CLASSIFICATIONs OF LITERATURE I. Divisions of Literature Literature Prose Poetry Fiction Nonfiction Dramatic Narrative Lyric Drama Short Story Novel Tale Fable Myth Legends Folktales Essay Biography Autobiography Diary History Chronicle News Anecdote Tragedy Comedy Opera Operetta Ballad Epic Metrical Tale Metrical Romance Ode Sonnet Song Elegy POINT OF COMPARISON| PROSE| POETRY| Form| Paragraph| Verse| Language| Words and rhythms of ordinary and everyday language| Metrical, rhythmical, figurative language| Appeal| Intellect| Emotions|
Aim| Convince, Inform, Instruct| Stirs the readers imagination, present an ideal of how life should be and how life can be| A. Prose –is an ordinary form of written or spoken language without rhyme or meter, either fiction or nonfiction. Prose is writing that resembles everyday speech. The word prose is derived from the Latin word, “prosa” which literally means straightforward. Prose is adopted for the discussion of facts and topical reading and does not adhere to any particular formal structures other than simple grammar. Fiction –isthe form of any narrative or informative work that deals, in part or in whole, with information or events that are not factual, but rather, imaginary—that is, invented by the author. 1. Drama –is the stage presentation of an action or story. It is a story in either verse or prose to be presented on stage. -a term generally applied to a type of literature that seeks to present actual life in brief intense form visibly in front of an audience. -a dialogue written for interpretation by several characters with directions from the author telling what the characters do and with directions giving the background or locale of the action.
Playwrights–aredrama writers. Types of Drama: a. Comedy –is shown if man is victorious in the struggle of forces (not necessarily funny). b. Tragedy –is shown if man is overcome or defeated by the opposing forces (does not necessarily end in violence and death). 2. Short Story–is a brief story usually with one character or two and a simple plot. It can be read in a short span of time. Edgar Allan Poe –is the Father of short story and popularized this literary genre. 3. Novel –is an invented prose narrative that is usually long and complex and deals especially with human experience through a connected sequence of events.
One example of a novel is fantasy novel which is often set in worlds much different from our own and usually includes magic, sorcery, and mythical creature. 4. Tale –is an imaginative narrative of an event usually a story of fantasy like folktales, fairy tales and tall tale. -reflects man’s desire to know the unknown. -full of magic, enchantment and fantastic situations. Though unreal, it is full of sound and practical wisdom that is real and worthwhile. -helps man find solutions to his daily problems by mirroring in the worlds created by his mind. 5.
Fable–is a story intended to teach a lesson or morals in which animals are presented as characters. 6. Myth –is an anonymous, traditional story that explains a belief, a custom, or a mysterious natural phenomenon. -comes from the Greek word muthos, which simply means “story”. -were created out of human need to make sense of the universe and explain how the world and its human inhabitants came to be. 7. Legends –is a story coming down from the past and narrates the origin of a place, thing or object. 8. Folktales –is a story that is created by the “folk”—the common people—and passed along orally from generation to generation. include legends, fables, tall tales, fairy tales, fairy tales, and ghost stories. -are entertaining stories about ordinary people who survive by luck, by using their wits, and by relying on their own natural goodness. * Nonfiction –prose writing that narrates real events. 1. Essay –a short piece of nonfiction prose that examines a single subject from a limited point of view. -comes from a French word, “essai” which means “an attempt or trial”. -was made popular by a German writer, Michel Eyquiem de Montaigne in 1580. He published two volumes of his short compositions which he called “ESSAIS”. Francis Bacon, the reputed Father of English Essay, write formal essays which were cold and objective. Two Major Types: a) Formal Essay –are usually serious and impersonal in tone. -they are written to inform or persuade, they are expected to be factual, logical, and tightly organized. -put emphasis on purpose and subject. b) Informal Essay –also called as Personal Essay. -generally reveal much about the personalities, mood, habits, likes, dislikes and feelings of their authors. -tend to be conversational in tone and looks into personal experiences and observations. . Biography –is a story of a person’s life narrated or written by another person. 3. Autobiography –is a story of a person’s life narrated or written by himself. 4. Diary –is a daily record of transactions, observations, and events. -is a type of writing that records daily personal reflections, feelings and 5. History –is a chronological account or record of significant events affecting a nation or institution. 6. Chronicle –is a record of a series of events or mere listing of what happened. It does not evidence, comments or reactions. 7.
News–is an information about recent and important events or developments either printed in newspapers or broadcast by the media. | 8. Anecdote –a brief and sometimes witty story that focuses on a single interesting incident or event, often in order to make a point or teach a moral lesson. Sometimes an anecdote reveals the character of a famous person. B. Poetry –comes from the Greek word “poiein”, which means “to make”. -a kind of rhythmic, compressed language that uses figures of speech and imagery designed to appeal to our emotions and imaginations. uses figurative language that quickens and stimulates the imagination; adds to the effectiveness of the language; gives clearness, force, beauty and memorableness to our ideas. Types of Poetry: 1) Dramatic poetry –deals with plays in verse and which are performed on stage. a) COMEDY –is a play that shows that the hero is victorious against natural or human forces; not necessarily funny. Example: Shakespeare’s Midsummer Night’s Dream b) TRAGEDY –an important series of events in the life of a protagonist of high birth or noble status.
The casually related events culminate in a catastrophe in which the protagonist through his actions is brought low. Example: Sophocle’s Oedipus Rex, Shakespeare’s Romeo and Juliet c) OPERA–is a play usually set to music (sung) and with orchestral accompaniment; characterized by elaborate costuming, scenery and choreography. Example: Giuseppi Verde’s Aida d) OPERETTA –is a short amusing musical play. Example:Polished Pebbles 2) Lyric poetry–is subjectively and intensely emotional -characterized by its musical quality -comes from the word lyre, a harp-like stringed instrument. the love lyric poem plumbs comes from the depths of the human heart. -some early Greek lyricists are Archilochus, Callinus, Sappho and Pindar. Examples: The Eagle by Alfred Lord Tennyson, Love Poem by TitalLacambra-Ayala a) Ode –is elaborate lyric of majestic tone on a serious and dignified theme. It is usually written on a solemn or a highly momentous occasion and addressed in an exalted manner to some object or person. It echoes the emotions or feelings of the people. b) Song –is a short lyric poem intended to be sung. Songs may be sacred or secular, national or personal.
Sacred songs –include hymns, anthems and religious lyrics. Secular songs –may be of any themes, or emotions. c) Sonnet –is a lyric of 14 iambic-pentameter lines according to a definite pattern. Two distinctive forms of these type of poetry are: i. Italian or Petrarchan sonnet –was perfected by Petrarch in the 14th century. It consists of an octet and a sestet with a rhyme scheme abbaabba,cdcdcd or cdecde or cddeee. The octet, which may be descriptive or narrative, leads to reflection or resolution in the sestet. ii. Shakespearian sonnet–a poem of three quatrains and a couplet with the rhyme scheme ababcdcdefefgg.
The quatrains are so related that they lead to a significant statement of thought or conclusion in the last two lines. The sonnet as a form of poetry made its first appearance in the 16th century with the sonnet of Spencer and Sir Philipp Sidney. Shakespeare wrote sonnets on the accepted themes on love and friendship. Of the sonneteers, Wordsworth has been considered the most prolific. Most prominent of the 19th century sonnet writers was Elizabeth Barret Browningwhose “Sonnets From the Portuguese” had held great appeal especially to lovers all over the world. ) Elegy –is a poem of mournful tone on the theme of death characterized by a marked reflected element. 3) Narrative poetry Narrative poems describe or relate events. Lyric poems express the poet’s thoughts and feelings. Dramatic poems set forth life and character by means of speech and action. The following are examples of narrative poetry: a) Epic –is a long narrative poem that relates the great deeds of a larger-than-life hero who embodies the values of a particular society. Most epics include elements of myth, legend, folklore and history.
Most epics heroes undertake quests to achieve something of tremendous value to themselves—like the Gilgamesh—or to their society—like the hero of Virgil’s Aenied. Among the world’s greatest epics are the Greek “Iliad” and “Odyssey” attributed to Homer and the Anglo-Saxon “Beowulf”. These epics are called authentical epics having sprung as they were from the people and having no known author. b) Ballad –a song or songlike poem that tells a story. Most ballads have a regular pattern of rhythm and rhyme and use simple language and refrains as well as other kinds of repetition.
Ballads usually tell sensational stories of tragedy, adventure, betrayal, revenge, and jealousy. c) Metrical tale –is a short narrative verse intended to be read in one setting. Its subject matter is drawn from life and may deal with any subject matter and any class of people. Chaucer’s “Canterbury Tales” falls under this category. d) Metrical Romance –is a long, rambling love story in verse which appeals to the sense of the marvelous. It is largely concerned with the adventures and exploits of brave knights, romantic love, deeds of chivalry and religious pursuits.
The characters and events are far removed from reality, often passing into the realm of the purely fantastic. The Arthurian tales are the best known of the metrical romance of the middle ages. FIGURES OF SPEECH Figure of speech –isthe use of a word or words diverging from its usual meaning. It can also be a special repetition, arrangement or omission of words with literal meaning, or a phrase with a specialized meaning not based on the literal meaning of the words in it. Figures of speech often provide emphasis, freshness of expression, or clarity.
However, clarity may also suffer from their use, as any figure of speech introduces an ambiguity between literal and figurative interpretation. A figure of speech is sometimes called a rhetorical figure, figurative language or a locution. Figures of speech provoke a thought process and bring depth to the language. To be able to use them well is an art, which can be mastered over time. The more you read, the more you will be able to understand. With the help of the following figures of speech examples, you too can master the art of using them appropriately.
The following figures of speech are commonly used: 1. Simile –a figure of speech that makes a comparison between two seemingly unlike things by using a connective word such as like, as, than or resembles. Examples:a full moon like an accusing face skinas white as snowflakes an actor’s hand opening more gracefully than a blossom cloudsresembling stuffed animals 2. Metaphor –a figure of speech that makes a comparison between two seemingly unlike things without using any connective words. Direct metaphor –states that one thing is another. The starts are icy diamonds” -Hewas a lion in the battlefield. Implied –like “against her black formal gown, she wore a constellation of diamonds” which implies a comparison between diamonds and stars and between the black gown and a night sky. 3. Metonymy –is the use of an attribute of an object or of something closely associated it to represent that object. Examples:The counsel to the defendant addressed the bench. The pen is mightier that the sword. 4. Synecdoche –is a figure of speech that substitutes a significant part of something for the thing itself.
Examples:50 heads of cattle (“head” is used to mean whole animal) The president’s administration contained the best brains in the country (“brains” is used for intellectually brilliant persons) 5. Personification –a kind of metaphor in which a nonhuman thing or quality is talked about as if it were human. In poetry, personification invites the reader to view the world as if natural and inanimate objects possess the same feelings, qualities and souls that people do. Examples:hands of a clock, an angry sky, a tree that looks at God all day 6.
Hyperbole –a figure of speech that uses exaggeration to express a strong sentiment or create a comic effect aimed at either. -also called as overstatement or exaggeration. -often used to capture a sense of intensity or to emphasize the essential nature of something. Example: sweating to death in a stuffy room (hyperbole is used to express extreme discomfort) 7. Paradox –an apparently self-contradictory but is actually true or statement or sentiment that appears contradictory to common sense yet is true in fact. Example: she killed him with kindness, a well-known secret agent, 8.
Oxymoron–combination of two seemingly contradictory or incongruous words. Examples: wise fool, deafening silence, cruel love, a stripper’s dressing room 9. Irony –a contrast or discrepancy between expectations and reality—between what is said and what is really meant, between what is expected and what really happens, between what appears to be true and what is really true. Irony in literature falls into three major categories: a. Verbal Irony–occurs when a writer or speaker says one thing but really means the opposite.
Example: When you tell a friend who shows up an hour late for an appointment, “I just love being kept waiting in the rain”. b. Situational Irony –occurs when what actually happens is the opposite of what is expected or appropriate. Example: In Greek mythology, when Zeus falls in love with a mortal woman named Semele. Zeus promised to give her anything she wants. To his dismay, she wants to see him in his true form as the Lord of Heaven. Zeus reluctantly agrees, and he burns her to death. c. Dramatic Irony –occurs when the audience or reader knows something important that a character in the story or play doesn’t know.
It can heighten a comic effect or generate suspense. Example: In Oedipus Rex, when the Corinthian messenger tells Oedipus that the king of Corinth has died of natural causes, Oedipus believes he has been released from the prophecy that he will murder his father. The audience, however, knows that the truth has yet to come to light. 10. Alliteration –refers to the repetition of any particular sound among words placed close together, in a sentence or line. These are mainly consonant sounds, but can be vowel sounds too. Example:Don’t delay dawn’s disarming display. Dusk demands daylight. Sara’s seven sisters slept soundly in sand. 1. Apostrophe–a figure of speech in which a speaker directly addresses an absent or dead person, a deity, and abstract quality, or something nonhuman as if it were present and capable of responding. In literary pieces, this figure of speech usually starts with an exclamation ‘O’. Examples of apostrophe are: Examples:O Romeo, Romeo! Wherefore art thou Romeo? – Romeo and Juliet, William Shakespeare O, pardon me, thou bleeding piece of earth, That I am meek and gentle with these butchers! Thou art the ruins of the noblest man That ever lived in the tide of times. – Julius Caesar, William Shakespeare. 2. Onomatopoeia–thisfigure of speech imitates the sounds produced by the objects or actions. Examples:The buzzing of bees. The whirring of the washing machine. Clap, squish, snort, and whine VERSIFICATION Versification –is the art of making verse. It is based on the principles of prosody (theory of which versification is the practice. Verse –is the language in which the recurrent elements of rhythm exhibit patterns that can be identified and measured. Basis of Verse in English: 1. Accent or Stress –in all words of more than one syllable, one syllable is pronounced with stress more than the others.
This emphasis is a combination of pitch, duration, loudness and timbre (accent or stress). Two kinds of syllables: stressed and unstressed 2. Foot –a metrical unit composed of stressed and unstressed syllables. Four kinds of feet: a. Iamb or Iambic –refers to one unstressed syllable followed by one stressed syllable. Example: aBOVE ^| / ^| /| ^| / ^| /| ^ / ^| /| ^| /| The| falling| out| of| faithful| friends,| renewing| is| of| love| | | | | | | | | | | b. Trochee or Trochaic –refers to one stressed syllable followed one unstressed syllable. Example: Apple / ^| / ^| /| ^| / ^|
Double,| double| toil| and| trouble| c. Anapest or Anapestic –refers to two unstressed syllable followed by one stressed syllable. Example: unconcerned ^| ^| / ^| ^| /| ^| ^ /| I| am| monarch| of| all| I| survey| d. Dactyl or Dactylic –refers to one stressed syllable followed by two unstressed syllables. This is the reverse of anapestic. Example: TENderly /| ^| ^| / ^^| Take| her| up| tenderly| 3. Meter –refers to a measure or patterned count of a poetic line. -the number of feet in a line. The number of metrical feet in a line is described as follows: * Monometer— one foot * Dimeter— two feet Trimeter— three feet * Tetrameter — four feet * Pentameter — five feet * Hexameter — six feet * Heptameter — seven feet * Octameter— eight feet 4. Stanza –group of lines of fixed number, meter and rhyme pattern, repeated throughout the poem. Some of themore usual stanza forms are: a. Couplet –two lines, usually rhyming b. Triplet –a unit of three lines of verse c. Quatrain –a unit of four lines of verse d. Quintet –a unit of five lines of verse e. Sextet or sestet –a unit of six lines of verse f. Rhyme royale or Chaucerian stanza –consists of seven iambic pentameter lines with the rhyme abc bb cc. . Spencerian stanza –consists of eight iambic pentameter and an Alexandrine (an iambic hexameter line). h. Blank verse –iambic pentameter lines without rhymes. i. Free verse –is a verse free of the essentials of rhyme and meter. Rhythm: the pattern of stressed and unstressed syllables in a line. Scansion: describing the rhythms of poetry by dividing the lines into feet, marking the locations of stressed and unstressed syllables, and counting the syllables. Thus, when we describe the rhythm of a poem, we “scan” the poem and mark the stresses (/) and absences of stress (^) and count the number of feet.
The scansion of this quatrain from Shakespeare’s Sonnet 73 shows the following accents and divisions into feet (note the following words were split: behold, yellow, upon, against, ruin’d): ^| /| ^| /| ^| /| ^| /| ^| /| | | | | | That| time || of| year || thou| mayst || in| me || be| hold || | | | | | ^| /| ^| /| ^| /| ^| /| ^| /| | | | | | When| yel || low| leaves, || or| none, || or| few, || do| hang || | | | | | ^| /| ^| /| ^| /| ^| /| ^| /| | | | | | Up| on || those| boughs || which| shake || a| gainst || the| cold,| || | | | | | ^| /| ^| /| ^| /| ^| /| ^| /| | | | | | | Bare| ru || in’d| choirs || where| late || the| sweet| birds| sang || | | | | | | From this, we see the rhythm of this quatrain is made up of one unaccented syllable followed by an accented syllable, called an iambic foot. We also see there are five feet per line, making the meter of the line pentameter. So, the rhythm and meter is iambic pentameter. 5. Sound –refers to the sensation preserved by the sense of hearing.
In poetry, there are three forms of sound as follows: Rhyme –this is the matching of final vowel or consonant sounds in two or more words. There are four types of rhyme: a. End Rhyme –when the corresponding sounds happen at the ends of line. b. Internal Rhyme –when the corresponding sounds happen within lines. c. Exact or perfect rhyme –the rhyming words share corresponding sounds, stresses and similar number of syllables. d. Imperfect or slant rhyme –the rhyming words do not exactly share corresponding sounds. 6. Imagery –refers to the specific details that stimulate senses or the concrete representation of a sense impression, feeling or idea. Images can either be one of the following: a. Visual Image –it is something seen b.
Aural Image –it is something heard c. Tactile Image –it is something felt d. Olfactory Image –it is something smelled e. Gustatory Image –it is something tasted f. Metaphorical or Symbolic Image –this suggests an idea or feeling beyond what a given image literally image describes. 7. Diction –means choice of words in reference to their effectiveness, clearness or correctness. However, it is also important to know what these words imply or indicate. There are two types of getting meanings, that is, either denotation or connotation. Denotation is also known as the dictionary meaning while connotation refers to a meaning apart from the thing explicitly suggests or describes.