Multiple Subject: History and Social Science California History

Bering Strait
Many people believe this was once a land bridge connecting Russia and Alaska; the first Americans used this to settle in North America
California Indians
Spoke a great diversity of dialects. Largest concentration of Indians in North America. Similar physical traits and features. Primarily hunter/gatherer societies. Subsistence was based almost exclusively on availble resources.
When did the earliest peoples arrive in California?
About 15,000 years ago
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Why were California’s indigenous people isolated from the cultures that developed on the Great Plains?
Rugged topography:
. mountains
. deserts
Were California’s indigenous people isolated from the cultures in Mexico?
Yes. It’s the topography thing again.
Travel by foot within a region was easy or difficult?
Why did California have a patchwork of isolated and distinct tribal groupings?
Regional relations between groups were limited b/c travel was difficult
The geologic period during which people crossed the Bering Strait land bridge into North America?
Late Pleistocene or Early Ice Age 20,000 to 30,000 years ago
Is there controversy about when people arrived in California?
Yes. Evidence from the archaeological site at Calico could push the date to 50,000.
California Indian Language
Diverse set of dialects Remember the were isolated by the topography
Were there a large number of California Indians or a small number?
Large number:
. Estimated: 150,000 – 300,000
How did the California Indian dwellings vary with location & climate?
North: frame & plank
Southern desert: brush shelters
Coast: earthen mounds
Relative to the Plains Indians, were the California Indians warlike?
Were the weapons of the California Indians very sophisticated?
No. bow and arrow, obsidian points hunting blades, spears, harpoons, clubs, and throwing sticks
What did the California Indians eat?
. Oak trees were plentiful
Acorn Preparation
. dry
. store
. crack
. leach
before eating
Transportation reflected geographic factors. What 2 kinds of boats were used?
South: balsa & raft-type boats
North: plank canoes
Shared heritage:
How was lineage traced?
Paternal side
Shared heritage:
What was smoked in ceremonies?
jimsonweed Native tobacco
Shared heritage:
Were sweathouses used by men only or both men and women?
Men only
Shared heritage:
Religions involved:
. myths . creation stories
* Shamanism

* Influence of nature

The single person who takes on the roles of priest, counselor, and physician and acts as a conduit to the supernatural world in a shamanist culture.
T/F: Shaman usually goes into a trance during rituals or when practicing divination & healing.
Shared heritage:
Ceremonies dealt with turning points of life and rites of passage such as:
* Birth
* Death
* Puberty
* Marriage
* Hunting
Shared heritage:
The fables, moral tales, included what animals?
Regional animals and natural phenomena:
. coyote . raven
. bear . snake
. thunder
Shared heritage:
Roles were sex differentiated:
Men: hunt, fish

Women: gather food & materials, killed small game

Shared heritage:
Was the oral story tradition used?
Yes, by all California Indians
Northern California tribes
1. Yurok
2. Hupa
3. Modoc
4. Pomo
Central California tribes:
1. Maidu
2. Miwok
Coastal tribes:
1. Coastal Miwok
2. Esselen
3. Chumash
Desert tribes:
1. Mojave
2. Serrano
Sierra Nevada tribes:
1. Miwok
2. Mono
Material belongs found to be similar amongst the California Indians:
1. Subsistence agricultural implements
2. Receptacles
3. Musical instruments
4. Money
Examples of agricultural implements
* Mortar & pestle
* Metate
* Grinding slab
* Digging stick
Examples of receptacles
* Baskets–most famous
* Pottery
* Wood
* Stone bowls
Examples of musical instruments
* Drum
* Rattle
* Flute
* Rasp
* Bow
Examples of money
* Clam disks and Olivella shells
Spanish Conquest
Christopher Columbus convinced the King of Spain to sponsor his voyage to Asia by the Atlantic Ocean, and thus found the Americas. The Spanish took control of the Indians and began converting them to Catholicism. Soon, the Spanish slave trade started. Disease and malnutrition decimated the Indian population.
The Seven Cities of Cibola
The place were mythical North American towns supposedly so wealthy that streets were paved with gold.with Amazon like women who used golden weapons.
Why did Spain presume possession of California but pay it little attention?
Spain focussed on richer parts of empire in
. Mexico . Peru . Phillipines
How did the Spanish end up exploring the Baja peninsula?
In 1530s Cortes was in search of Seven Cities of Cibola
What was Spain’s reason to explore?
Conquest & Wealth
Cabrillo discovered what 4 spots?
1. San Diego Bay
2. Santa Barbara Islands
3. Point Conception
4. Point Reyes
What kind of passage was Cabrillo searching for?
A water passage between the Pacific and Atlantic
Sir Francis Drake
English explorer/pirate who circumnavigated the globe from 1577 to 1580 and was sent by Queen Elizabeth I to raid Spanish ships/settlements for gold
What inspired Spain to finally colonize California?
Drake’s claim in 1579 and the threat by England
What were the next 2 safe harbors discovered by Spain at this time?
Monterey and San Francisco
Did Spain do much more colonization of California after finding Monterey & San Francisco?
Not so much for the next 100 years
What was Spain’s response to Russian explorations?
Renewed Spain’s interest in colonizing California
Russia was interest in what “product”
Fort Ross
Ivan Kuskov and a group of fur trapper built this fort near San Francisco., a trading post, near Bodega Bay, built by Russians in 1812. It was a base for sea otter hunters. they sold tools in exchange for salt, wheat, and other foods
Russian Fur interests in Alaska
Pushed southward
Who else, beside Spain, viewed Russian exploration as a threat?
American government
What was the US government’s response to the Russian threat?
Monroe Doctrine
What was the purpose of the Monroe Doctrine?
Restricted European colonization of the Americas
How did Spain react to potential Russian, British, American presence?
Established presidios & pueblos in valleys around
San Francisco Bay
What’s a presidio?
Military fort
What’s a pueblo?
Small settlement
Where did the Jesuits establish their 5 permanent settlements?
Baja in the early 1700’s
Who established the missions along the El Camino Real?
Franciscan Friars
When did the Franciscan Friars complete the last mission?
Where is the southern-most mission?
San Diego
Where is the northern-most mission?
How far between the 21 missions?
One day’s journey
List 3 reasons Spain & the Franciscans built their missions.
1. Convert Indians to Christianity
2. Establish cultural & agricultural centers
3. Populate Alta California for Spain
How did Spain and the Church subdue the Indians?
“Both the sword and the cross were used to subdue the Indians”
Who is credited with developing the mission system?
Father Serra
Father Serra
The Spanish missionary who founded 21 missions in California, in 1769, he founded Mission San Diego, the first of the chain.
How are Serra’s lasting contributions perceived?
Serra’s contributions are controversial
What changed in the mission system in the 1830s?
The mission system began a secularization process
What was the result of the secularization of the mission system?
Most mission property was privately owned
Mission Summary:
3 Purposes for building the missions
1. Create permanent, self-sufficient
Spanish settlements
2. Defend Spanish empire in Mexico
3. Convert indigenous people
Mission Summary:
3 Characteristics of the organization of the missions
1. Locate in areas w/high concentration
native population
2. All buildings built with materials on hand
3. Each mission cultivated food
What foodstuffs were cultivated?
* Cereal Grains * Grapes
* Fruit * Olives
* Livestock
Mission Summary:
3 Positive Outcomes
1. Provided presidios w/food & goods
2. Some enjoyed great economic success
3. Gave Spanish a foothold in California
Mission Summary:
3 Negative Outcomes
1. Fatally exposed Indians to European diseases
2. Destroyed native culture
3. Exploited indigenous labor force
The Land-Grant System
The Spanish, and later the Méxican government encouraged settlement of territory now known as California by the establishment of large land grants called ranchos. Devoted to raising cattle and sheep, the owners of the ranchos attempted to pattern themselves after the landed gentry of Spain. Their workers included Californian Native Americans who had learned to speak Spanish, many of them former Mission residents. The ranchos established land-use patterns that are recognizable in the California of today.
Owned by Californios, huge properties in California worked by Native Americanss in return for food, shelter
Jedidiah Smith
Mountain man, trapper, and trader known for exploring the Rockies. He opened up the west with his discovery of the South Pass, which was wider and less steep than previous passes and which allowed wagon trails to run through it.
Kit Carson
United States frontiersman who guided Fremont’s expeditions in the 1840s and served as a Union general in the Civil War (1809-1868), an American frontiersman. He gained notoriety for his role as John C. Fremont’s guide in the American West.
John C. Fremont
Commissioned by the Senate to document and survey the west. His descriptions were to make the West look as nice as possible. His famous stories glorified the West and all the abundance of land and possible wealth, , Dashing explorer/adventurer who led the overthrow of Mexican rule in California after war broke out
Mexican American War
The Mexican-American War was an armed conflict between the United States and Mexico from 1846 to 1848 in the wake of the 1845 U.S. annexation of Texas. Mexico claimed ownership of Texas as a breakaway province and refused to recognize the secession and subsequent military victory by Texas in 1836.
The Bear Flag Revolt
A short-lived independence rebellion precipitated by American settlers in California’s Sacramento Valley against Mexican authorities. The Americans issued a declaration of independence and hoisted a flag, white with a grizzly bear facing a red star. The innsurectionists elected Frémont to head the “Republic of California.” The Republic was quick to fall. Commandor Sloat claimed California for the United States, and replaced the bear flag with the American flag.
The Treaty of Guadalupe Hildago
Ended the War with Mexico and included the Mexican Cession transfer of California and the future states of New Mexico, Arizona, Nevada, Colorado, Wyoming, Utah to U.S. control.
James W. Marshall
One of Sutter’s employees; detected flakes of heavy yellow metal at the botton of a wooden canal used to divert water from the American River
Sutter’s Fort
John Sutter was an immigrant that settled in California. He started a settlement called New Helvetia. he built a fort on land that the governer gave him, and people who crossed the Sierra Nevada sometimes ended up here.
John Sutter
An immigrant who was instrumental in the early settlement of Califonria by Americans, he had originally obtained his lands in Northern California through a Mexican grant. Gold was discovered by workmen excavating to build a sawmill on his land in the Sacramento Valley in 1848, touching off the California gold rush.
Gold Fever
The rush to secure gold, especially alluvial gold, in order to acquire immediate riches and the associated social status. New flood into Golden state, soon apply to become free state, tip the balance, set off sectional debate on slavery
The Compromise of 1850
Compromise that made . . .
1. California admitted as a free state
2. Fugitive Slave Law
3. Slave Trade banned in Washington
4.Popular Sovereignty in New Mexico and Utah
Transcontinental Railroad
Completed in 1869 at Promontory, Utah, it linked the eastern railroad system with California’s railroad system, revolutionizing transportation in the west. Chinese on the Cental Pacific and Irish on the Union Pacific.
Railroad’s Big Four
The Big Four was the name popularly given to the chief entrepreneurs in the building of the Central Pacific Railroad, the western portion of the First Transcontinental Railroad in the United States.However, the four of them preferred to be known as “The Associates”. Controlled the railroad industry and California Politics
Bank of California
During the California economic depression of the 1870s, the collapse of this further weakened the California economy.
Chinese Exclusion Act
Law passed in 1882 that prohibited Chinese laborers from entering the country, but did not prevent entry of those who had previously established U.S. residence
Anti Chinese Sentiment
Anti-Chinese sentiment only increased when the completion of the transcontinental railroad freed up 9,000 Chinese laborers, fueling the hostility of American workers who, like the miners before them, resented Chinese immigrants for the economic competition they presented and blamed them for the bad economy.
Chinese Immigrants
Chinese immigrants began arriving in America in significant numbers in the 1850s, most from the southern provinces of China where war, persecution and famine caused the deaths of millions. American businessmen actively sought Chinese laborers in mines and other industries, using them to provide much of the labor for building the transcontinental railroads. While the Chinese were first praised as diligent workers, praise later turned to hostility as the railroad was completed and competition for other jobs increased. Anti-Chinese political activity and violence erupted between 1880-1900 throughout the West, resulting in scores of deaths.
Workingmans Party
Nativist, Anti-Chinese, and anti Big Business.
California Land Boom 1880’s
The railroads ended the region’s isolation. The railroad made transportation cheaper and easier, causing a land boom in the 1880s. During the “Boom of the 80s,” thousands of farmers and opportunity seekers moved to southern California.
Yellow Peril
A supposed threat to the US posed by Japan and China. Fear of asian immigration and Japan’s rising military power.
Lincoln Roosevelt League
a coalition party pushed through reforms and controlled the Republican Party.
Hiram Johnson
Progressive governor of California who broke the stranglehold of the Southern Pacific Railroad on the state’s politics
Procedure whereby a certain number of voters may, by petition, propose a law or constitutional amendment and have it submitted to the voters
The name given to the political process in which the general public votes on an issue of public concern.
Procedure for submitting to popular vote the removal of officials from office before the end of their term.
Railroad Commission
A full-time, three-member paid commission elected by the people to regulate oil and gas and some transportation entities
The Californian Alien Land Act
prohibited “aliens ineligible for citizenship” from owning agricultural land or possessing long-term leases over it, but permitted leases lasting up to three years. It affected the Chinese, Indian, Japanese, and Korean immigrant farmers in California.
The Panama Canal
Buit to make passage between Atlantic and Pacific oceans easier and faster because there were many Navy ships that needed to get from Gulf of Mexico out to the Pacific to help protect American islands in case of invasion; built by Roosevelt
California and WWI
Wages, production, manufactureing and commerce expanded rapidly. Real Estate Boom. Movies, oil and Agriculture thrived.
Upton Sinclair
Muckraker who shocked the nation when he published The Jungle, a novel that revealed gruesome details about the meat packing industry in Chicago.
A journalist who uncovers abuses and corruption in a society
The Townsend Plan
proposed placing $200 of government funds per month in the hands of people aged 60 and older, with the requirements that the recipients be retired and spend the money within 30 days
California and WWIl
Manufacturing base was greatly increased by airplanes ships and other war products. California became the defense center of the nation.
Japanese Internment Camps
The forcible relocation of approximately 110,000 Japanese Americans to housing facilities called “War Relocation Camps”, in the wake of Imperial Japan’s attack on Pearl Harbor because they were perceived to be a threat to national safety.
The Watts Riot
The first of a series of racial disorders that hit cities throughout the United States in the summers of 1965-1967. they usually began with an arrest or a police raid that was followed by rumors of resistance and police brutality
Ceasar Chavez
Latino leader from 1962-1993 who organized the United Farm Workers to help migratory farm workers get better pay and working conditions
The United Farm Workers
A labor union created from the merging of two groups, the Agricultural Workers Organizing Committee (AWOC) led by Filipino organizer Larry Itliong, and the National Farm Workers Association (NFWA) led by César Chávez.
Proposition 13
Californians staged a “tax revolt” that slashed property taxes and forced painful cuts in government services
Silicon Valley
A region of western California southeast of San Francisco known for its high-tech design and manufacturing industries
Mount Whitney
The highest peak in the Sierra Nevada range in California (14,494 feet high)
California Topography
Drastic changes in topography across the state: rugged mountain peaks, fertile valleys, dense forests, ocean boundaries, and extensive deserts
California Geology
Evidences faulting, folding, alluvial and sedimentary deposition, and volcanic activity
The San Andreas Fault
This is the name for a famous transform boundary in California.
California Climate
-Southern California’s climate characterized as Mediterranean and is unique in the United States
-The state has many diverse microclimates, though generally the coastal climate is mild and the interior is much more extreme
-The interior basins have the most extreme temperatures
The Coast Ranges
-There are mountain ranges along the western coast of California, extending from the Klamath Mountains in the north (Oregon border region) to the southwestern section of the Sierra Nevada (Southern California)
-The San Andreas Fault system divides this region along a north/south axis
-The range is approx. 550 miles long
-The plant diversity ranges from giant redwoods in the north to chaparral in the south
-The mountains are a series of parallel ranges formed by sedimentary deposition uplifted by faulting and folding
-The climate of the Coast Ranges varies from low-pressure areas that produce fog and rain in the northern sections to a Mediterranean-type condition in the south
The Klamath Mountains
-Located in the northwestern corner of the states
-They are an extension of the Coast Ranges
-The mountains are rugged, steep, and in the 6,000- to 8,000-foot range
-The area receives heavy precipitation, and dense forests cover the mountains
The Sierra Nevada
The name of the mountain range that seperates California and Nevada. The snowy range. The highest mountains in California. Gold was discovered in the streams. Southern Cali is dependent on the rain from here. Rain shadow effect.
The Central Valley
-Separates the Sierra Nevada and the Coast Range
-Extends from the northwest to the southeast for 400 miles and is an average of 50 miles wide
-The valley is a flat, sedimentary plain. The soil is fertile and makes the valley the major agricultural region of the state.
-60% of California’s farmland is located in the Central Valley
-A majority of the state;s water supply is caught in the Central Valley as runoff from the Sierra Nevada
-The Sacramento Delta, encompassing 1,200 square miles of waterways, is located where the Sacramento (south-flowing) and San Joaquin (north-flowing) rivers meet
The Basin and Range
-This extreme landscape of short, parallel mountain ranges and desert basins extends along the eastern border of California
—The northern section is part of a lava plateau
—The southern section is generally dry. The Mojave Desert is the major geographical feature in the south.
-The Northwest and Southwest Great Basin, the Northwestern Sonoran Desert, and the Salton Sea Trough are significant areas in this region
-Death Valley (in the Mojave Desert), the lowest point in the U.S., was formed by faulting (not erosion)
-The system extends in to Nevada and Utah
-Irrigation with water from the Colorado River has allowed large-scale farming in the Imperial and Coachella valleys
The Cascade Range
-Form the western mountain ranges
-The western slope of the Sierra Nevada borders the Central Valley of California
-The Coast Ranges form the western wall of the Central Valley
The Modoc Plateau
-The southern extreme of the Cascade Range is located in the northeastern corner of California. It extends 550 miles northward into Canada.
-The area is separate from the Sierra Nevada and is about 25 miles wide
-The Cascade Range mountains were formed exclusively by volcanic activity. Many, like Mt. Shasta (14,162 feet), are dormant or extinct volcanoes
-Lassen Peak is the largest plug-dome (filled with magma) volcano in the world
-The Modoc Plateau is a level tableland of volcanic origin
Lassen Peak
is the largest plug dome (filled with magma) volcano in the world.
The Transverse and Peninsular Ranges
-This area extends from Santa Barbara to San Diego
-The Transverse/Los Angeles ranges extend in an easterly (transverse) direction from the coast. (All other California ranges extend north and south.)
-These ranges include the Santa Ynez, Santa Monica, San Gabriel, and San Bernadino mountains
-The Los Angeles Basin is the state’s largest coastal basin and was formed by the alluvial deposition of soil from the surrounding mountain ranges
-The Penninsular ranges extend south from the San Bernadino Mountains in Baja California and from the Pacific Ocean east to the Salton Sea Trough
-The faulted eastern sections of the Peninsular ranges are characterized by sharp drop-offs. It is a complex region of active fault zones. Significant faults include the San Jacinto (near Palm Springs) and the Elsinore.

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