Comparison of English and Macedonian Adjectives

COMPARISON OF ENGLISH AND MACEDONIAN ADJECTIVES An adjective modifies a noun. It describes the quality, state or action that a noun refers to. Macedonian Adjectives are words that describe or modify another person or thing in the sentence. While in English an adjective doesn’t change when the noun changes, in Macedonian an adjective should agree in gender and number with the noun.

For example: a) Masculine to feminine example: ??? ? ????? ??? ??? (this is my little son) becomes: ??? ? ?????? ???? ????? (this is my little daughter) As you can see from the example above, the adjective comes before the noun and also takes the feminine form. ) Singular to plural example: ??? ? ?????? ???? ????? (this is my white cat) becomes: ??? ?? ????? ???? ?????. (these are my white cats). As you can see from the example above, the adjective comes before the noun and also takes the plural form.

The most common suffixes added on the adverbs are: -For masculine gender: -/ (none) ex: ??? ???? (small boat) -For feminine gender: – a ex: ???? ???? (small house) -For neuter gender: – o ex: ???? ???? (small child) -For plural: – ? ex:???? ??????? (small toys) Here are some examples: English AdjectivesMacedonian Adjectives green tree- ?????? ???? a tall building- ?????? ?????? a very old man – ????? ???? ????? the old red house- ??????? ?????? ???? a very nice friend – ????? ??? ???????? In Macedonian, Adjectives agree with nouns in gender, definiteness, and number, and they usually stay before the noun in a sentence. The comparative and the superlative form are formed analytically adding ??- (po-) for comparative, and ???- (naj-) for superlative, to the basic adjective form. If there are more than one adjectives before the noun, all of them agree in gender and number with the noun, but only the first adjective 1 et the definite articles morphemes, and the other adjectives keep their basic form. Adjectives in Macedonian usually have these endings: masculine adjectives – ending on consonant, on -??? (-ski), -??/-?? (-ov/-ev) etc. ; ?????, ??????, ?????… feminine adjectives are formed by adding -a to the masuciline form (consonant+a, or -ska, -eva, -ova etc. ); ??????, ??????, ??????… neuter adjectives are formed by adding -o to the masuciline form (consonant+o, or -sko, -evo, -ovo etc. ; ??????, ??????, ??????… plural form is same for all three genders and is formed by adding -? (-i) to the masculine form (consonant+i, -ski, ovi, evi etc. ) – ??????, ??????, ??????… – You can notice that the plural form of the adjectives ending on -ski is same as the masuline singular form. Adjectives agree with nouns in gender, number and definiteness with their noun and usually appear before it. Adjectives have three degrees of comparison (??????????? ?? ????????, stepenuvanje na pridavki) – positive, comparative and superlative.

The positive form is identical to all the aforementioned forms. The other two are formed regularly, by prepending the particle ?? and the word ??? directly before the positive to form the comparative and superlative, respectively, regardless of its comprising one or two words. Positive Comparative Superlative ????? (heavy)??????? (heavier) ???????? (heaviest) ???? (long) ?????? (longer) ??????? (longest) Macedonian only has one adjective that has an irregular comparative – ?????.

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PositiveComparativeSuperlative ????? (a lot) ?????? (more)???????? (the most) Adjective types: – Possessive Adjectives – his, her, its, my, our, their, and your (Whose) -Demonstrative Adjectives – that, these, this, those, and what (Which? ) -Interrogative Adjectives – used to ask questions – examples: what, which and whose. 2 -Indefinite Adjectives – some common indefinite adjectives are all, any, each, every, few, many, and some. English adjectives are used in only one form: they do not distinguish gender, number or case.

English adjectives are used in 2 positions: Attributively (before nouns) ex. They bought a beautiful house. Predicatively (after nouns) ex. Their house is beautiful. AS + ADJECTIVE + AS – to compare people, places, events or things, when there is no difference, use as + adjective + as ex:Moscow is as cold as St. Petersburg in the winter. NOT AS + ADJECTIVE + AS Difference can also be shown by using not so/as … s ex:Mont Blanc is not as high as Mount Everest. COMPARATIVE + THAN To compare the difference between two people, things or events. ex: Mt. Everest is higher than Mt. Blanc. THE + SUPERLATIVE It shows which thing has that quality above or below the level of the others. There must be three or more to use the superlative. x:Mount Everest is the highest mountain in the world. Form the comparative and superlative forms of a one-syllable adjective by adding –er for the comparative form and –est for the superlative. ex:Max is older than John. If the one-syllable adjective ends with a single consonant with a vowel before it, double the consonant. ex:big bigger biggest With some common two-syllable adjectives we can either add ‘-er’ and ‘-est’, or use ‘more’ and ‘most’. x:common cruel gentle handsome likely,narrow pleasant polite simple stupid….. Note that ‘clever’ and ‘quiet’ only add ‘-er’ and ‘-est’. It was quieter outside. We use ‘more’ for the comparative and ‘most for the superlative of most two syllabic and all longer adjectives. ex:Be more careful next timeA few common adjectives and adverbs have irregular comparative and superlative forms. goodbetterbest bad-worse-worst near-nearer-nearest?????? ???????-16654 old-older-oldest(elder-eldest) 3

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