Curriculum Leaders In Higher Education Education Essay

Curriculum Leaders In Higher Education Education Essay

1998 Census reported high per centum of adult females population and literacy rate ( 48 and 27 % ) ( Population Census Organization, 2009and MOE, 2009 ) . Similarly Higher Education Commission of Pakistan ( 2009 ) studies increased figure of female pupils in higher instruction, but they are by and large unseeable leading places particularly higher instruction. This could be consequence of patriarchate ( Haeri, 2002 ) or adult male jingoism ( Haq, 2000 ) . We are losing great human capital because of this. Leadership concept being gendered has shown its branchings in all walks of life. We need reconceptualizeation of leading constructs and factors which affect adult females to go up leading places. Although Memon ( 2003 ) reported addition in adult females territory educational officers, I am looking at leading place like university frailty Chancellor of the Exchequer. Harmonizing to HEC statics less than five-percent of HEI are headed by adult female. Female educational institutes are fewer than of male ( Warwick & A ; Reimers, 1995 ) hence they form minority educational leaders group ( Rarieya, 2006 ) .

Different subdivision of this paper will discuses leading constructs, course of study leading, leading and gender, factors impacting leading development, research methodological analysis, followed by treatment and decision.


The construct of leading would supply a model for this research survey.

There is no 1 agreed upon definition of leading. It is elusive and contested construct ( Allix & A ; Gronn, 2005 ) due to its complexness in nature, contextually in pattern and subjectiveness in apprehension ( Leithwood, Jantzi, & A ; Steinbach, 1999 ) . There is a turning understanding on the premise that leading is a societal influence of one individual or group applied on other individual or group. And this influence is used to accomplish a end ( Hughes, Ginnett & A ; Curphy, 1995 ; Leithwood, Jantzi, & A ; Steinbach, 1999, and Yulk, 1994 ) . This accomplishment of end or desired purpose involves animating and back uping others towards accomplishing airy end that is based on personal and professional values ( Earley and Weindling, 2004 ) . The construct of holding values, to me act upon the manner leaders think and act.

In educational view, current yearss are disputing, leaders are required to get by with disputing demands of reforms ( Harris, 2003 ) . The leader ‘s function is made complex and demanding by the societal and demographic conditions of postmodern society ( Elkind, 1993 ) . This is true in medical instruction. The leaders in medical field demand to present accomplishments and attitudes to go effectual leaders. One of the most of import standards for judging the effectual future leader would be their accomplishments to pull off feelings of ego and others ( Fullan 2001 ) , but they need to hold political orientation, professional entrepreneurship, mediation accomplishments and capableness of conveying alteration. Therefore, the footing of leading power rests upon cognition of organisational map, interpersonal relationship, group kineticss, personal direction and people ‘s value sets ( Harris 2003 ) . Perceptibly leading orientation is switching from act uponing to pull offing alteration and feelings of people. The initial orientation is rooted in personal and positional power, while the ulterior demands for sensitiveness and value-laden leading. It is the ulterior orientation is favourable for adult females leading.


‘Curriculum leading ‘ has emerged as a new construct in leading literature. The impression of ‘curriculum ‘ loosely highlights a dynamic definition of a idea procedure which is conceptualized and developed for intents of execution of instruction and larning efficaciously in the schools. The quality of course of study procedure is enhanced when rhythms of contemplations, ratings and alterations for betterment are added upon the existent procedures of the course of study development and execution. Through curriculum leading influence one makes educational organisation more cohesive and coherent to accomplish ends. The human community has capacity to determine its hereafter. Leadership is the procedure which grows from this capacity, act uponing others with the power and authorization kineticss.

Curriculum leading means making a figure of undertakings related to the instruction and propensity procedures inside the schools. In other words, it requires programs, leading actions and direction engagement that can back up and determine what is taught, learned, and tested based on the school course of study. This demands the course of study leader to hold a deeper apprehension and broader cognition base of school course of study. It requires understanding of theories of course of study development and execution ( Glatthorn, 2000 ) . Lee and Dimmock ( 1999 ) add the undertakings of a curricular leader further by saying that,

“ Curriculum leading and direction encompasses the undermentioned end puting and planning ; monitoring, reexamining and developing the educational programme of the school ; monitoring, reexamining and developing the educational of the school ; monitoring, reexamining and developing the staff of the school ; civilization edifice ; and apportioning resources ” ( p.456 ) .

Krug ( 1992 ) divided the function of curriculum leading in five constituents: specifying mission, pull offing course of study and direction, oversing instruction, supervising pupil advancement and advancing the instructional clime.

The logical inquiry, who should be curriculum leader. Is it chief or frailty principal? Fullan ( 1991 ) responded “ principals ” as course of study leaders and Drew from literature that the strong course of study leaders act as resource suppliers, instructional resources, communicators and are visibly presence.

Kleine-Kracht ( 1993 ) uses the term ‘indirect leading ‘ to depict principals ‘ functions in easing ‘teacher leading ‘ as opposed to working straight on course of study undertakings or undertakings. Glickman ( 1989 ) argues about principal should be the leader of the instructors as curriculum leader instead than as the exclusive course of study leader. Teachers become more committed and self-managing when schools become true communities, liberating principals from the load of seeking to command people ( Sergiovanni, 1992 ) .

Many researches advocate principals to be of import in curriculum leading function nevertheless, Leithwood et Al. ( 1999 ) assert that, “ original beliefs refering the principal as the primary or most of import instructional leader required rethinking ” ( p.8 ) . Morrison ( 1995 ) argues that a vice-principal or a deputy caput instructor in primary schools is desirable to exert curriculum leading partially because of his/her place to pass on and keep affair between the principal and the staff. To reply the inquiry, O’Neill ( 2003 ) emphasized the function of sections or capable co-coordinators.

Therefore, curriculum leading implies a set of functions and maps that relate to a figure of major countries of course of study leading and direction. It is about the school systems that facilitate the effectual instruction and acquisition procedures inside and out side of the schoolrooms. Besides it includes development of school civilization that maximizes pupil acquisition by supplying dynamic curriculum passage in a originative school civilization that encourages creativeness, invention, edifice squads where acquisition is for all and continued. Attempts are directed to the cutting border educational excellence, with a critical and human-centered positions. Within the complex working of today ‘s schools, as principals portion the lead and the burden, the success of their public presentation will be determined by their ability to animate a civilization of authorization by moving as ‘hero-makers ‘ instead than heroes ( Slater, 2008 ) .


During my class work for PhD, I learnt that the relationship between leading and gender has late gained attending in literature. Leadership as a societal procedure affects gender both in organisations or society, and is extremely going gendered ( Acker, 1994 ; Adler, et al 1993 ; Blackmore, 1999 ; Ozga, 1993 ) . Theoretical attacks of leading are soundless about gender and do non see gender as a variable of leading concept. These attacks try to turn out their neutrality, but fail.

Leadership as gendered construct can be analyzed from three positions ( Yulk, 2002 ) : I ) conceptual building of leading, II ) the organisational civilization where the leading is practiced ; and III ) the procedure of being socialized into leading.

Conceptual building of leading:

The leader is/as a “ MAN ” is unwritten, widely accepted and practiced construct, ignores female ( Alder, et Al, 1993 ) . Most literature is founded in manfully experiences ( Shakeshaft, 2006 ) presuming that the experiences of male and female are same ; hence leader is a adult male.

Adjectives like good, airy, multi-skilled, end orientated, facilitative, self regulative and service oriented, are all attached with adult male ( Senge, 1994 ) . Traits like decision, assertiveness and assurance are traditionally been related to adult male ( Yulk, 2002 ) . These adjectives and traits give birth to adult male as a leader. Literature qualifies female leaders as flexible, supportive, nurturing, collaborative, collegial and socially merely ( Fitzgerald, 2003 ) . But when adult female is portrayed in leading as subsidiary, kills all the value ( Mavin & A ; Brayans, 2002 ) . Sing ownership of power, adult females are comfy with power through or with others, believing in sharing ( Blackmore ) , which makes them more acceptable as a leader ( Brunner, 2005 ) .

Organizational civilization and construction.

I have yet to see any organisation which is gender impersonal. It is preponderantly male who are in control. Organizations have gendered values which affect you as male or female ( Ozga ) . The manner the male and female are trusted in transporting out bigger pressing and of import undertakings, crates sense of uncertainnesss in adult females ‘s head about effectual adult females leading ( Fitzgerald, 2003 ) . They are the insiders in organisation but foreigners for leading ( Blackmore ) . Organizations are largely dominated by adult male ( Coleman, 2003 ) and their kineticss are more adult male friendly than adult females, assisting adult male to accomplish higher ranking easy. The organisational patterns like demand of excess clip, work and policy issues are all unmindful of gender sensitivenesss ( Blackmore )

Socialization into leading.

The manner work forces and adult females are socialized creates stereo-typicality. The different stereo-typicality signifier the footing of socialisation. The differences of socialisation could be built-in like biological differences. Gendered societal functions like place jobs and kid attention are related with adult females, while work forces perform in wider work environment ( Ashraf, 2007 ) . The work forces ‘s work takes pride than that of adult females. I was amazed to larn about adult females stating “ He ” and “ His ” when depicting a leader. When adult females socialize this construct of adult male leading, they accept feminty being submissive and dependent. It would beef up the prevalent stereotype of adult male as leader and adult female as follower. These stereotypes give rise to behaviours for adult male and adult females. Woman are measured against masculine theoretical accounts of behaviours. Interestingly, if they adopt those behaviours, they are assumed to be unfit for the function and if they do non, they are termed as being excessively feminine ( Blackmore ) . It is catch 22 state of affairs for them, which could ensue in shattering their assurance.


I recognize that the undermentioned history may non supply a comprehensive coverage of all of the experiences conducive to leading development. However, these experiences represent two wide spheres of life: work and household. The events happening across these two spheres are shown to lend to one ‘s leading outgrowth and development.

I: Work:

A: Experiences: Educational, occupation and as leader: Educational experiences are considered as cardinal to future success. Wakabayashi and Graen ( 1984 ) reported educational experiences as most often cited events in one ‘s life that contributed to leading development. But for Yukl ( 2003 ) accomplishments for leading are largely learned from [ occupation ] experience. Particularly anterior occupations challenges are helpful in leading development. McCauly, Ruderman, Ohlott, and Morrow ( 1994 ) illustrate that occupation demands such as making alteration, occupation overload, and confronting inauspicious concern conditions represented dimensions that could impact leading development. A anterior success as leader is reported by Avolio ( 1994 ) as one of the positive leading development factor.

Bacillus: Opportunity: chances whether achieved or grabbed are of import determiner of leading. This relates to the organisational clime created to back up unexpected growing chances ( London & A ; Smither, 2002 )

Degree centigrades: Peer influence, mentorship and function theoretical account: Peer through different schemes influence leading development ( Richard, 2007 ) . The equal relationship is a valuable constituent of curriculum leading development. In add-on to equals, the mentorship narratives are typically heard in the interviews of course of study leaders. Their interviews reveal that they come into contact with wise mans in their earlier life. Their wise mans served as ushers, function theoretical accounts, accomplishment builders, affairs, clarifiers, and even constructive criticizers. Geting wise mans is an of import development experience for persons traveling into leading functions ( Kram, 1983 ) . Restine ( 1997 ) survey identified mentoring as lending factor in adult females leading development.

Two: Family:

A. Parents and siblings and/or other household members: Leaderships are seen to hold function of household members in assisting them organize their values and ends associated with leading. For case in Bhuto household of Pakistan, parents and household members influence their kids to leading functions, manners and values of leading. Keller and Cacioppe ( 2001 ) found parent-children attachment manner effects leader-follower attachment manner. The parental influence to leading manners is seen subsequently in life. Parents provide the function theoretical accounts for kids to place with in the same manner that transformational leaders do with their followings. Such parents help kids to develop their self-efficacy for taking others, advance a strong belief to a higher set of beliefs and values, and supply the challenges and support for kids to construct toward success ( Popper and Mayseless, 2003 ) . Cubillo and Brown ( 2003 ) explained early history and familial support determining the thought of adult females leaders. Womans are supported by their male parents in peculiar.

Bacillus: Religious experiences: Religion is one signifier of experience that provides persons with a mechanism for doing sense of life. Wasylyshyn ( 2001 ) emphasized that all human existences are sense doing entities and therefore are looking for ways to calculate out life and the way they should take in the hereafter. There are many illustrations of leaders who derive their values and aims on the footing of religious and spiritual foundations ( Martin Luther, Gandhi, Martin Luther King, etc. ) . Bloom and Erlandson ( 2003 ) highlighted the communal and spiritual patterns in determining leading individuality of adult females.

C. Experience of loss: Zaleznik ( 1977 ) described the twice-born magnetic leader as person who has experienced a dramatic life event that changed him or her so dramatically that the person has become a different individual with a radically different life focal point. Personal injury could be one type of experience impacting leading development. In fact, it is rather common for leaders to depict such losingss as turning points in their lives that led them to a deeper apprehension of what they were and who they wanted to go. Bennis ( 2002 ) suggested that harsh and traumatic experiences revealed a concealed portion of one ‘s interior ego that, if successfully transcended, can ensue in greater apprehension and compassion for others.


While a figure of authors have attempted to place and categorise internal and external barriers to the advancement of adult females ‘s callings in educational leading, small discourse has occurred in Pakistan refering how adult females experience leading ( Rarieya, 2006 ) . The undermentioned history of barriers is based on Cubillo & A ; Brown ( 2003 ) , Ashraf ( 2007 ) , Carnes ( 1996 ) , Coleman ( 2003 ) , , Hill and Ragland ( 1995 ) Blackmore, and Ozaga. Women frequently have a hard clip in stepping frontward and going leaders. There has been much research sing the barriers confronting adult females and attitudes that inhibit adult females from stepping into leading functions. Evidence suggests that adult females face a ‘glass ceiling ‘ when they attempt to travel into leading places. The barriers to adult females ‘s engagement in leading can be considered under these three headers:


A: Constraints of traditional gender functions: Women ‘s traditional individualities and functions have been associated with parenting and caring/nurturing, while work forces ‘s traditional individualities are associated with paid employment and the populace sphere. Traditional positions do non take into history the assortment of existent accomplishments and expertness that each individual has and their possible to lend in concern, agriculture and community work. It is of import to to the full acknowledge the potency for engagement by everyone.

Bacillus: Manifestations of sexism: Social attitudes sing appropriate gender functions can act upon adult females ‘s determinations sing leading and engagement. Preconceptions about adult females can be so profoundly ingrained that many who hold them are non even cognizant of them. Beliefs can be that adult females leaders are less capable, less competitory or less productive than work forces, non task-oriented plenty, excessively dependent on feedback and ratings of others or deficiency independency.

Two: Person Barriers

A: Balance of work, household and life style: Both work forces and adult females have household duties. However, adult females continue to presume greater duty for caring for kids, every bit good as for their spouses, parents, and other household members. This is reflected in adult females ‘s lower degrees of leading engagement. Anyone with household duties choosing for leading functions face challenges holding the possible personal and household impact. The complexnesss and tensenesss of the function, the size of the extra work load and the demand to go to extra meetings increase the complexness of equilibrating household life committednesss. The determinations adult females are doing in relation to work and household are act uponing how and when they participate in leading functions. Organizations that support household duties and supply flexible agreements can better their attractive force and keeping of top male and female leaders with valuable accomplishments. Adopting a leading function and taking duty for doing determinations requires a considerable committedness of clip and energy. This means that adult females must strike an effectual balance between work, household, life style, community and leading committednesss. Today, with the altering nature of employment and lovingness duties, adult females are under increasing force per unit area to take part in leading activities but have less clip to make so.

Bacillus: Male and female leading manners: Womans leaders face different outlooks about leading manners and attacks. Women leaders are expected to expose greater inter-personal accomplishments and follow more participatory, democratic manners, while work forces are expected to follow more directing attacks. An single leading manner is developed through societal, historical, and cultural contexts. Organizations may be given to keep stereotyped positions of leading affecting features which are stereotypically masculine behaviours. Some adult females are loath to take on leading functions in these organisations as the behavioural outlooks are incompatible with their universe positions and life experiences. More stiff positions of leading manners can compress adult females, who prefer to exert a different signifier of leading. Leadership accomplishments are non gender particular. It is of import for organisations to acknowledge and formalize a assortment of leading manners.

Degree centigrades: Cultural barriers: Culture plays a important function in specifying leading. Different civilizations can value different leading functions and manners and the procedure of leading can take many different signifiers. Many cultural community leaders face the extra challenge of seeking to equilibrate determination doing across two civilizations.

Three: Organizational Barriers

A: Policies: Glass ceiling, glass walls, gluey evidences are few metaphors which are used to picture unobserved barriers for adult female to go up for leading place. These glass or laxan are policies which are man-friendly. Womans are in organisation but out of leading civilization. Lack of function theoretical account, wise mans and critical friends are other of import factors. Collegialities are over ridden by competition.

Bacillus: Skills acknowledgment: many adult females wish for a greater function in determination devising and leading. Leadership accomplishments are frequently defined in relation to people ‘s professional experience in paid employment. It can be hard to interpret accomplishments derived from voluntary community work into a formal employment application. Most adult females have decision-making and leading accomplishments, and these accomplishments are valuable. Unfortunately, it is frequently the instance that adult females and their work are non valued and this impacts negatively on their assurance.



Based on above conceptual apprehension of curriculum leading, leading and gender, and factors impacting adult females in leading dominance, the undermentioned research inquiry would be the focused the survey:

‘How curriculum leading is enacted by a adult female in higher instruction context of Pakistan? ‘


The survey was conducted in Medical College of Aga Khan University ( MC AKU ) . The principle for choosing this peculiar context is because it has revised and renewed it conventional medical course of study to new Problem Based Curriculum in 2002. This is appreciated by other medical colleges who are seeking course of study advises from MC AKU. Hence, I consider MC AKU playing a leading function in medical instruction in Pakistan. The curricular activities of MCAKU are lead by curriculum commission. This commission comprises of five twelvemonth commission caputs stand foring old ages I – V course of study sub-committee, members stand foring longitudinal instruction subjects, clinical accomplishments commission, scrutiny and publicity commission, few single module members, and representation of pupils. It does curriculum development, organisation, and execution. Every curricular alteration or alteration is discussed and approved by it.


My research participant heads the curriculum commission. She by developing is a histopathologist and acquired a higher grade in wellness profession instruction. She is been at MC AKLU for more than 15 old ages. She was a member of course of study reclamation undertaking force and performed active function in reclamation procedure. This is one of ground to choose her as my research participant. She has a through apprehension of course of study patterns in median college and in medical instruction. She appeared to be in her late mid-fortiess, married with two kids, a native Pakistani Born belonging to Ismaili religious order of Islam. A adult female found of have oning starched cotton suites with boy-cut hair manner holding no involvement in jewellery. A robust looking friendly individual.


I chose case-study method to understand broader image of adult females leading phenomenon in one typical unit. The analysis of unit makes it a instance for me harmonizing to characteristics highlighted by Creswell ( 1998 ) . Case survey resonate with me as a research worker is because behind the theory, method, analysis, ontology, epistemology, and methodological analysis of research “ stands the personal life of the research worker, who speaks from a peculiar category, gender, racial, cultural, and cultural community position ” ( Denzin & A ; Lincoln, 2000, p. 18 ) . Stake ( 1995 ) describes it as probes of “ delimited systems ” with the focal point being either the instance or an issue illustrated by the instance ( s ) . It provides an in-depth survey of this “ system, ” based on a diverse array of informations aggregation stuffs. The research worker situates this system within its larger “ context ” or puting. Lodico, Spaulding and Voegtle ( 2006 ) write, “ instance survey research is a signifier of qualitative research that endeavors to detect significance, to look into procedures, and to derive insight into and in-depth apprehension of an single, group, or state of affairs ” ( p.269 ) .


Bassey ( 1999 ) , Bogdan and Biklen ( 1998 ) , Merriam ( 1998 ) and Johnson and Christensen ( 2008 ) favor the usage of multiple methods and multiple informations beginnings. I would utilize interview as my chief tool, which is recognized, valuable and relevant tool to capture qualitative experiences, sentiments, perceptual experiences, feelings, understanding and knowledge about how and why.


The current state of affairs of adult females leading is non proportionate to the figure of adult females in higher instruction as pupil or as instructor. This could be because of patriarchal society of Pakistan. The consequence of this social phenomenon needs more probe for adult females in higher instruction leading places. There is turning prominence of adult females ( Hill, and Ragland,1995 ) in leading place, but more contributing environment is be created to pull more adult females.

Leadership construct:

The construct of leading is and likely will stay contested and elusive. However, leading being a phenomenon of societal influence is accepted widely. “ The leader is to be influential ” and this influence is to be at national degree to be effectual. The influence is gagged by accomplishing ends and vision. Hence, the leader has to be end oriented and airy. The vision is based on values ; personal or professional. “ This is my institutes and I want to function more patients through this function ” . The current yearss are disputing to accomplish that. There are many environmental factors which influence the leader specially adult females leaders to achieve the airy ends.

Leadership construct in educational kingdom gives rise to curriculum leading construct. This emergent construct is related to making many more things so learning in the school. “ it is lot, lot more than instruction ” . Lee and Dimmock ( 1999 ) has described the function of curriculum leader in school scene, but those functions are about similar to higher instruction scenes well. “ I guarantee the given authorization of course of study commission ( CC ) is enacted, it includes development of policies and processs, nidation of policies, O.K. plans which come to it from Sub milliliter, proctors curriculum, module development for learning and acquisition, appraisal. ”

Who should be curriculum leader?

Principal, vice-principal or instructor or a double function would be better penchant. If we equate school principal with dean of a university, so vice-principal would be appropriate individual to take the course of study because of being intermediary between staff and principal ( dean ) . I propose the similarity of my research participants as vice-principal. She is a affair between dean and module member, raises course of study concerns and related issues with dean on a regular footing as portion of her monitoring activity. “ I am faculty members ‘ voice, non dean ‘s voice ” Bing a instructor and course of study leader is double advantages. It gives a wider gamut of course of study interior and out side of category room. Lofthouse et Al. ( 1995 ) and Caldwell ( 2006 ) cites Weber ‘s ( 1996 ) positions such leading as to be “ shared, co-operative, collaborative or facilitative. ” Hence teacher as curriculum leaders should be recruited to take up more curricular duties.

Nature and Raising or nature of raising:

Irrespective of leading type and duties, the argument of “ born ‘ versus “ made ” leading will go on. This argument drew attending to familial and environmental factors which help or impede leading including adult females leading. The familial and environmental factors are widely debated. “ It is in my cistrons ” is a strong sense of interior committedness proven scientifically in adult females every bit good ( Arvey, Zhang, Avolio, and Krueger, 2007 ) . Amongst environmental factors discussed before, in higher educational scenario, it is more of work related factors which affect adult females leading. Wall street diary ‘s metaphor of glass ceiling and glass wall ( Cubillo, 2003 ) describe unseeable barriers.

“ I have to give a batch in footings of fundss and publicities ” is large concern. This could be regarded as “ gluey floors ” ( Tesch and Nattinger, 1997 ) which does non allow adult females ascendency to the ceiling. Dickstein ( 1996 ) cited in Carnes, Morrissey, and Geller, ( 2008 ) criticized the glass and called it Lexan, a stuff stronger and more hard to shatter than glass. If adult female reaches to ceiling so there is no function theoretical account seen through the ceiling ( Carnes ( 1996 ) . But values particularly spiritual makes these adult females to hold faith in them and committedness to go on. “ It is our institute ; if I have to work so I will work at AKU merely ” . This came from spiritual belief and fond regard to establish.

Role of equals and wise mans

Positive experienced and supportive environment provided by equals is one of the of import leading developmental factors. Peer relationships offer alone value for development because of the grade of common duty and the continuance of the relationship. “ I used to portion an office with a co-worker. I learnt a batch from her about medical instruction. That developed my involvement to acquire a formal grade in heath profession education. ” . Peers non merely assist to gestate curriculum leading constructs but besides aid pattern those. Mentors pay a major function in bearer determination devising. However, current organisational apparatus lacks that. It consequences in many inspiring adult females lose their desire to leading function. But the current economic system and service driven instruction has created an environment of competition than collegiality. Organizations should see equal and mentorship relationships as a potentially valuable constituent of an overall leading development

Decision devising

This is really rooted in values and adult females manner of leading. As mentioned earlier that adult females like holding more power through or with others. They are more democratic in determination devising and show flexibleness than work forces. “ I take every organic structure on borad. ” “ I do non believe in individuality, squad work is my strength ” . These are typical of adult females leading manners. However, both work forces and adult females feel that it shows adult females ‘s deficiency of decision and assurance to do single determination. It is at that place forward taken a failing instead than strength. Organizations are more attuned to adult male determination doing manner and want “ He adult female ” than “ she adult female ” in determination devising. He adult females to act the same manner as adult male. Hence, “ you know how much I have changed. I am more flexible now than earlier ” . It appears as for doing a niche in leading place adult females might necessitate a manful ghetto in her manner and visual aspect, “ Her male child cut hair manner and concern suite. ”

Organizational factors:

“ I have to give a batch, I paid a large award to be in this potion ” . This reflects organisational policies which do non honor adult females ‘s curriculum leading function. Womans do most of educational work but when it comes to publicities ; it is about research-output. Women ‘s curriculum leading functions are evaluated as acceptable in public presentation assessment, but research as outstanding. Presently at MC AKU, in footings of importance, course of study activities are fighting to come at par with net incomes bring forthing avenues. “ This organisational attitude is de-motivating for all module interested in learning and larning ” . Womans who likes learning and have household duties would be more affected by this organisational attitude.

Past experience:

Experience of successful in leading function seems to be a turning point. “ My instruction was evaluated as good one. My faculty coordination was extremely apprehended and was regarded as best. I so though that this is the line that I must choose. ” . it is human nature that wages will promote. But holding a systematic grasp and feedback patterns would surely promote animating leaders. I can associate this phenomenon to myself. The manner I was appreciated changed my bearer way. This past occupation experience takes precedency over instruction or preparation experiences. It is in-service experience which generates the wonder to seek more instruction “ I subsequently decide to take a formal grade in instruction ” . It is informal in-service experience which gives more penetration of existent life patterns. Once one is familiar with what it is like so you opt for it.

Personal factors:

“ I can do a difference ” , “ I do what I believe in ” “ My forbearance and endurance. I have become really patient. Which I truly do non desire be at times but I have to be. Naturally, I am a temperamental individual [ but ] over the class of clip I have been hammered plenty, that has helped [ me ] to develop forbearance and endurance, working hard, listening to everybody. I involve module in determination devising. I do non believe single determination devising, I seek input, have consensus, squad sprit. ” . This shows the importance of personal values translated in action and how demands of actions change 1s behavior. It emphasizes personal features and flexible nature of adult female leading. This is in line with modern-day function of curriculum leader, who needs to larn how to mange his/her and others feelings.


My research participant represented a adult female course of study leader accomplishing vision based on beliefs and values. Experiences of adult female leading are generic irrespective of instruction institute degree. Her dominance to leading has faced similar glass or laxan wall or ceiling. Experiences at work are possibly more of import in adult females ‘s entry into leading functions. Organization ‘s nature of “ nurture ” makes a difference. To pull more adult females into leading, all stakeholders must admit being of glass ceiling and walls, and agree that leting those in topographic point erodes our state ‘s considerable human capital.

Recognition and dedication:

I seize this chance to thank my class facilitator and myself for holding this chance to compose some thing about adult females. As a PhD pupil I promised with myself that I would compose some thing about adult females issues before completing class work. Sessions on Leadership and gender issues in leading was a great learning chance provided by my facilitator Dr Khaki. He liberally shared his positions, resources, books and article with all pupils. I greatly appreciate his valuable part.

I dedicate all my attempts in composing this assignment to all the adult females of the universe who are capable but disadvantaged because of adult male made regulations of society.


Acker, S. ( 1994 ) . Gendered Education. Buckingham: Open University Press

Adler, S. , Laney, J. , & A ; Packer, M. ( 1993 ) . Pull offing Women. Buckingham: Open University Press

Allix, A. & A ; Gronn, P. ( 2005 ) . Leadership as manifestation of cognition. Educational Management Administration and Leadership. 33 ( 2 ) , 181-196.

Arvey, D. R. , Zhang. Z. , Avolio, J. B. , & A ; Krueger, F. R. ( 2007 ) . Developmental and familial determiners of leading function tenancy among adult females. Journal of Applied Psychology. 92 ( 3 ) 693-70

Ashraf, D. ( 2007 ) . Switching place and altering image: adult females Teachers ‘ experiences in Northern countries of Pakistan. In J.F.A. Rarieya & A ; R. Qureshi ( explosive detection systems ) , Gender and Education ( pp. 78-105 ) . Karachi: Oxford University Press

Avolio, B. J. ( 1994 ) . The natural: Some ancestors to transformational leading. International Journal of Public Administration, 17, 1559- 1581.

Bassey, M. ( 1999 ) . Case study research in educational scenes. Buckingham: Open University Press.

Bennis, W. G. ( 2002 ) . Crucibles of leading. Harvard Business Review, 80, 39-48.

Blackmore, J. ( 1999 ) Disturbing Womans: Feminism, Leadership and Educational Change. Buckingham: Open University Press

Bloom, C. M. & A ; Erlandson, D.A. ( 2003 ) . African American adult females principals in urban schools: Worlds, Reconstruction and declaration. Educational Administration Quarterly, 39 ( 3 ) 339-369

Bogdan, R. C. & A ; Biklen, S. K. ( 1998 ) . Qualitative Research For Education. ( 3rd Ed ) Allyen and Bacon.

Brumnner, C. ( 2005 ) . Women Performing the Superintendency: Problesmatizing the Normative Alignment of Conceptions of Gender. In J. Collard & A ; C. Reynolds ( Eds. ) Leadership and gender and Culture in Education: Male and Female Perspectives. Berkshire: Open University Press.

Caldwell, B. J. ( 2006 ) . Re-imagining educational leading. London: Sage Publications.

Carnes M. ( 1996 ) . One position from merely this side of the glass ceiling. Journal of adult females ‘s wellness. 5: 283-286

Carnes, M. , Morrissey, C. , & A ; Geller, E. , S. , ( 2008 ) Women ‘s wellness and adult females ‘s leading in academic medical specialty: hitting the same glass ceiling? Journal of adult females ‘s wellness. 17, ( 9 ) 1453 – 1462

Coleman, M. ( 2003 ) . Gender and school leading ; the experiences of adult females and work forces secondary principals. Retirved on July 10, 2009 from hypertext transfer protocol: //

Creswell, J. W. ( 1998 ) . Qualitative Inquiry and research design. Choosing among five traditions. Thousad Oaks, CA: Sage

Cubillo, L. , & A ; Brown, M. ( 2003 ) . Women into educational leading and direction: International differences. Journal of educational disposal 41 ( 3 ) , 278-291

Denzin, N. K. , & A ; Lincoln, Y. S. ( 2000 ) . A enchiridion of qualitative research ( 2nd ed. ) Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage

Earley, P. , & A ; Weindling, D. , ( 2004 ) . Understanding school leading. London: Paul

Elkind, D. ( 1993 ) . School and Family in the Post-Modern World. Phi Delta Kappan 77 ( 1 ) 8-14.

Fitzgerald, T. ( 2003 ) . Changing the deafening silence of autochthonal adult females ‘s voices in educational leading. Journal of educational disposal, 4 ( 1 ) , 9-23

Fullan, M. ( 1991 ) . The new significance of educational alteration. New York: OISE Press and Teachers College Press.

Fullan, M. ( 2001 ) . Leading in a civilization of alteration. San Francisco: Jossey Bass.

Glatthorn, A. A. ( 2000 ) . The principal as curriculum leader: Determining what is taught and tested. California: Sage Publications.

Glickman, . C. , ( 1989 ) . Has Sam and Samantha ‘ s clip come at last? Educational Leadership, 46 ( 8 ) , 4- 9

Haeri, S. ( 2002 ) . No shame for the Sun: Lifes of professional Pakistani adult females. Karachi: Oxford University Press

Haq, M. ( 2000 ) . Human development in South Asia ; the gender inquiry. Mehbub ul Haq Huamn Development Center. Karachi: Oxford

Harris, A. ( 2003 ) . The altering context of leading: research theory and pattern. In Harris, C. Day, D. Hopkins, M. Hadfield, A. Hargreaves & A ; C. Chapman ( Ed ) , Effective leading for school betterment. London: Routledge Falmer

Higher Education Commission HEC: statistical study. at hypertext transfer protocol: // retrieved 10/7/2009

Hill, M, S. , & A ; Ragland, C. , J. ( 1995 ) . Women as educational Leaderships, Opening Windows, Pushing Ceilings. California: Crown Press.

Hughes, R. H. , Ginnett, R. C. , & A ; Curphy, G. R. , ( 1995 ) . What d leading? In J. T. Wren ( Ed. ) The leading comrade: Insight on leading through the ages ( pp. 39-43 ) . New York: the Free Press

Johnson, B. & A ; Christensen, L, ( 2008 ) . Educational Research, Quantitative, Qualitative, And Mixed Approaches. Los Angles: Sage

Keller, T & A ; Cacioppe, R. ( 2001 ) . Leader-follower fond regards: understanding parental images at work. Leadership & A ; Organization Development Journal. 22 ( 2 ) , 70-75.

Kleine-Kracht, P. ( 1993 ) . Indirect instructional leading: An decision maker ‘s pick. Educational Administration Quarterly, 29 ( 2 ) , 187 – 212.

Kram, K. E. ( 1983 ) . Phases of the wise man relationship. Academy of Management Journal, 26, 608-625.

Krug, S. E. ( 1992 ) . Instructional leading: A constructivist position. Educational Administration Quarterly, 28 ( 3 ) , 430 – 433.

Lee, C. J. & A ; Dimmock, C. ( 1999 ) . Curriculum leading and direction in secondary schools: a Hong Kong instance survey.School Leadership & A ; Management, 19, ( 4 ) 455- 481.

Leithwood, K. , Jantzi, D. , & A ; Steinbach, R. ( 1999 ) . Changing leading for altering times. . Buckingham: Open University Press

Lofthouse, M. , Bush, T. , Coleman, M. , O’Neill, J. , West-Burnham, J. & A ; Glover, D. ( 1995 ) . Pull offing the course of study. London: Pitman Publishing.

Lodico, G. M. , Spaulding, T. D. , & A ; Voegtle, H. K. ( 2006 ) . Methods In Educational

Research ; From Theory To Practice. San Francisco: Jossy-Bass

London, M. , & A ; Smither, J. W. ( 2002 ) . Empowered ego development and uninterrupted acquisition. Journal of Human Resource Management, 38, 3-16.

Mavin, S. & A ; Brayans, P. ( 2002 ) . Academic adult female in the United kingdom: Mainstreaming our experiences, networking for action, Gender and instruction, 14 ( 3 ) , 235-250.

McCauly, C. D. , Ruderman, M. N. , Ohlott, P. J. , & A ; Morrow, J. E. ( 1994 ) . Measuring the developmental constituents of managerial occupations. Journal of Applied Psychology, 79, 544-560.

Memon, M. ( july-deceber 2003 ) . Role of womn in educationa direction in Pakistan. Asiatic Network preparation and research institutes in Educational Planning ( ANTRIEP ) : News missive, 8 ( 2 ) , 10-12

Merrium, S. B. ( 1998 ) . Qualitative research and instance survey Application in instruction. San Francisco: Jossy and Bass

Morrison, K. , ( 1995 ) . The deputy caput instructor as the leader of the course of study in primary schools. School Organization, 15 ( 1 ) , 65- 76.

Ministry Of Education, GOP ( 2009 ) . Pakistan instruction statistics ( drumhead ) 2005-06 hypertext transfer protocol: // retrived 10/07/2009

O’Neill, J. ( 2003 ) . Understanding curriculum leading in the secondary school. In Bennett, N. & A ; Anderson, L. ( Eds ) . Rethinking educational leading: Challenging the conventions. London: Sage Publications.

Ozaga, J. ( 1993 ) . Women in Educational Management. Buckingham: Open University Press

Popper, M. , & A ; Mayseless, O. ( 2003 ) . Back to rudimentss: Using a rearing position to transformational leading. Leadership Quarterly, 14, 41-65.

Population Census Organization ( 2008 ) hypertext transfer protocol: //, retrieved on 10/7/2009

Rarieya. J. F. A. , ( 2006 ) . Women in Educational Leadership: A Comparative Study of Kenyan and Pakistani Women Educational Leaders. Quality in Education Teaching and Leadership in Challenging Times 21-23 February, 2006. Aga Khan University, KarachiSenge, P. M. ( 1990 ) . The 5th subject: The art and pattern of the learning organisation. New York: Doubleday.

Restine, L. N. ( 1997 ) . Experience significance and chief development. Journal of educational Administartion, 35 ( 3 ) , 253-267

Richard K. L. ( 2007 ) .A A strategic attack for incorporating theory to pattern in Leadership development. Leadership & A ; Organization development Journal 28 ( 5 ) 426-443.

Senge, P. ( 1994 ) . The Fifth Discipline. New York: Double twenty-four hours

Sergiovanni, T. J. ( 1992 ) . Why we should seek replacements for leading. Educational leading, 49 ( 5 ) , 41 – 45.

Shakesshaft, C. ( 2006 ) . Gender and educational direction. In C. skelton. B. Francis & A ; l. Smulayn ( Eds. ) , The sage Handbook of Gender And Education, ( pp.497-511 ) London: Sage

Slater, L. ( 2008 ) . Pathways to constructing leading capacity. Educational direction disposal & A ; leading. 36 ( 1 ) 55-69.

Spillane, J. P. ( 2006 ) . Distributed leading. San Francisco: Jossey Bass.

Stake, R. ( 1995 ) . The art of instance survey research. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage

Tesch, B. , & A ; Nattinger, A. ( 1997 ) . Career promotion and gender in academic medical specialty. J Irish Coll Physicians Surgeons. 26:172-176

Wakabayashi, M. , & A ; Graen, G. B. ( 1984 ) . The Nipponese calling advancement survey: A seven-year followup. Journal of Applied Psychology, 69,603-614.

Warwick, D. & A ; Reimers, F. ( 1995 ) . Hope or Despair? Learning in Pksitan ‘s primary schools. Westport, CT, Praeger.

Wasylyshyn, K. ( 2001 ) . On the full realization of psychological science in concern. Counseling Psychology Journal: Practice and Research, 53, 10- 22.

Yukl, G ( 2003 ) Leadership in Organizations, National College for School Leadership. Retirved from hypertext transfer protocol: // on 10/07/2009.

Yukl, G. ( 20002 ) Leadership in Organizations. Delhi: Pearson Education Inc

Yulk, G. A. , ( 1994 ) . Leadership in organisation. I ( ed 3 ) Gaithersburg. Madrid: Spain.

Zaleznik, A. ( 1977 ) . Directors and leaders: Are they different? Harvard Business Review, 15, 67-78.