Combo with World history chapter 15 test Eddy and 1 other

Combo with World history chapter 15 test Eddy and 1 other

encomienda system
system in Spanish America that gave settlers the right to tax local Indians or to demand their labor in exchange for protecting them and teaching them skills.
peons
workers forced to labor for a landlord in order to pay off debt
encomiendas
rights to demand taxes or labor from Native Americans
viceroy
a governor or ruler exercising authority on behalf of a sovereign in a province or colony
Bartolome las Casas
Spaniard who fought for Native American rights against encomienda system
peninsulares
People living in the New World Spanish colonies but born in Spain. highest positions
mestizos
The Mestizos were the race of people created when the Spanish intermarried with the surviving Indians in Mexico.
mulattoes
In colonial Latin America, Spanish/African who were denied basic political, economic, and social rights due to their mixed heritage.
privateer
pirates
Treaty of Tordesillas
by what treaty did Portugal claim its empire ?
king set up the council of Indies to pass laws for the colonies
appointed viceroys
How did the spain rule its Empire in Americas
creole
person in Spain’s colonies in the Americas who was an American-born descendent of Spanish settlers
converting native americans to christianity
What was as important to Spain as important as gaining land
european clothing, carpentry, Spanish language,locksmith
what else missionaries introduce
silver and gold, sugar cane
what was most valuable resource shipped to Spain from the Americas
encomienda system
system in Spanish America that gave settlers the right to tax local Indians or to demand their labor in exchange for protecting them and teaching them skills
ate food from Americas, traveled in Indian Style canoes
Europeans taught their religion and introduced animals especially horses
Africans contributed with their farming methods, cooking styles and crops
africans in cuba and haiti blended African and Christian beliefs
how did the blending of diverse traditions change peoples lives in the Americas?
to educate priests
Why did the Church build universities in the Americas
convents
women who wanted an education went to _____
Juana Ines de la Cruz
who was one of the greatest women poets to rite poetry in Spanish language?
European wealth and power
Broad avenues and public monuments symbolized_______ in the towns and cities
conquistador
a Spanish conqueror of the Americas seized the Native Americans gold
immunity
resistance
seized their gold ornaments made them pan for gold made them convert to Christianityguns and cannons were superior
brought disease helped them take control because Europeans brought over disease that Native Americans had no immunity to
how did the Spanish conquistadors treat the Tainos
Herman Cortes
He was a Spanish explorer who conquered the Native American civilization of the Aztecs in 1519 in what is now Mexico.
Tenochtitlan
Capital city of the Aztec Empire,located where Mexico City stands now
Malinche
a young Indian woman who served as a translator and adviser to Hernan Cortes
alliances
agreements between countries to support one another against enemies Aztecs and Spanish
Moctezuma
Aztec Ruler, mistook Cortes to be god and welcomed him into the empire. Offered him gifts, but was killed nonetheless.
Francisco Pizzarro
This Spanish military commander conquered the Inca of South America near modern day Peru.
civil war
War fought between two groups of people in the same nation
New France
French colony in North America, with a capital in Quebec, founded 1608. New France fell to the British in 1763.
revenue
the money a government collects from taxes or other sources
Pilgrims
Group of English Protestant dissenters (separatists) who established Plymouth Colony in Massachusetts in 1620 to seek religious freedom after having lived briefly in the Netherlands.
compact
an agreement, or contract, among a group of people
Mayflower Compact
A document written by the Pilgrims establishing themselves as a political society and setting guidelines for self-government.
French and Indian War
this struggle between the British and the French in the colonies of the North America was part of a worldwide war known as the Seven Years’ War
Treaty of Paris
This ended the long conflict between Britain & France and ended French power in North America (1763)
A three way system of trade during 1600-1800s Africa sent slaves to America, America sent Raw Materials to Europe, and Europe sent
Guns and Rum to Africa
What was the triangular trade and how did it work
Olaudah Equiano
African who was enslaved and brought to North America in 1756. He later wrote a book about the journey from West Africa to the colonies.
Middle Passage
middle leg of the triangular trade route that brought captured Africans to the Americas to serve as slaves
mutiny
Rebellion against any authority
Colonial economies grew and merchant and certain industries thrived.
how did triangular trade affect colonial economies?
The war was fought because both the France and England claimed the same valuable land around the Great Lakes and Ohio and Mississippi Rivers.
Why was the French Indian war fought?
religious freedom profit gifts from English kings
what reasons were the 13 colonies established
by trying to escape, overcoming their captors, or killing themselves
how did enslaved africans resist captivity?
Columbian Exchange
The exchange of plants, animals, diseases, and technologies between the Americas and the rest of the world following Columbus’s voyages
inflation
a rise in prices and a decrease in the value of money
price revolution
Period in European History when inflation rose rapidly
1. Because in the 1700s there was a great dispersal of new food crops from the Americas that was distributed from continent to continent.(especially beans, corn, and potatoes.)
why did the global population explode
entrepreneurs
a person who organizes, manages, and takes on the risks of a business
mercantilism
an economic policy under which nations sought to increase their wealth and power by obtaining large amounts of gold and silver and by selling more goods than they bought
capitalism
an economic and political system in which a country’s trade and industry are controlled by private owners for profit
conquistadors
spanish soldiers and explorers who led military expeditions in the Americas and captured land for Spain
Jaques Cartier
French explorer who discovered the st. lawrence river, and claimed much of present day Canada for France
viceroys
Royal governors sent by Spain to rule in the King’s name.
encomiendas
a system used to force native americans to labor under brutal conditions,
Francisco Pizzarro
Spanish explorer who led the conquest of the Inca Empire of Peru in 1531-1533.
Why did the population of New France grow slowly?
Because wealthy landowners bought large tracts to farm land-harsh climate so French peasants would not go there
entrepreneurs
people who take financial risk to make profits, who start new businesses, introduce new products, and improve management techniques
Monctezuma
leader of the Aztecs; believed Cortez was quetzelcoatl (God) killed in battle
privateers
pirates who operated with the approval of european governments
mercantilism
an economic system (Europe in 18th C)based on a nation exporting more goods than it imports
Hernan Cortes
Spanish conquistador who defeated the Aztecs and conquered Mexico (1485-1547)
middle passage
the route in between the western ports of Africa to the Caribbean and southern U.S. that carried the slave trade
capitalism
an economic system in which investment in and ownership of the means of production, distribution, and exchange of wealth is made and maintained chiefly by private individuals or corporations, esp. as contrasted to cooperatively or state-owned means of wealth.
price revolution
a dramatic rise in prices (inflation). A major problem in europe in the sixteenth and early seventeenth centuries, causes economic collapse in Spain
treaty of
Tordesillas
a 1494 agreement between Portugal and Spain, declaring that newly discovered lands to the west of an imaginary line in the Atlantic Ocean would belong to Spain and newly discovered lands to the east of the line would belong to Portugal.
Why was the colony of Pennsylvania established?
so there could be a colony with the freedom of religion.
How were spanish colonies governed?
with the counsel of Indies
What was the first permanent colony established in america?
Jamestown
How did joint stock companies help european capitalists?
they alowed them people to pool large amonts of capital needed for overseas ventures.
How was cortes able to defeat the aztecs?
Spanish had superior weapons,help from other native groups,spread of European disease
Why did inflation hit europe?
enormous amount of silver and gold flowing into Europe from America
How did spain ensure their colonies would be profitable?
closely controlled trade, colonists could only export raw materials to Spain and could only buy manufactured goods from Spain
who formed alliances with conquered people who hated the Aztecs?
Hernan Cortez
Francisco Pizarro
The conquistador who added the lands of the present day countries of Peru, Ecuador and Chile to the spanish Empire
Peninsulares
At the top of spanish colonial society
Treaty of Tordesillas
In 1494 portugal claimed its empire of Brazil
Why did the population of New France grow slowly?
Harsh winters kept many French from settling there
The english colonies of Masachusetts, Pennsylvannia, and Maryland were mainly set up as?
havens for persecuted religious groups
The first leg of the triangular trade route was?
brought European goods to Africa
What is an estimate of the number of Africans that probably died in passge to the Americas during the African slave trade?
2 million
Widespread inflation struck Europe in the mid-1500’s due to ?
increasing amounts of silver and gold form the americas
What mercantilist policy was designed to protect local industries form foreign competition?
Tariffs increased the price of imported goods
When he encountered the Taino people in the West Indies, Christopher Columbus?
claimed their land for the Spanish king
What are creoles?
native born descendants of Spanish settlers
What did Spain do to ensure that its colonies would be profitable?
Established strict trade laws for its colonies
In 1607 where did the English establish their first permanent colony in the Americas?
Jamestown, Virginia
What lands did Britain gain as a result of the Treaty of Paris in 1763?
Canada and all French lands east of the Mississippi river
What foods were first introduced to the Americas by Europeans through the columbian exchange?
wheat and grapes
How did Spain try to change its American colonies with the New law of the Indies in 1542?
The laws forbade enslavement and abuse of native americans
What is true about capitalism?
It encourages private ownership of most businesses
Joint stock companies allowed early European capitalists to ?
raise large amounts of capital
What did Spanish do in their effort to gain control of the Incas
They captured the Inca ruler Atahualpa
The period in European history in the 1500’s when rising inflation rose rapidly is known as?
the price revolution
Why were the salve ships known as floating coffins
half the Africans died from disease
brutal mistreatment
*suicide
How did Malinche influence the Americas
help Cortes make alliances with groups of natives that were conquered by Aztecs