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Which of the following is the MOST appropriate dose of activated charcoal for a 20-kg child?
20 g
Death caused by shaken baby syndrome is usually the result of:
bleeding in the brain
Causes of infant death that may be mistaken for SIDS include all of the following, EXCEPT:
hyperglycemia
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Submersion injuries in the adolescent age group are MOST commonly associated with:
alcohol
A child who has no recent history of illness suddenly appears cyanotic and cannot speak after playing with a small toy. You should:
perform abdominal thrusts
When immobilizing an injured child in a pediatric immobilization device, you should:
secure the torso before the head
Which of the following represents a low normal systolic blood pressure for a 6-year-old child?
82 mm Hg
A 2-year-old female has experienced a seizure. When you arrive at the scene, the child is conscious, crying, and clinging to her mother. Her skin is hot and moist. The mother tells you that the seizure lasted approximately 5 minutes. She further tells you that her daughter has no history of seizures, but has had a recent ear infection. You should:
attempt cooling measures, offer oxygen, and transport.
Children with N meningitides would MOST likely present with:
cherry-red spots or a purplish rash
Unless he or she is critically ill or injured, you should generally begin your assessment of a toddler:
at the feet
Signs of a severe airway obstruction in an infant or child include:
an ineffective cough
Early signs of respiratory distress in the child include:
restlessness
Infection should be considered a possible cause of an airway obstruction in an infant or child, especially if he or she presents with:
drooling or congestion
The MOST accurate method for determining if you are delivering adequate tidal volume to a child during bag-mask ventilations is to:
observe the chest for adequate rise
During the attempted resuscitation of an infant with suspected SIDS:
allow the family to observe if they wish
The normal respiratory rate for a newborn should not exceed ______ breaths/min.
60
You are dispatched to a local elementary school for an injured child. As you approach the child, you note that he is lying at the base of the monkey bars. He is not moving and does not appear to be conscious or breathing. You should:
stabilize his head and open his airway
When a child experiences a blunt chest injury:
the flexible ribs can be compressed without breaking
The secondary assessment of a sick or injured child:
may not be possible if the child’s condition is critical.
When assessing the heart rate of a 6-month-old infant, you should palpate the brachial pulse or ________ pulse.
femoral
An infant or child with respiratory distress will attempt to keep his or her alveoli expanded at the end of inhalation by:
grunting
The MOST common cause of dehydration in pediatric patients is:
vomiting and diarrhea
Blood loss in a child exceeding _____ of his or her total blood volume significantly increases the risk of shock.
25%
Blood pressure is usually not assessed in children younger than _____ years.
3
A 4-year-old female ingested an unknown quantity of liquid drain cleaner. Your assessment reveals that she is conscious and alert, is breathing adequately, and has skin burns around her mouth. You should:
monitor her airway and give oxygen
After determining that an infant or child has strong central pulses, you should:
not rule out compensated shock
Greenstick fractures occur in infants and children because:
their bones bend more easily than an adult’s.
When ventilating a pediatric patient with a bag-mask device, the EMT should:
block the pop-off valve if needed to achieve adequate chest rise
A common cause of shock in an infant is:
dehydration from vomiting and diarrhea
Which of the following statements regarding pediatric trauma is correct?
Children are more likely to experience diving-related injuries
You are dispatched to a residence for a child with respiratory distress. The patient, an 18-month-old female, is tachypneic, has sternal retractions, and is clinging to her mother. Her skin is pink and dry, and her heart rate is 120 beats/min. The MOST appropriate treatment for this child includes:
administering blow-by oxygen and transporting the child with her mother.
A high-pitched inspiratory sound that indicates a partial upper airway obstruction is called:
stridor
Pale skin in a child indicates that the:
blood vessels near the skin are constricted
Which of the following statements regarding sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) is correct?
Most cases of SIDS occur in infants younger than 6 months
All of the following are normal findings in an infant or child, EXCEPT:
head bobbing.
The EMT should be MOST concerned when a child presents with fever and:
a rash
Which of the following groups of people is associated with the lowest risk of meningitis?
females
Common causes of seizures in children include all of the following, EXCEPT:
hyperglycemia
A normal level of consciousness in an infant or child is characterized by:
age-appropriate behavior, good muscle tone, and good eye contact.
A child may begin to show signs of separation anxiety as early as:
6 months.
The first month of life after birth is referred to as the:
neonatal period.
The purpose of the pediatric assessment triangle (PAT) is to:
allow you to rapidly and visually form a general impression of the child.
Which of the following statements regarding the use of nasopharyngeal airways in children is correct?
They are rarely used in infants younger than 1 year
An oropharyngeal airway should not be used in children who have ingested a caustic or petroleum-based product because it may:
cause the child to vomit
A viral infection that may cause obstruction of the upper airway in a child is called:
croup
The EMT should be MOST concerned when a child presents with fever and
a rash
Drawing in of the muscles between the ribs or of the sternum during inspiration is called
retracting
Bruising to the _________ is LEAST suggestive of child abuse
shins
Febrile seizures are MOST common in children between:
6 months and 6 years
Which of the following is the LEAST reliable assessment parameter to evaluate when determining the presence of shock in infants and children?
blood pressure
A 6-month-old male presents with 2 days of vomiting and diarrhea. He is conscious, but his level of activity is decreased. The infant’s mother tells you that he has not had a soiled diaper in over 12 hours. The infant’s heart rate is 140 beats/min and his anterior fontanelle appears to be slightly sunken. You should suspect:
moderate dehydration
A 6-year-old male presents with acute respiratory distress. His mother states that she saw him put a small toy into his mouth shortly before the episode began. The child is conscious, obviously frightened, and is coughing forcefully. You should:
encourage him to cough, give oxygen as tolerated, and transport
When questioning the parent of a child who ingested a poisonous substance, which of the following questions would be of LEAST pertinence?
Why did your child ingest the poison?
When assessing an 8-year-old child, you should:
talk to the child, not just the caregiver
Which of the following findings is LEAST suggestive of child abuse
consistency in the method of injury reported by the caregiver
Signs and symptoms of meningitis in the infant or child include all of the following, EXCEPT:
sunken fontanelles
Signs of severe dehydration in an infant include all of the following, EXCEPT:
slowed level of activity
In contrast to adults, deterioration to cardiac arrest in infants and children is usually associated with:
severe hypoxia and bradycardia
Which of the following statements regarding preschool-age children is correct?
They can usually identify painful areas when questioned
Early signs of respiratory distress in the child include
restlessness
Which of the following statements regarding a 3-month-old infant is correct?
A 3-month-old infant can distinguish a parent from a stranger
Signs of an upper airway obstruction in an infant or child include all of the following, EXCEPT:
wheezing
When a child is struck by a car, the area of greatest injury depends MOSTLY on the
size of the child and the height of the bumper upon impact
Before positioning an infant or child’s airway, you should
place him or her on a firm surface
Which of the following is NOT a known risk factor of SIDS?
putting a baby to sleep on his or her back
If the situation allows, a child should be transported in a car seat if he or she weighs less than _____ lb
40
Immediate transport is indicated for a child when he or she
has a history suggestive of a serious illness
The suture of the anterior fontanelle is typically closed by _____ months of age, and the suture of the posterior fontanelle is typically closed by _____ months of age
18, 6
Capillary refill time is MOST reliable as an indicator of end-organ perfusion in children younger than:
6 years
Which of the following is MORE common in children than in adults following a head injury?
nausea and vomiting
the purpose of the pediatric assessment triangle (PAT) is to:
allow you to rapidly and visually form a general impression of the child.
the components of the pediatric assessment triangle (PAT) are:
appearance, work of breathing, and skin circulation
a normal level of consciousness in an infant or child is characterized by:
age-appropriate behavior, good muscle tone, and good eye contact
early signs of respiratory distress in the pediatric patient include all of the following except:
cyanosis
after forming a general impression of a sick or injured child, you should:
perform a hands-on assessment of the ABC’s
before assessing the respiratory adequacy of an unconscious infant or child, you must:
ensure that the airway is patent and clear of obstructions
to ensure that the airway of an infant or small child is correctly positioned, you may have to:
place a towel or folded sheet behind the shoulders
all of the following are normal findings in an infant of child, except:
head bobbing
drawing in of the muscles between the ribs or of the sternum during inspiration is called:
retracting
a high-pitched inspiratory sound that indicates a partial upper airway obstruction is called:
stridor
signs of impending respiratory arrest in the infant or child include all of the following except:
nasal flaring
when assessing the heart rate of a 6 month old infant, you should palpate the brachial or ______ artery
femoral
after determining that an infant or child has strong pulses, you should:
not rule out compensated shock
capillary refill time (CRT) id most reliable as an indicator of end-organ perfusion on children less than:
6 years of age
after squeezing the end of a child’s finger or toe for a few seconds, blood should return to the area within:
2 seconds
how long do infants sleep a day 0 – 2 months
up to 16 hours
basic needs of an infant 0 – 2 months
kept warm, dry, and fed
% of infants that sleep through the night at 6 months old
70%
what can be a sign of illness, depressed mental status, or delay in development in a 2 – 6 month old
a lack of eye contact
this makes a 6 – 12 month old more likely to have foreign body aspirations or poisonings
teething starts so they put things in their mouth
how to assess an infant
let parent hold them
warm your hands and the stethoscope
infant age range
0 – 12 months
toddler age range
1 – 3 years
this age begins to walk and talk
12 – 18 months
preschooler age range
3 – 6 years
this age has a vast imagination that may make treatment difficult
preschooler
S/S: pediatric patient with pale skin, weak radial pulse, delayed cap refill
inadequate perfusion
why is the pediatric brain more susceptible to secondary brain damage than an adults
it requires more oxygen and glucose, also glucose stores are limited in the pediatric patient therefore hypotension and hypoxic events are more dangerous
why are pediatric patients more prone to gastrointestinal injuries
abdominal muscles are less developed
liver and spleen are proportionally larger
organs positioned more anteriorly
fontanelle assessment
bulging for increased cranial pressure
sunken in for dehydration
fontanelle’s close at what time
anterior 18 months
posterior 6 months
skin and subcutaneous fat layer of a pediatric
its thinner and BSA to body mass ratio is larger which both lead to greater heat loss and fluid loss
PAT (pediatric assessment triangle)
15 to 30 sec assessment:
appearance
work of breathing
circulation of skin
TICLS
tone
interactiveness
consolability
look or gaze
speech or cry
mottling of the skin
blotchiness that indicates poor perfusion due to vasoconstriction
GCS
eye opening – 1 to 4
verbal – 1 to 5
motor – 1 to 6
infant blood pressure
adult blood pressure
infant – 70 to 95
adult – 90 to 140
most common cause of respiratory emergencies in children
asthma
S/S of child in respiratory distress
wheezing, grunting
nasal flaring
accessory muscle use
tripod position
leading cause of death in children worldwide
pneumonia
S/S: stiff neck, irritability, headache, bulging fontanel
meningitis
S/S: poor skin turgor, sunken fontanels, look sleepy, lips and gums will be dry or sunken
dehydration
body temp at which it is considered abnormal
100.4 F (38 C)
what is shaken baby syndrome
the shaking tore blood vessels in the brain, resulting in bleeding around the brain and coma or death
what is SIDS and when does it occur
sudden infant death syndrome where death is unexplained; occurs in children < 1year old
what factors increase risk of SIDS
mother younger than 20 years old
mother smoked during pregnancy
low birth weight
cap refill time is most reliable in children younger than
6 years
the most ominous sign of impending cardiopulmonary arrest in infants and children is
bradycardia
a child may begin to show signs of separation anxiety as early as
6 months
a common sign of shock in an infant is
dehydration from vomit and diarrhea
S/S: cherry red spots or a purplish rash
N meningitides
spinal injuries in pediatrics are likely to be where
most likely to be an injury of the ligaments because of rapid movement of the head
Pediatrics are more prone to the following
Upper airway obstruction
Lower airway disease
Respiratory distress/failure/arrest
What to do if you suspect abuse
Report based on your protocols
What age group do you start assessment from head to feet
School age
What is a child’s oxygen demand in comparison to an adults
Twice that of an adult
How does a child vs adult differ in compensating for decreased perfusion
Adult has vasoconstriction
Child increases the heart rate
Why are kids more prone to abdominal injury
Their abdominal muscles are less developed; also their ribs are very flexible
How do kids compensate with injury or disease
They compensate very well but crash really fast; therefore if a kid is bradycardic it’s bad
Thinner skin and subcutaneous layer make a kid more prone to
Hypothermia and deep burns
Bradypnea in a child means what
Impending cardiatic arrest
Hands on ABCs in a child
Airway
Breathing
Circulation
Disability
Exposure
When to transport a child in a car seat
When less than 40lbs
Is blood pressure assessed in child
Not usually in a child younger than 3 because it is not reliable and if the bp is low the child is crashing
How to assess a child’s bp
Children from 1 to 10 years old
70 + (2*childs age in years)
What order to assess a child’s vitals
First respirations,
Then pulse,
Finally bp
Most important 3 things to monitor in child
Respiratory effort
Skin color and condition
LOC
A prolonged asthma attack may result in
Status asthmaticus
This is more common in males, presents in first 2 years of child’s life, often a result from RSV
Bronchiolotis
Hyperthermia differs from fever in that it is an increase in body temperature
caused by inability of the body to cool itself
When caring for an infant who was found apneic and cyanotic and was resuscitated by the parent or caregiver, you should
transport the infant to the hospital.
The MOST common cause of dehydration in children is
vomiting and diarrhea.
When caring for an ill 5-year-old male, you should
avoid separating him from his parents or caregivers when possible.
Pale skin in a child indicates that the
blood vessels near the skin are constricted.
A tube from the brain to the abdomen that drains excessive cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is called a
shunt
Which of the following statements regarding a decreased level of consciousness in the elderly patient is correct?
A decresed level of consciousness is not a normal part of the aging process
Causes of infant death that may be mistaken for SIDS include all of the following, EXCEPT: a) meningitis b) severe infection c) hyperglycemia d) child abuse
hyperglycemia
Which of the following factors is associated with the lowest risk of meningitis?
Female gender
Because a tracheostomy tube bypasses the nose and mouth
secretions can build up in and around the tube
Greenstick fractures occur in infants and children because
their bones bend more easily than an adult’s.
Death caused by shaken baby syndrome is usually the result of
bleeding in the brain
Which of the following should make you MOST suspicious for child abuse? a) Willingness of the child to speak b) Worried or crying parents c) A laceration to the child’s chin d) Bruises in various stages of healing
d) Bruises in various stages of healing
Children with Neisseria meningitidis (N. meningitidis) would MOST likely present with
cherry-red spots or a purplish rash
When assessing or treating an adolescent patient, it is important to remember that
they usually do not wish to be observed during a procedure
The first month of life after birth is MOST appropriately referred to as the
neonatal period
An infant’s fontanels should close completely by the time he or she is
18 months old
When caring for a child with suspected meningitis, it is MOST important for the EMT-B to
adhere to BSI precautions
When a child experiences a blunt injury to the abdomen
he or she can compensate for blood loss better than adults.
A child may begin to show signs of stranger anxiety as early as
12 months
Common complications associated with central intravenous (IV) lines include all of the following, EXCEPT: a) clotting of the line b) rupture of a central vein c) bleeding around the line d) a local infection
b) rupture of a central vein
Which of the following is NOT a known risk factor of SIDS?
A.mother younger than 20 years
B.mother smoked during pregnancy
C.low birth weight
D.putting a baby to sleep on his or her back
D.putting a baby to sleep on his or her back
You are dispatched to a residence for a child with respiratory distress. The patient, an 18-month-old female, is tachypneic, has sternal retractions, and is clinging to her mother. Her skin is pink and dry and her heart rate is 120 beats/min. The MOST appropriate treatment for this child includes:
Administrating blow by oxygen and transporting the child with her mother
Bruising to the _______ is LEAST suggestive of child abuse.
Shins
With regard to the legal implications of child abuse
EMT-Bs must report all suspected cases of child abuse
Which of the following statements regarding pediatric trauma is MOST correct? a) Children are less likely than adults to be struck by a car b) Children are more likely to experience diving-related injuries c) The child’s head is less frequently injured than an adult’s d) Inexperience and poor judgment are rare causes of pediatric trauma
b) Children are more likely to experience diving-related injuries.
The primary mechanism that a child’s body uses to compensate for decreased perfusion is
an increase in heart rate
Unless he or she is critically ill or injured, you should generally begin your assessment of a toddler
at the hands or feet
Which of the following statements regarding use of the pneumatic antishock garment (PASG) in children is MOST correct?
They are rarely used in treating children with traumatic shock.
During the attempted resuscitation of an infant with suspected SIDS
allow the family to observe if they wish
Burns in children are commonly caused by all of the following, EXCEPT: a) scalding water in a bathtub b) entrapment in a structural fire c) exposure to caustic chemicals d) hot items on a stovetop
b) entrapment in a structural fire
Capillary refill time is MOST reliable as an indicator of end-organ perfusion in children younger than:
6 years
Submersion injuries in the adolescent age group are MOST commonly associated with
alcohol
A 13-year-old child is on a home ventilator. The parents called because the ventilator is malfunctioning. You should
discontinue the ventilator and ventilate with a BVM device
Febrile seizures are MOST common in children between
6 months and 6 years of age.
The EMT-B should be MOST concerned when a child presents with fever and
a rash
When questioning the parent of a child who ingested a poisonous substance, which of the following questions would be of LEAST pertinence? a) Why did your child ingest the poison? b) What time did the ingestion occur? c) Do you know what substance was ingested? d) Have you noticed any signs or symptoms?
a) Why did your child ingest the poison?
When a child experiences a blunt chest injury
the flexible ribs can be compressed without breaking
Compared to an adult, the diaphragm dictates the amount of air that a child inspires because the
intercostal muscles are not well developed.
Which of the following statements regarding preschool-age children is MOST correct? a) The preschool age begins after the child turns 2 years old b) They realize that injuries are not a form of punishment c) They can usually identify painful areas when questioned d) Preschoolers are usually not fearful of pain or separation
c) They can usually identify painful areas when questioned.
Critical burns in children include
partial-thickness burns covering greater than 20% of the body surface
When assessing an 8-year old child, you should
talk to the child, not just the caregiver
Which of the following statements regarding a pediatric patient’s anatomy is correct? (Needs options)
Children have a larger, rounder occiput compared to adults
Which of the following statements regarding sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) is MOST correct? a) SIDS is most commonly the result of an overwhelming infection b) Most cases of SIDS occur in infants younger than 6 months of age c) The cause of death following SIDS can be established by autopsy d) Certain cases of SIDS are predictable and therefore preventable
b) Most cases of SIDS occur in infants younger than 6 months of age.
When a child is struck by a car, the area of the greatest injury depends MOSTLY on the
size of the child and the height of the bumper upon impact
Signs and symptoms of meningitis in the infant or child include all of the following, EXCEPT: a) headache and fever b) an altered mental status c) a stiff or painful neck d) sunken fontanels
d) sunken fontanels
Common causes of seizures in children include all of the following, EXCEPT
hyperglycemia
Which of the following is MORE common in children than in adults following a head injury? a) Loss of consciousness b) Seizures and hypoxia c) Nausea and vomiting d) Spinal cord injury
c) Nausea and vomiting
The normal respiratory rate for a newborn should not exceed ____ breaths per minute.
60
Signs of an upper airway obstruction in an infant or child include all of the following, EXCEPT:
A.wheezing
B.stridorous breathing
C.a cough that resembles the bark of a seal
D.a weak cough
A.wheezing
After using the PAT to form your general impression of a sick or injured child, you should:
perform a hands-on assessment of the ABCs.
Immediate transport is indicated for a child when he or she:
has a history suggestive of a serious illness
Effective methods for providing pain relief to a child with an extremity injury include:
positioning, ice packs, and emotional support.
Common causes of seizures in children include all of the following, EXCEPT:
A.infection
B.electrolyte imbalances
C.hyperglycemia
D.poisonings or ingestion
C.hyperglycemia
A child may begin to show signs of separation anxiety as early as:
6 months
An 8-year-old female with a history of asthma continues to experience severe respiratory distress despite being given multiple doses of her prescribed albuterol by her mother. She is conscious, but clearly restless. Her heart rate is 130 beats/min and her respiratory rate is 30 breaths/min. She is receiving high-flow oxygen via a nonrebreathing mask. You should:
be prepared to assist her ventilations, transport at once, and request an ALS intercept en route to the hospital.
After squeezing the end of a child’s finger or toe for a few seconds, blood should return to the area within:
2 seconds
Before assessing the respiratory adequacy of an unconscious infant or child, you must:
ensure that the airway is patent and clear of obstructions.
Cardiac arrest in the pediatric population is MOST commonly the result of:
respiratory or circulatory failure.
Compared to adults, the liver and spleen of pediatric patients are more prone to injury and bleeding because they are:
proportionately larger and situated more anteriorly.
Drawing in of the muscles between the ribs or of the sternum during inspiration is called:
retracting
Early signs of respiratory distress in the pediatric patient include all of the following, EXCEPT:
cyanosis.
Febrile seizures in a child:
may indicate a serious underlying illness.
If a nasopharyngeal airway is too long, it may:
stimulate the vagus nerve
when assessing the heart rate of a 6 month old infant. you should palpate the brachial pulse or _____ pulse.
femoral
An infant with severe dehydration would be expected to present with:
absent urine output
In most children, febrile seizures are characterized by:
generalized tonic-clonic activity, a duration of less than 15 minutes, and a short or absent postictal phase
Padding underneath the torso when immobilizing an injured child is generally not necessary if he or she is:
older than 8 to 10 years
A common cause of shock in an infant is:
dehydration from vomiting diarrhea
Which of the following children would benefit the LEAST from a nonrebreathing mask?
an unresponsive 5 year old male with shallow respirations
When assessing an infant’s ventilation status, you should:
palpate the abdomen for rise and fall
Use of a nonrebreathing mask or nasal cannula in a child is appropriate ONLY if:
his or her tidal volume is adequate
Which of the following statement regarding a pediatric patient’s anatomy is correct?
children have larger, rounder occiput compared to adults
The signs and symptoms of poisoning in children:
vary widely,depending on the child’s age and weight
Which of the following statements regarding spinal injuries in pediatric patients is correct?
If the cervical spine is injured, it is most likely to be an injury to the ligaments because of rapid movement of the head
The suture of the anterior fontanelle is typically closed by__ months of age, and the suture of the posterior fontanelle is typically closed by__ months of age
18, 6
Which of the following statement regarding a 3 month old infant is correct?
A 3 month old infant can distinguish a parent from a stranger
A 6 year old male presents with acute respiratory distress. His mother states that she saw him put a small toy into his mouth shortly before the episode began. the child is conscious, obviously frightened, and is coughing forcefully. You should:
encourage him to cough, give oxygen as tolerated, and transport
You are dispatched to a local elementary school for an injured child. As you approach the child, you note that he is lying at the base of the monkey bars, he is unresponsive and there are no signs of breathing. You should:
stabilize his head and check for a pulse
Blood pressure is usually not assessed in children younger than___years.
3
When ventilating a pediatric patient with a bag mask device, the EMT should:
block the pop off valve if needed to achieve adequate chest rise
The MOST efficient way to identify the appropriately sized equipment for a pediatric patient is to:
use a length based resuscitation tape measure
When caring for a female child who has possibly been sexually abused, you should:
have a female EMT remain with her if possible
A 4 year old female ingested an unknown quantity of liquid drain cleaner. Your assessment reveals that she is conscious and alert, is breathing adequately, and had skin burns around her mouth. You should:
monitor her airway and give oxygen
A 2 year old female has experienced a seizure. when you arrive at the scene, that child is conscious, crying, and clinging to her mother. Her skin is hot and moist. The mother tells you that the seizure lasted approximately 5 minutes. She further tells you that her daughter has no history of seizures, but has had a recent ear infection. You should:
attempt cooling measures, offer oxygen, and transport
You respond to a skate park where a 10-year-old male fell from his skateboard and struck his head on the ground; he was not wearing a helmet. He is responsive to painful stimuli only and has a large hematoma to the back of his head. After your partner stabilizes his head and opens his airway, you assess his breathing and determine that it is slow and irregular. His pulse is slow and bounding. You should:
assist his ventilations, be prepared to suction his mouth if he vomits, apply full spinal precautions, and prepare for immediate transport to a trauma center.
You are dispatched to a residence for a child with respiratory distress. The patient, an 18 month old female, is tachypneic, has sternal retractions, and is clinging to her mother. Her skin is pink and dry, and her heart rate is 120 beats/min. The MOST appropriate treatment for this child includes:
administering blow-by oxygen and transporting the child with her mother.
To ensure that the airway of an infant or small child is correctly positioned, you may have to:
place a towel or folded sheet behind the shoulders
Infection should be a possible cause of an airway obstruction in an infant or child, especially if he or she presents with:
drooling or congestion
The MOST ominous sign of impending cardiopulmonary arrest in infants and children is:
bradycardia
An infant or child with respiratory distress will attempt to keep his or her alveoli expanded at the end of inhalation by
grunting
Signs of severe dehydration in an infant include all of the following, EXCEPT
Slowed level of activity
Before positioning an infant or child’s airway, you should
place him or her on a firm surface
A 6 month old male presents with 2 days of vomiting and diarrhea. He is conscious, but his level of activity is decreased. The infant’s mother tells you that he has not had a soiled diaper in over 12 hours. The infant’s heart rate is 140 beats/min and his anterior fontanelle appears to be slightly sunken. You should suspect
moderate dehydration
The MOST accurate method for determining if you are delivering adequate tidal volume to a child during bag mask ventilations is to:
observe the chest for adequate rise
All of the following are normal findings in an infant or child, EXCEPT:
A.quiet breathing
B.belly breathing
C.fear or anxiety
D.head bobbing
D.head bobbing
Which of the following inquiries should you make in private when obtaining a SAMPLE history from an adolescent patient?
sexual activity
When administering oxygen to a frightened child, it would be MOST appropriate to
place oxygen tubing through a hole in a paper cup
After determining that an infant or child has strong central pulses, you should
not rule out compensated shock
When immobilizing an injured child in a pediatric immobilization device, you should
secure the torso before the head
If the situation allows, a child should be transported in a car seat if he or she weighs less than __lb.
40
An oropharyngeal airway should not be used in children who have ingested a caustic or petroleum based product because it may
cause the child to vomit

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