Crash Course US History: Industrial Economy

One-Third
Compared to Great Britain, what was the US industrial output prior to the Civil War?
What did the Pacific Railway Act of 1862 approve?
Building a transcontinental railroad
The US was poised for an industrial boom following Reconstruction because of G.D.L…what do those letters stand for?
Geography, Demography, Law
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Name at least two natural resourses the US had an abundant amount of, which greatly aided in industrialization.
Coal, Iron, Oil, Water, People
What major factor led to the huge increase in US population growth from 1870-1920?
Massive immigration from both Europe and Asia
List the following cities in the US by the year 1900:
1) Center of commerse/trade; 2) Second largest city; 3) Leader in oil refining; 4) Leader in iron/steel production
New York; Chicago; Cleveland; Pittsburgh
Between factory workers and owners, who benefited most from US laws initially during this era?
Factory owners
List one way that the US government promoted industry.
1) Tariffs on Steel; 2) Massive land grants to railroads; 3) Native Americans placed on reservations
In what year did the majority of the workforce work in non-farming jobs?
1880
In what year did the US produce 1/3 of the world’s total industrial output?
1913
What was invented by the US railroad companies to make shipping easier and more relilable?
Time Zones
What was the name of the man who began selling watches to railroad workers, and then parlayed that into the nations first mail order catalog company?
Richard Sears (and his partner Roebuck)
Name at least one man who made millions in the railroad industry.
Vanderbilt, Carnegie, Stanford
Who did John Green incorrectly guess was the author of the mystery document?
Ida Tarbell
What two titles (opposite in nature) were the leaders of businesses known by at this time?
Titans of Industry (good) or Robber Barons (bad)
Which “robber baron” became the richest man in the world?
John D. Rockefeller
What company was the nation’s first “trust”?
Standard Oil
When a firm buys ALL means of production (raw materials, transportation, labor, production, distribution, etc)?
Vertical Intergration
When a firm buys out all of it’s competitors, thus giving them a monopoly of that product/ service?
Horizontal Intergration
The Federal government eventually made Standard Oil break up into twenty smaller companies, which today have formed the core of what corporation?
Exxon Mobile
Who founded US Steel, and who eventually bought it?
JP Morgan founded US Steel, and eventually sold it to Andrew Carnegie
How many American’s died on the job in 1890?
35,000 (#1 in the world)
What is an organization of workers designed to protect its members against the abuse of owners?
Labor union
What was the first labor union in the US?
Knights of Labor
The Knights of Labor was blamed for a riot that killed both police and bystanders at what location?
Haymarket Square
What was America’s second labor union? Who was its founder?
American Federation of Labor (AFL); Samuel Gompers
The American Federation of Labor focused on what three issues for it’s members?
Pay, Hours, Working Conditions
What theory stated that businesses evolved much like animals; those that were superior would succeed, and those that were inferior would fail.
Social Darwinism

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