The Cold War In this module you will learn: 1. FOUR causes of the Cold War [BARE]. 2. NINE events which caused the Cold War. 3. FOUR decisions made at the Yalta Conference. 4. TWO decisions and three disagreements at the Potsdam conference. 5. The ‘salami tactics’ that brought Communists to power in Eastern Europe 6. FIVE causes [CABAN] and FOUR results [CENA] of the Berlin crisis, 1948–9. 7. FIVE ‘Berlin Airlift Facts’. 8. FOUR causes of the Korean War [CJD-Kim]. 9. FIVE phases of the Korean War, 1950–53. 10. FOUR ways Khrushchev brought a ‘thaw’ in the Cold War. 11. THREE ways ‘peaceful co-existence’ worsened the Cold War. 2. EIGHT countries in the Warsaw Pact. 13. FIVE crises after 1955. 14. FIVE causes, the events and FOUR results of the Hungarian uprising 15. THREE reasons tension grew after 1957. 16. The events and FOUR results of the U2 crisis. 17. THREE causes, the events and FOUR results of the Berlin Wall 18. THREE causes, the events and FOUR results of the Cuban Missiles Crisis. You might do the following written work: (A paragraph on ‘What was the Cold War? ’ (An essay: ‘Were the Yalta and Potsdam conferences different? ’ (A spidergram of the factors bringing Communists to power in eastern Europe, 1945–48. An essay: ‘Why had the superpowers become suspicious of each other by March 1946, when Churchill made his Fulton speech? ’ (Notes on events: ‘Truman Doctrine – Marshall Plan’. (An essay on the events of the Korean War. (Notes on how Khrushchev brought a thaw in the Cold War, and how he made it worse. (An essay: ‘Did superpower relations improve after 1953? ’ (Notes on the Polish Riots of 1956. (A mini-essay: ‘Why was there a revolution in Hungary in 1956? ’ (Notes on the events and results of the Hungarian Revolution. Have you read: (N deMarco and R Radway, The Twentieth Century, pages 184–191. T Rea and J Wright, International Relations, chapter 7. (Christopher Culpin, Making History, pages 185–192. (JF Aylett, The Cold War and After, pages 2–17. (James Mason, Modern World History to GCSE, pages 56–77. (Tony Howarth, Twentieth Century History, pages 235–244. | New Words | |From Hot War to Cold War | | | |During the Second World War, Britain and the USA were allies of the Soviet Union, | |Allies: countries working together. | |fighting together against Germany.
After the war, they became enemies. | | | | | |Communists: believe that industry | |[pic] | |should be state-owned. | | | | | |After Hiroshima, and particularly after 1949 when Russia developed the atomic bomb, | |Soviet Union: the Union of Soviet | |politicians realised that another ‘hot war’ would kill all humankind – war would be | |Socialist Republics – the USSR –– i. . | |MAD (mutually assured destruction). | |communist Russia. | | | | | |So they stopped short of war – the ‘cold war’. They didn’t declare war. But they | |Dictator: a ruler who has total power. | |did everything to oppose each other short of war. | | | | | |Stalin | |It was called the ‘cold war’. It lasted until 1989. | | | | |Capitalists: believe that property and| | | |industry should be privately owned. | | | | | | | |Democracy: where the people can elect | | | |their own government. | | | | | | |Truman | | | | | | | |Churchill | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |Tasks | | | |Write a paragraph to explain the | | | |meaning of the term ‘Cold War’. | | | | | | | Causes of the Cold War | |Source B: | | | |Events which caused the Cold War | |1 Beliefs | | | |The Soviet Union was a Communist country, ruled by a dictator, who cared little about| |Yalta Conference (Feb 1945) | |human rights. | |Potsdam Conference (Jul 1945) | |The USA was a capitalist democracy which valued freedom. |Salami tactics (1945–48) | | | |Fulton Speech (Mar 1946) | |Aims | |Greece (Feb 1947) | |Stalin wanted huge reparations from Germany, and a ‘buffer’ of friendly states to | |Truman Doctrine (Mar 1947) | |protect the USSR from being invaded again. | |Marshall Plan (Jun 1947) | |Britain and the USA wanted to protect democracy, and help Germany to recover. They | |Cominform (Oct 1947) | |were worried that large areas of eastern Europe were falling under Soviet control. |Czechoslovakia (Feb 1948) | | | | | |Resentment about History | | | |The Soviet Union could not forget that in 1918 Britain and the USA had tried to | | | |destroy the Russian Revolution. Stalin also thought that they had not given him | | | |enough help in the Second World War. | | | |Britain and the USA could not forget that Stalin had signed the Nazi-Soviet Pact with| | | |Germany in 1939. | | | | | | |Events | | | |Neither side trusted each other. Every action they took (see Source B) made them | |Tasks | |hate each other more. | |Write a paragraph to explain the meaning| | | |of the term ‘Cold War’. | | | |Copy, then learn the five causes and | |Who Caused the Cold War? | |nine events which caused the Cold War, | |Russian historians blamed Churchill (the British Prime Minister) and Truman (the | |so that you know them ‘off by heart’. | |American president, 1945–1953).
They said Truman and Churchill wanted to destroy | |For each of the five causes, explain how| |the USSR, which was just defending itself. | |it might have caused relations between | |At first, western writers blamed the Soviet Union. They said Stalin was trying to | |the USA and the USSR to become tense. | |build up a Soviet empire. Later, however, some western historians blamed the USA. | |Working in twos, one pupil plays the | |They said Truman had not understood how much Russia had suffered in the Second World | |part of a Russian historian, the other a| |War. | |western writer of the 1950s. | |Nowadays, historians think BOTH sides were to blame – that there were hatreds on both| |Talk about causes 1–4, the ‘Russian | |sides. |historian’ arguing that the Cold War was| | | |America’s fault, and the ‘western | |Source A | |writer’ saying that it was Russia’s. | |It is useless to try to discover who made the first move to break the alliance. It | | | |is impossible to trace the first ‘broken promise’. | | | | | | | |Written by the historian Isaac Deutscher, Stalin (1969). | | |[pic] | |Did you know? | | | |Churchill was so worried about Soviet | | | |domination of eastern Europe that he | |The Big Three during the War | |tried to get the British armies to | |During the War, Britain and the USA were allies of the Soviet Union, but the only | |advance faster. In 1944, he dropped | |thing that united them was their hatred of Germany. |British paratroopers behind enemy | |In 1945, the Big Three held two conferences – at Yalta (February) and Potsdam (July) | |lines at Arnhem – but they were cut | |– to try to sort out how they would organise the world after the war. It was at | |off and defeated by the Germans. | |these conferences that the tensions between the two sides became obvious. | |This story was told in the film, A | | | |Bridge Too Far. | |Yalta (Feb 1945) | | | |On the surface, the Yalta conference seemed successful. |( Source A | |The Allies agreed: | |The arrows show the Allied armies | |Russia would join the United Nations. | |advancing into Germany in 1945 – the | |divide Germany into four ‘zones’, which Britain, France, the USA and the USSR would | |British and Americans from the west, | |occupy after the war. | |the Russians from the east. Notice | |bring Nazi war-criminals to trial. | |the large areas of eastern Europe | |set up a Polish Provisional Government of National Unity ‘pledged to the holding of | |which fell under the control of | |free and unfettered elections as soon as possible’. | |Russia. |help the freed peoples of Europe set up democratic and self-governing countries by | | | |helping them to (a) maintain law and order; (b) carry out emergency relief measures; | |[pic] | |(c) set up governments; and (d) hold elections (this was called the ‘Declaration of | |( Source B | |Liberated Europe’). | |A British cartoon of 1945. | |set up a commission to look into reparations. | |Churchill, Roosevelt (USA) and Stalin | | | |are shown as doctors, working together| |But, behind the scenes, tension was growing. After the conference, Churchill wrote | |to heal the world.
Look at the faces| |to Roosevelt that ‘The Soviet union has become a danger to the free world. ’ | |of the ‘Big Three’; what do you | | | |notice? | |Tasks | | | |Source B shows the ‘Big Three’ smiling. Does this prove that Britain, Russia and | |Tasks | |America were friends? | |Describe the events and decisions of | |Write two reports of the Yalta Conference: one for the British newspapers, the other | |the Yalta and Potsdam Conferences. | |for the British government. | |Were they different? | | |Using page 5, especially Sources D and| | | |E, explain why Potsdam was less | | | |successful than Yalta. | |Source D | |( Source C | |The Russians only understand one | |The thief labelled ‘Russia’ is caught stealing a bag labelled ‘territorial grabs’. | |language – ‘how many armies have you | |‘It’s alright – he’s with me’, Stalin assures Roosevelt, who meekly answers: ‘Oh, | |got? ’ I’m tired of babying the | |OK’. | |Soviets. | | | | | | |President Truman, writing in January | |Potsdam (July 1945) | |1946 | |At Potsdam, the Allies decided the post-war peace – Potsdam was the Versailles of | | | |World War II | |Source E | | | |What is surprising about the fact that| |America had a new president, Truman, who was determined to ‘get tough’ with the | |the Soviet Union, worried about its | |Russians. Also, when he went to the Conference, Truman had just learned that | |future safety, wants governments | |America had tested the first atomic bomb. It gave the Americans a huge military | |friendly to it in Finland, Poland and | |advantage over everyone else. Moreover, in March 1945, Stalin had invited the | |Romania? | |non-Communist Polish leaders to meet him, and arrested them. | | | | So, at Potsdam, the arguments came out into the open. |Stalin, writing in March 1946 | | | | | |The Conference agreed the following Protocols: | | | |to set up the four ‘zones of occupation’ in Germany. The government and laws and | |[pic] | |education ‘shall be controlled to eliminate Nazi and militarist doctrines and to make| |A map of how Germany was divided into | |possible the development of democratic ideas. | |zones. | |to bring Nazi war-criminals to trial. | | | |to recognize the Polish Provisional Government of National Unity and hold ‘free and | |[pic] | |unfettered elections as soon as possible’. | | |Russia was allowed to take reparations from the Soviet Zone, and also 10% of the | |A map of how Berlin was divided into | |industrial equipment of the western zones as reparations. America and Britain could| |zones. | |take reparations from their zones if they wished. | | | |But in fact the Allies had disagreed openly about: | | | |1. the details of how to divide Germany. | | | |2. the size of reparations Germany ought to pay. | | | |3. Russian policy in eastern Europe. | | | | | | |Source D | | | |In this ‘marriage of convenience’, the thought that a divorce was inevitable had been| | | |in the mind of each partner from the beginning. | | | |Written by the historian Isaac Deutscher, Stalin (1969). | | | | | | | |Tasks | | | |Looking at the information on this spread, when do YOU think the Cold War started? | | | |Read Source F; when did Deutscher think it started? | Salami tactics: the Soviet take-over of eastern Europe | |New Words | |Source A | | | |Hungary was invaded by the Russians, and in 1945 the allies | |sinister: frightening, in an evil way. | |agreed that Russian troops should stay there. Stalin | | | |allowed elections, and the non-communists won a big | |totalitarian: where the government has total power over the | |majority. However, some communists were elected, led by a | |people. | |pro-Russian called Rakosi. | | | |Rakosi now started demanding that groups which opposed him | |imperialistic: wanting to build an empire. Communists used| |should be banned.
If not, he hinted, the Russians would | |it as an abuse-word to describe the western powers. | |take over the country. Then he got control of the police, | | | |and started to arrest his opponents. He set up a sinister | |During 1946–47, Stalin made sure that Communist governments | |and brutal secret police unit, the AVH. Soon Rakosi had | |came to power in all the countries of eastern Europe (the | |complete control over Hungary. | |countries which the Soviet Union had conquered in 1945). | |Rakosi’s work was typical of what was happening all over | |The Communist description of this process was ‘slicing | |eastern Europe. |salami’ – gradually getting rid of all opposition, | | | |bit-by-bit (see Source A). In this way, Russia gained | |The historian Jon Nichol, writing in 1990 | |control of: | | | | | | | |Albania (1945) – the Communists took power after the war | |( Source B | |without opposition | |Russia saw it as protecting herself from future attack. |Bulgaria (1945) – a left-wing coalition gained power in | |The West saw it as empire-building. | |1945; the Communists then executed the leaders of all the | | | |other parties. | | | |Poland (1947) – a coalition government took power in 1945, | | | |but the Communists forced the non-Communist leaders into | | | |exile. | | | |Hungary (1947) – see Source A. | | |Romania (1945–1947) – a left-wing coalition was elected in | | | |1945; the Communists gradually took over control. | | | |Czechoslovakia (1945–48) – a left-wing coalition was elected| | | |in 1945. In 1948, the Communists banned all other parties | | | |and killed their leaders. | | | |East Germany (1949) – the Russian turned their zone of | | | |Germany into the German Democratic republic in 1949. | | | | | | |Tasks | | | |Read Source A, and make a spidergram showing all the factors| | | |that helped Communists take power in the countries of | | | |eastern Europe. | | | |Explain ow the case of Hungary on Source A illustrates | | | |‘salami tactics’. | | | | | | | |Churchill’s Fulton Speech | |Source C | | | |Mr Churchill has called for a war on the USSR. | |On 5 March 1946, Winston Churchill gave a speech at Fulton | | | |in America.
He said ‘a shadow’ had fallen on eastern | |Stalin, writing in the Russian newspaper Pravda on 13 March | |Europe, which was now cut off from the free world by ‘an | |1946. | |iron curtain’. Behind that line, he said, the people of | | | |eastern Europe were ‘subject to Soviet influence . . . | | | |totalitarian control [and] police governments’. | |Source D | | | |. . . the Cold War set in.
Churchill had given his famous | | | |speech in Fulton urging the imperialistic forces of the | |[pic] | |world to fight the Soviet Union. Our relations with | | | |England, France and the USA were ruined. | | | | | | | |Nikita Khrushchev, writing in 1971. In 1946 he was a | | | |member of the Soviet government. | | | | | | | | | | |( Source E | | | |A British cartoon of 1946. In fact, the ‘iron curtain’ was| | | |a 2,000-kilometre line of barbed wire, look-out posts and | | | |road blocks. | | | | | | |Tasks | | | |Read Sources C and D. Explain why Churchill’s speech was a| | | |turning point in the history of the Cold War. | | | |Did Churchill cause the Cold War? | Essay! [use this essay frame to write the following essay, using pages 2–6] Why had the Superpowers become suspicious of each other by March 1946, when Churchill made his important speech at Fulton? They became suspicious of each other because they had different beliefs. The USA. . . . . . . . . . The USSR . . . . . . . . . . This caused suspicion because . . . . . . . . . .
History made the USA and the USSR suspicious of each other. The Soviet Union . . . . . . . . . . The USA . . . . . . . . . . This caused suspicion because . . . . . . . . . . Both the USA and the USSR had very different aims. The USA . . . . . . . . . . The USSR, however, . . . . . . . . . . This caused suspicion because . . . . . . . . . . Finally, because neither side trusted each other, events made them hate each other more. • The Yalta Conference (Feb 1945) caused problems because . . . . . . . . . . • The Potsdam Conference (Jul 1945) . . . . . . . . . . • Also, salami tactics (1945–48) caused suspicion because . . . . . . . . . . New Words | |Opinion: | | | |Churchill’s speech did not start the Cold War, but he was | |doctrine: a belief. | |the first person to stop pretending to be friends with | | | |Russia. Thus, his Fulton speech was the start of the Cold | |Congress: the American ‘parliament’. | |War; after it, America and Russia got into a number of | | | |conflicts. |Czechoslovakia | | | | | |Greece | |aggressor: someone who starts a quarrel. | |By 1946, Greece and Czechoslovakia were the only countries | | | |in eastern Europe that weren’t Communist. Even in Greece, | |Containment: holding something in – stopping the USSR | |the government, which was being supported by British | |growing. | |soldiers, was having to fight a civil war against the | | | |Communists. | | |In February 1947, the British told Truman they could no | |Source A | |longer afford to keep their soldiers in Greece. President | |Every nation must choose between different ways of life . . | |Truman stepped in. The USA paid for the British soldiers in | |. We must help free peoples to work out their own destiny | |Greece. | |in their own way. | | | | | |The Truman Doctrine | |President Truman, speaking in March 1947. |In the 1930s, Americans had kept out of Europe’s business. | | | |Now, in March 1947, Truman told Americans that it was | | | |America’s DUTY to interfere (Source A). His policy towards | |Source B | |the Soviet Union was one of ‘containment’ – he did not try | |This ‘American duty’ is just a smokescreen for a plan of | |to destroy the USSR, but he wanted to stop it growing any | |expansion . . . They try to take control of Greece by | |more. This was called the ‘Truman Doctrine’. |shouting about ‘totalitarianism’ | | | | | | | |The Russian newspaper Izvestia, March 1947. | | | |Source C ( |[pic] | |This Russian cartoon shows| | |the Greek government being| | |‘helped’ by America. | |The Marshall Plan | |Source D | |In June 1947, the American general George Marshall went to | |The ruling gang of American imperialists has taken the path | |Europe. He said every country in Europe was so poor that it | |of open expansion, of enslaving weakened capitalist | |was in danger of turning Communist! Europe was ‘a breeding | |countries. It has hatched new war plans against the Soviet | |ground of hate’. He said that America should give $17 | |Union. Imitating Hitler, the new aggressors are using | |billion of aid to get Europe’s economy going. | |blackmail. | | | | |Cominform | |GM Malenkov, a Soviet politician, speaking in 1947. | |The Soviet Union hated Marshall aid (see Sources D and E). | | | |Stalin forbade Communist countries to ask for money. | |[pic] | |Instead, in October 1947, he set up Cominform. Every | |( Source E | |Communist party in Europe joined. It allowed Stalin control | |Communists in Germany oppose Marshall Aid. | |of the Communists in Europe. | | | | | | |Czechoslovakia | |[pic]( Source F | |At first, the American Congress did not want to give the | |A British cartoon shows Truman and Stalin as two | |money for Marshall Aid. But then, in February 1948, the | |taxi-drivers trying to get customers. | |Communists took power in Czechoslovakia. | | | |Congress was scared, and voted for Marshall Aid on 31 March | | | |1948. | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |Tasks | | | |Using the dates in bold, make notes, in chronological order,| | | |on the events from February 1947 to 31 March 1948. | | | |Read Source A. Talk about the events in your list – as | | | |though you were an American. | | |Now read Sources B–E. Describe the same events – as though | | | |you were a Russian Communist | | | |Did the Truman Doctrine cause the Cold War? | | | |What was the first event of the Cold War? | | | |Work out an argument that the creation of Cominform was the | | | |first event of the Cold War. | | |The Berlin Blockade, 1948–49 | |New Words | |The USSR had already disagreed with Britain and the USA at Potsdam (July 1945, see | | | |page 5) about what should be done with Germany. Germany had been split into four | |Blockade: a siege. | |zones. Berlin, in Russia’s zone, was also split into four zones. | | | | | |Bizonia | |What caused it? | | | |Cold War | |Currency: money. | |was just getting started (e. g.
Czechoslovakia, March 1948) | | | | | | | |2. Aims | | | |Stalin wanted to destroy Germany – Britain and the USA wanted to rebuild Germany. | | | | | | | |3. Bizonia | | | |The Russians were taking German machinery back to the USSR.
In January 1948, Britain | | | |and the USA joined their two zones together to try to get German industry going. They| | | |called the new zone Bi-zonia (‘two zones’). | | | | | | | |American Aid | | | |Congress voted for Marshall Aid on 31 March 1948. Immediately, the Russians started | | | |stopping and searching all road and rail traffic into Berlin. | | | | | | |New Currency | | | |On 1 June, America and France announced that they wanted to create the new country of| | | |West Germany; and on 23 June they introduced a new currency into ‘Bizonia’ and | | | |western Berlin. The next day the Russians stopped all road and rail traffic into | | | |Berlin – Stalin was trying to force the USA out of Berlin. | | | | | | | |Source A | | | |[The Americans had introduced a new currency into Berlin. | | | |Old money flooded into the Soviet Zone. Some restrictions were placed on links | | | |between Berlin and western zones, but the Soviet side was ready to supply food to all| | | |Berlin. | | | |Yet every day 380 American planes flew into Berlin. It was simply a propaganda move | | | |intended to make the cold war worse. | | | | | | | |From a Russian history book. | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |Source B: | |What happened? | |Airlift Facts | |The American Army wanted to fight its way into Berlin – that would have caused a war. | |The blockade lasted 318 days (11 | |Instead, Truman decided to supply Berlin by air (see Source B) | |months). | |The situation was bad at first, but things got better as the blockade went on.
On 12 | |In the winter of 1948–49 Berliners | |May 1949, Stalin re-opened the borders. | |lived on dried potatoes, powdered eggs| | | |and cans of meat. They had 4 hours of | | | |electricity a day. | |What were the Results? | |275,000 flights carried in 1? million | |Cold War got worse | |tons of supplies. A plane landed every| |It almost started an all-out war. | |3 mins. | | | |On 16 April 1949, 1400 flights brought| |2. East and West Germany | |in 13,000 tons of supplies in one day | |Germany split up.
In May 1949, America, Britain and France united their zones into | |– Berlin only needed 6,000 tons a day | |the Federal Republic of Germany (West Germany). In October 1949, Stalin set up the | |to survive. | |German Democratic Republic (East Germany) . | |The USA stationed B-29 bombers (which | | | |could carry an atomic bomb) in | |3. NATO and the Warsaw Pact | |Britain. | |In 1949, the western Allies set up NATO (North Atlantic Treaty Organisation) as a | | | |defensive alliance against Russia.
NATO countries surrounded Russia; in 1955, the | | | |Soviet Union set up the Warsaw Pact – an alliance of Communist states. | | | | | | | |Arms Race | | | |After Berlin, the USA and the USSR realised that they were in a competition for world| | | |domination. They began to build up their armies and weapons. | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |Tasks | | | |Copy the five causes of the Berlin Crisis. | | | |The Berlin blockade and airlift was one of the first episodes of the Cold War. Write | | | |an essay to describe what happened. | | | |Start the story in Jan 1948, and finish it on 12 May 1949. | | |Working as a whole class, draw a spidergram to show all the reasons why the Berlin | | | |blockade failed. | |The Korean War, 1950–53 | |Did you know? | |The Korean War was the time when the Cold War became a global conflict. | | | | | |In 1945, Korea was freed from the | | | |Japanese. The country was split in | |What caused it? |half at the 38th parallel. | |President Truman was interested in the Far East: | | | |Cold War: Truman realised the USA was in a competition for world domination with the | |North Korea | |USSR. Europe was not the only place where Communists were coming to power. In the Far| |(led by Kim II Sung) was Communist. | |East, too, they were getting powerful – China turned Communist in 1949. | |South Korea | |Japan: Truman was worried that, in the end, the Communists would capture Japan. | |(led by Syngman Rhee) was capitalist. |Domino theory: Truman believed that, if one country fell to Communism, then other | | | |would follow, like a line of dominoes. | |The two countries hated each other. | | | | | |Stalin, also, was involved in the Far East: | | | |Kim II Sung visited Stalin. In 1949, he persuaded Stalin that he could conquer South | | | |Korea. Stalin was worried that America would get involved, but he gave his agreement. | |Source B | |Kim II Sung also went to see Mao Tse Tung, the leader of China, to get his agreement. |Asia is where the communist | | | |conspirators have decided to make | | | |their play for global conquest. If we | |In 1950, Syngman Rhee boasted that he was going to attack North Korea. It was a good | |lose this war, the fall of Europe is | |enough excuse – the North Koreans invaded South Korea. | |inevitable. There is no choice but | | | |victory. | |This started the Korean War. | |The US General MacArthur, speaking in | |The war had FIVE phases. | |1950. | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |New Words | | | | | | | |global: whole world | | | | | | | |38th parallel: a line of latitude on | | | |the map. | | | | | | |Kim II Sung | | | | | | | |Syngman Rhee | | | | | | | |Mao Tse Tung | The Events of the War, 1950–53 |June 1950 |[pic] | | |The North Koreans attacked. | | |I |They were very successful. | | | |They captured most of South Korea. | | | | | | | |July 1950 |[pic] | | |The Americans were alarmed (see Source B). | | |II |They persuaded the United Nations to support South Korea. | | |The American Army, led by General MacArthur, went to Korea, drove back the North | | | |Koreans and recaptured South Korea. It invaded North Korea. | | | |It advanced as far as the Chinese border. | | | | | | |I | | | | |October 1950 |[pic] | | |Now the Chinese were alarmed. | | |III |They attacked MacArthur, and drove the Americans back. | | |They recaptured North Korea, and advanced into South Korea. | | | |February 1951 |[pic] | | |The Americans landed more troops. | | |IV |They drove the Chinese back (the Chinese lost 200,000 men). | | | |March 1951 – 1953 | | | |MacArthur reached the 38th parallel in March 1951. | | |V |Truman told MacArthur to stop. | | |MacArthur was sacked when he publicly criticised Truman’s order. | | | |In 1953, Eisenhower became American president. He made peace. | | Tasks Look at Source B. Why was Korea so important for the Americans? Write notes on the causes of the Korean War. Write an essay to describe the main events of the Korean War, 1950–53. Revision Questions 1. Who was Prime Minister of Britain in 1945? 2. Who was president of the USA in February 1945? 3. Who became president of the USA in 1945? 4. Who was leader of Russia in 1945? 5. What is a ‘cold war’? 6. List FOUR causes of the Cold War? 7. What do Communists believe? 8. The USA is a ‘capitalist democracy’.
What do these words mean? 9. Name two historical complaints that Stalin had against Britain and the USA. 10. What could Britain and the USA not forgive Stalin for (from 1939)? 11. Give TWO things that Stalin wanted from the peace. 12. What worried Britain and the USA about Stalin’s plans? 13. When did Russia develop the atomic bomb? 14. List NINE events leading up to the Cold War, Feb 1945 to Mar 1948. 15. Give FOUR things agreed at Yalta. 16. Explain TWO reasons why the Potsdam Conference was less successful than Yalta. 17. Name THREE things that the ‘Big Three’ disagreed about at Potsdam. 18. What were ‘salami tactics’? 19. Was is ‘totalitarianism’? 20.
Was does the word ‘imperialistic’ mean? 21. What was Churchill’s Fulton speech (5 March 1946) about? 22. Why did Britain keep soldiers in Greece after the Second World War had finished? 23. What happened when the British could no longer afford to keep soldiers in Greece? 24. What did the Truman Doctrine say? 25. Why did Marshall propose the Marshall Plan? 26. How much aid did the Marshall Plan want to send to Europe? 27. Which country turned Communist in March 1948? 28. What rival to Marshall Aid did Stalin set up in 1947? 29. Give FIVE causes of the Berlin blockade. 30. How long did the blockade last? 31. How did the US and Britain supply the Berliners? 32.
List FOUR results of the blockade. 33. What rival alliance to NATO did the USSR set up in 1955? 34. Why was the Korean War important in the history of the Cold War? 35. Name the ruler of North Korea in 1950. 36. Name the ruler of South Korea in 1950. 37. List THREE reasons why Truman was interested in the Far East. 38. When did China turn Communist? 39. Whose agreement to invade South Korea did Kim II Sung seek? 40. What excuse did Kim II Sung have for attacking South Korea? 41. Who was winning the war at its start in June 1950? 42. Who led the UN forced which landed in July 1950? 43. Why did the Chinese enter the war? 44. How many Chinese soldiers died in the war? 45.
Why was MacArthur sacked? /75 |Q | |New Words | |Imagine a class with a really tough and nasty teacher. After a while, that teacher | | | |leaves, and a more gentle, reasonable teacher takes over. Will behaviour in the | |summit: meeting of the major world | |class get better, or worse? | |powers. | | | |destalinisation: dismantling Stalin’s | | | |tyranny. | |Stalin died in 1953.
He was hated all over eastern Europe. When they heard he was| |Co-existence: living together. | |dead, people in East Berlin rioted. | |capitalism: western system of a free | |After a short struggle for power, Khrushchev became the new ruler in Russia. | |economy. | | | |economic aid: money given to a country| |Khrushchev | |to help build up its economy. | |At first, the western powers hoped that Khrushchev would be the start of a ‘thaw’ in | | | |the Cold War. | | | | |Did you know? | |1. Khrushchev often met western leaders at ‘summit’ meetings. | | | |2.. Stalin had made all Communist countries do what he wanted – and he had fallen out| |Even though he was a poorly-educated | |with President Tito of Yugoslavia. But in 1955 Khrushchev went to Yugoslavia, | |peasant, Khrushchev had insight and a | |telling Tito that ‘there are different roads to communism’. Western leaders thought| |good turn of phrase. He once said | |he would no longer insist that all communist countries take orders from Russia. |that Communism and capitalism would | |3. In a speech in 1956, Khrushchev attacked Stalin, saying that Stalin was a murderer| |only agree ‘when shrimps learned to | |and a tyrant. Khrushchev began to ‘de-stalinise’ Russia. Political prisoners were| |whistle’. | |set free and Beria (Stalin’s Chief of Secret Police) was executed. | | | |4. Khrushchev said that he wanted ‘peaceful | | | |co-existence’ with the West. Western leaders hoped this meant the end of the Cold | |Source C | |War. |[pic]This Russian cartoon shows | | | |Khrushchev destroying the Cold War. | | | | | |Source A | |Task | |You do not like Communism. We do not like capitalism. There is only one way out –| |Make notes on the ways Khrushchev | |peaceful co-existence. | |seemed to improve the Cold War. | | | | | |Khrushchev speaking on a visit to Britain in 1956. |Source D | | | |EIGHT Countries in the Warsaw Pact: | | | |USSR | |Source B | |Albania | |We may argue. The main thing is to argue without using weapons. | |Bulgaria | | | |Czechoslovakia | |Khrushchev speaking in 1959. |East Germany | | | |Hungary | |Peaceful Co-existence | |Poland | | | |Romania. | |If the rulers of the West hoped that there would be an end to the Cold War, they were| | | |disappointed. | |Source E | | | |Crises after 1955: | |1. ‘De-stalinisation’ did not mean a change back to capitalism, or freedom from | |1956 Poland | |Russia. When communist countries went too far in their reforms, Khrushchev sent in | |1956 Hungary | |the Red Army to stop them. |1960 U2 crisis | | | |1961 The Berlin Wall | |2. By ‘peaceful co-existence’, Khrushchev really meant ‘peaceful competition’. He | |1962 Cuban Missile Crisis | |started to build up Russian power: | | | |He visited countries like Afghanistan and Burma and gave them economic aid if they | | | |would support Russia. | |Did you know? | |Russia began the ‘space race’ with the America.
In 1957 Russia launched Sputnik the| | | |first satellite. In 1961 Yuri Gagarin became the first astronaut to orbit the | |Khrushchev was NOT a gentle easy-going| |earth. | |man; he had been Stalin’s right-hand | |Russia began an ‘arms race’ with America. In 1953, Russia got the hydrogen bomb. | |man – | |Khrushchev set up the Warsaw Pact – a military alliance of Communist countries – to | |Stalin had used him to run the terror | |rival NATO. | |purges after World War II. Khrushchev| | | |loved to argue. This often caused | |3.
Faced by this, America became just as aggressive: | |tension between leaders. | |In America, Senator McCarty led a ‘witch-hunt’ for ‘Communists’ in America (e. g. | | | |Charlie Chaplin was accused of being a Communist. ) | |Task | |America had an ‘arms race’ with Russia. In 1955, NATO agreed to a West German Army | |Make notes on the ways Khrushchev made| |of ? million men (this led to the formation of the Warsaw Pact). | |the Cold War worse. | |The Americans used U2 planes to spy on Russia. | | | | | | |As a result, the period 1955–1963 was the time of GREATEST tension in the Cold War. | | | | | | | |In 1956, Khrushchev faced crises in two countries which were destalinising. | |New Words | | | | | | | |patriotic: loving your country. | | |censorship: where the government | |Poland | |controls what the newspapers/ radio | |In Poland, a number of political prisoners were set free. At the same time, a bad | |etc. say. | |harvest led to unrest. | |telex: an early form of fax, | | | |connecting typewriters down a | |Railway workers led a protest of people calling for ‘Cheap Bread’ and ‘Higher Wages’. | |telephone line. | |When the police shot some of the marchers, there was a riot. Government officials | | | |were killed.
Mr Gomulka, (who had been in prison) took power. | |