Computers and Digital Basics

1: Computers and Digital Basics TRUE/FALSE 3. Facebook and Twitter are examples of social networking options. F 6. An operating system is an example of application software. F 7. Because of increased versatility, a videogame console is now considered a personal computer. f 8. The purpose of a server is to serve computers on a network. T 9. In the binary number system, 2 is used to represent the value 2. F 10. The number 9 can be considered a character. T 11. Because most digital devices are electronic, bytes take the form of electrical pulses. F 13.

A compiler like the one shown in the accompanying figure converts all statements in a program to machine language in a single batch. T 14. An interpreter converts and executes one statement at a time. T 15. The op code specifies the data. F 16. The operand is a command word for an operation. F 17. All computers are case sensitive. F 18. Trojans are computer programs that seem to perform one function while actually doing something else. T 19. To assure you can remember your password it is a good idea to base it on information you can easily remember such as your birthday. F 20.

You should always use a different password for every account. F MODIFIED TRUE/FALSE

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1. Digital technology has made it easy to produce copies of music with no loss of quality from the original. _________________________

2. Free source projects promote copying, free distribution, peer review, and user modifications. Open

3. An area where data can be left on a permanent basis is memory. storage

4. The set of instructions that tells a computer how to carry out processing tasks is a computer program. _________________________ 5. Minicomputers were used for small businesses. ________________________

6. A(n) supercomputer is a large and expensive computer capable of simultaneously processing data for hundreds or thousands of users. mainframe

7. The term server can refer to a combination of hardware and software. _________________________

8. A(n) mainframe specializes in compute-intensive problems. supercomputer

9. A light switch is like a(n) analog device. digital

10. DIPs and PGAs are both shapes of integrated circuits. _________________________

11. The results of statements that have been compiled are called object code. _________________________

12. A set of machine language instructions for a program is called source code. machine 13. The ALU uses registers to hold data that is being processed. _________________________

14. A(n) keylogger is a form of malicious code. _________________________

15. A(n) account manager stores user IDs with their corresponding passwords and automatically fills in login forms. password

MULTIPLE CHOICE

1. Digital electronics use electronic ____ to represent data. a. circuits c. transistors b. switches d. components

2. Key factors in making electronic devices increasingly smaller and less expensive include ____. . transistors c. both a and b b. integrated circuits d. neither a nor b

3. The first digital computers were built during World War II for ____. a. census taking c. communication b. code breaking d. troop placement

4. Initially sales were slow for the personal computer because of ____. a. price c. lack of software b. size d. lack of availability

5. In 1982, the percentage of households that had a computer was fewer than ____ percent. a. 10 c. 50 b. 30 d. 70

6. A global computer network originally developed as a military project is the ____. a. World Wide Web c. Wide-area network b. Internet d. Local-area network

7. ____ allow members to post comments and questions that can be read and responded to by others. a. E-mail lists c. Chat groups b. Bulletin boards d. Social networks

8. ____ are where people exchange typed messages in real time. a. E-mail lists c. Chat groups b. Bulletin boards d. Online social networks

9. ____ provide a space for interacting with friends or friends of those friends. a. E-mail lists c. Chat groups b. Bulletin boards d. Online social networks

10. A group of computers linked by wired or wireless technology is a(n) ____. a. network c. cyberspace . Web d. Internet

11. The ____ is a collection of linked documents, graphics, and sounds. a. network c. cyberspace b. Web d. Internet

12. ____ is a term that refers to entities that exist largely within computer networks. a. Web c. WWW b. Internet d. Cyberspace

13. ____ is the process of converting text, numbers, sound, photos, and video into data that can be processed by digital devices. a. Digitization c. Scanning b. Digital conversion d. Rasterization

14. Technology ____ is a process by which several different technologies with distinct functionality evolve to form a single product. a. volution c. convergence b. rotation d. diversification

15. More than ____ percent of cameras sold today are digital. a. 80 c. 90 b. 85 d. 99

16. Digital imaging has had an effect in the following areas: ____. a. medicine c. photo processing b. video d. all of the above

17. ____ tools cloak a person’s identity online. a. Anonymizer c. ID free b. Free ID d. Cloaking

18. A computer is a multiple purpose device that can do all of the following EXCEPT ____. a. store data c. accept input b. process data d. think independently

19. In a computer, most processing takes place in ____. a. memory c. he CPU b. RAM d. the motherboard

20. An electronic component that can be programmed to perform tasks is a ____. a. CPU c. transistor b. microprocessor d. none of the above

21. A named collection of data that exists on a storage medium is known as (a) ____. a. memory c. file name b. file d. none of the above

22. An area of a computer that temporarily holds data waiting to be processed is ____. a. CPU c. storage b. memory d. a file

23. A set of computer programs that helps a person carry out a task is ____. a. an operating system c. application software b. system software d. Windows

24.A set of computer programs that helps a computer monitor itself and function more efficiently is ____. a. a software suite c. application software b. system software d. processing software

25. The master controller for all activities that take place within a computer is ____. a. application software c. the operating system b. system software d. the CPU 26. A(n) ____ is a microprocessor-based computing device designed to meet the computing needs of an individual. a. personal computer c. ALU b. mainframe d. server

27. An ordinary personal computer that is connected to a network is a ____. a. mainframe c. server . workstation d. console

28. A powerful desktop computer used for high-performance tasks is a ____. a. mainframe c. server b. workstation d. console

29. A compute-intensive problem runs on a ____. a. server c. supercomputer b. mainframe d. super PC

30. Data becomes ____ when it is presented in a format that people can understand and use. a. information c. graphs b. processed d. presentation

31. The type of data where text, numbers, graphics, sound, and video have been converted into discrete digits as represented in the accompanying figure is ____. a. information c. digital b. analog d. none of the above

32. The type of data that is represented using an infinite scale of values as represented in the accompanying figure is ____. a. information c. digital b. analog d. none of the above

33. The binary number 10 represents ____ in the decimal number system. a. 1 c. 10 b. 2 d. 100

34. The type of code that uses only seven bits for each character is ____. a. ASCII c. EBCDIC b. Extended ASCII d. all of the above

35. The type of code that uses eight bits for each character is ____. a. ASCII c. EBCDIC b. Extended ASCII d. all of the above

36. Digital devices can use ____ as a code to represent character data. . ASCII c. EBCDIC b. Extended ASCII d. all of the above

37. You might represent ____ using character codes. a. color dots c. Social Security numbers b. bank balances d. none of the above

38. Data transmission speeds are typically expressed as ____. a. bits c. hertz b. bytes d. none of the above

39. Storage is typically expressed as ____. a. bits c. hertz b. bytes d. none of the above

40. 1,024 bytes is a ____. a. kilobyte c. gigabyte b. megabyte d. terabyte

41. 1,048,576 bytes is a ____. a. kilobyte c. gigabyte b. megabyte d. terabyte

42. 1,073,741,824 bytes is a ____. a. kilobyte c. igabyte b. megabyte d. terabyte

43. A super-thin slice of semiconducting material packed with microscopic circuit elements is a(n) ____. a. integrated circuit c. microchip b. computer chip d. all of the above

44. The accompanying figure represents two types of chip carriers. The one on the left is a ____. a. PGA c. PID b. DIP d. GAP

45. The accompanying figure represents two types of chip carriers. The one on the right is a ____. a. PGA c. PID b. DIP d. GAP

46. The ____ houses all essential chips and provides connecting circuitry between them. a. system board c. circuit board b. ousing board d. chip board

47. C, BASIC, COBOL, and Java are examples of ____ programming languages. a. low-level c. system b. computer d. high-level

48. The human-readable version of a program is called ____. a. source code c. human code b. program code d. system code

49. A(n) ____ converts all the statements in a program in a single batch and the resulting collection of instructions is placed in a new file. a. compiler c. converter b. interpreter d. instruction

50. A(n) ____ converts and executes one statement at a time. a. compiler c. converter b. interpreter d. instruction

51. A collection of preprogrammed activities such as addition, subtraction, counting and comparison is called a(n) ____. a. compiler code c. machine code b. interpreter code d. instruction set

52. ____, as shown in the accompanying figure can be directly executed by the processors’s circuitry. a. Machine sets c. Programming language b. Machine language d. none of the above

53. The ____ is a command word for an operation such as add, compare, or jump. a. op code c. ALU b. operand d. instruction code

54. The ____ from an instruction specifies the data. a. op code c. ALU b. operand d. instruction code

55. The ____ is the part of the microprocessor that performs arithmetic operations, as shown in the accompanying figure. a. instruction pointer c. ALU b. RAM d. control unit

56. As shown in the accompanying figure, the ____ fetches each instruction. a. RAM c. ALU b. instruction pointer d. control unit

57. The accompanying figure represents the instruction cycle. The first step is Box A and represents the ____. a. fetch instruction c. execute instruction b. interpret instruction d. increment pointer

58. The accompanying figure represents the instruction cycle. The second step is Box B and represents the ____. a. etch instruction c. execute instruction b. interpret instruction d. increment pointer

59. The accompanying figure represents the instruction cycle. The third step is Box C and represents the ____. a. fetch instruction c. execute instruction b. interpret instruction d. increment pointer

60. The accompanying figure represents the instruction cycle. The fourth step is Box D and represents the ____. a. fetch instruction c. execute instruction b. interpret instruction d. increment pointer

61. In terms of an authentication protocol, the phrase ‘something a person knows’ refers to ____. a. a password c. biometrics b. n ID card d. none of the above

62. A ____ is a series of characters that becomes a person’s unique identifier. a. PIN code c. user ID b. password d. all of the above

63. In terms of an authentication protocol, the phrase ‘something a person possesses’ could refer to ____. a. a password c. biometrics b. an ID card d. none of the above

64. In terms of an authentication protocol, the phrase ‘something a person is’ refers to a(n) ____. a. password c. biometric device b. ID card d. none of the above

65. A problem a hacker can cause after breaking into your computer include(s) ____. a. applying for credit in your name c. pply for a mortgage using your data b. sending embarrassing e-mails d. all of the above

66. A term which can refer to a person who manipulates computers with malicious intent is a ____. a. black hat c. hacker b. cracker d. all of the above

67. A ____ attack uses password-cracking software. a. brute force c. phishing b. sniffing d. cracker

68. ____ intercepts information sent over computer networks. a. Brute force c. Phishing b. Sniffing d. Cracking

69. A hacker posing as a legitimate representative of an official organization such as your bank is an example of ____. a. brute force c. phishing b. sniffing d. cracking

70. Password management functions include all of the following EXCEPT ____. a. generating passwords c. providing password strength b. tracking passwords d. recording keystrokes Case-Based Critical Thinking Questions Case 1-1 Karen is trying to get organized and one of her issues is that she doesn’t know what kind of devices correspond to her needs.

71. Karen needs an appointment book and is considering one that is digital. For this one piece of equipment, she does not want the device to do anything except maintain her calendar. You suggest she consider a ____. a. PDA c. handheld computer b. smart phone d. BlackBerry

72. After you and Karen talk a little longer, she recognizes that she might need a device that in addition to her appointment book will have features such as e-mail, Web access, a built-in camera, and GPS. You suggest she consider a(n) ____. a. iPod c. handheld computer b. regular PDA d. CPU

73. If Karen were looking for a device that in addition to voice communications, offers full qwerty keypad, text messaging, e-mail, Web access, removable storage, camera, FM radio, digital music player, and software options for games, financial management, personal organizer, GPS and maps, she might consider a(n) ____. a. regular PDA c. andheld computer b. smart phone d. iPod Case-Based Critical Thinking Questions Case 1-2 Mike and Andre are discussing how quickly technology changes. They are discussing how it seems devices are merging to create new products especially in the technology field. They understand this is a process called convergence.

74. An example of an old form of convergence is a ____. a. clock radio c. television b. cell phone d. microwave oven

75. A great example of convergence in modern technology is ____. a. clock radio c. television b. cell phones d. HD-TV

76. A barrier to the rapid deployment of many products resulting from convergence is ____. . rare technology breakthroughs c. people aren’t ready b. legal issues d. both b and c Case-Based Critical Thinking Questions Case 1-3 Jim has just purchased a new computer and it has made him think about how it works. He is particularly interested in how information is processed and stored in his computer. He has come to you for help.

77. Jim wants to know why a compiler converts all statements in a program at one time and places them into an object code. You tell him it is so that ____. a. the code is ready to execute b. you can prevent the introduction of new errors c. you can put it on a chip d. one of the above

78. Jim knows that a collection of preprogrammed activities is an instruction set. He wants to know what an instruction set is designed to do. You tell him it is designed to ____. a. carry out a particular task b. allow programmers to use them in creative ways for multiple tasks c. limit the number of tasks the computer can perform d. allow the program to run on multiple machines

79. Jim wants to know what machine language instructions look like to the machine. You tell him they appear as ____. a. an op code and operand c. basic instructions, such as add b. a series of 0s and 1s d. ll of the above

80. When adding two numbers, Jim knows that each number is going into its own register and the control unit provides the instructions such as add. He wants to know where the result of the add goes. You tell him it goes to ____. a. the ALU c. the accumulator b. another register d. the printer

COMPLETION

1. An ongoing process of social, political, and economic change brought about by digital technology is the digital revolution.

2. At the consumer level, probably the most significant force driving research into fast computers and more sophisticated graphics processing is computer gaming.

3.The potential downside of convergence is quality.

4. The expectation that a person’s information will not be collected or divulged without permission is confidentiality.

5. The ownership of certain types of information, ideas, or representations is intellectual property.

6. Worldwide economic interdependence of countries that occurs as cross-border commerce increases and as money flows more freely among countries is globalization.

7. A term that refers to the gap between people who have access to technology and those who do not is the digital divide.

8. Symbols that represent facts, objects, and ideas are data.

9. The manipulation of data is called processing.

10. The concept that a series of instructions for a computing task can be loaded into memory is called a stored program.

11. Any software or digital device that requests data from a server is referred to as a(n) client.

12. The type of computer that is considered one of the fastest in the world is a(n) supercomputer.

13. A special-purpose microprocessor that is built into the machine it controls is a(n) microcontroller.

14. The term that refers to the form in which data is stored, processed, and transmitted is data representation.

15. In the accompanying figure, the type of sound wave indicated by A is analog.

16. In the accompanying figure, as indicated by B, the sound wave has been sliced into samples and so has been digitized.

17. Eight bits is a(n) byte.

18. A machine language instruction has two parts, the op code and the operand.

19. Identifying a person by personal attributes such as fingerprints or retinal patterns is called biometrics.

20. Hackers can guess your password by stepping through a dictionary. This process is called a dictionary attack.

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