Importance of local units
What were the accomplishments of the Guptas?
created a demanding taxation system, Sanskrit, uniform law codes, road building, art, literature, regionalism, caste system, no bureaucracy, no single language imposed, universities
How has the caste system served as an extent to the political institution?
Enforced rules about social behavior- no intermingling
Define Hinduism
Has no single founder, no central holy figure, encouraged political and economic gain, under brahman leadership, Vishnu-the preserver and Shiva-the destroyer, The gurus were mystics. Stressed the principle of reincarnation. All living creatures participate in divine living essence, do not eat beef ,Brahma- basic holy essence moral code of Dharma, Dharma stresses inner study and meditation Each person must meet the obligations of life: 1. serve family 2. earn money 3. serve in army 4. produce children. Provided roles in everyday life, defined good and evil, gave hope, followed caste system
Define Buddhism
Buddha- Enlightened One- man who started the religion
Buddhism accepts Hindu beliefs such as incarnation. Did not believe in the caste system. They believed in Nirvana- full union with a divine essence- world beyond existence- state of enlightenment, stressed self control, Did not belief in the spiritual value of priests- all could achieve a spiritual life- monks in monasteries- A manual of the law of love, the Kamasutra written in 4th century c.e., relationships
How does buddhism and hinduism differ?
Buddhism denied the validity of the caste and priests
how are confucian and Hindu values alike?
both believed in the afterlife, both helped to justify and preserve social inequality, both followed the social system
What are the important features of Indian art?
colorful
influenced by styles of other cultures
human figures
linked to religious believes
Why was Nalanda famous
one of the first university centers- attracted people from all over Asia
What are Stupas?
shrines and statues honoring Buddha
Where did the majority of Indians live?
pleasant villages- little contact with the higher social classes
Describe the women of India
wife worshiped husband like a god. There were arranged marriages- ensure economic links- dowry
wife was husband’s truest friend
family life-hierarchy
How did the Indian version of women differ from China?
Chinese women could gain power from sons
India- women were seen as clever and strong willed. They were celebrated and seen as goddesses
What territories were involved in India’s trading networks?
Middle East, China, Southeast Asia, Central Asia
What was the difference between India and China’s emphasis on social and economic structure?
India was more open to the other civilizations around them and would trade with them. India- stronger rule to merchants
Who had a greater contact with other societies and Civilizations? India or China?
India was more open to trade. China was more isolated
How are China and India similar in regards to religion?
Both had a polytheistic religion
Both showed a tolerance for different religions
Compare the social values of China and India
Indian peasants were less constrained than were the Chinese by recurrent efforts by large landlords to gain control of their land. Indian merchants played a greater role than Chinese merchants. India had a more mixed culture.
India sponsored greater social spontaneity
Define Scholar gentry
Chinese class created by the marital linkage of the local land- holding aristocracy with the office-holding Shi