English Final Exam Unity: Achieved when all the elements in an essay contribute to the development of a single idea or thesis. Similarly, a paragraph is unified when each sentence contributes to the development of the central though expressed in the topic sentence of that paragraph. * In a unified paragraph, each sentence helps develop the main idea or the gist of the paragraph. The main idea often suggest a new, interesting relationship between two other ideas or facts not otherwise connected. Stating the main idea in a single sentence (often called a topic sentence) will help you achieve unity. If the sentences follow the thesis sentence. If you are talking about school don’t talk about summer, continue on the path about talking about school. Coherence: The quality that enhances the flow of your writing. Coherence is the principle that all parts of a piece of writing should stick together, or cohere. When a piece of writing is coherent, one sentence connects logically with the ones that immediately precede and supercede it. * A paragraph is coherent when the relationship among the idea is clear and the progression from one sentence to the next is easy for the reader to follow.
Narration: The goal of narration is to tell a story. (The Bible). * Subjective narration focuses on personal impressions, thoughts, insights, and feelings. * Objective narration is usually stated in the third person to give the writer’s views a sense of neutrality. Example: Essay 1 Imagine writing a letter to your closest friend, the person who knows best exactly how you feel about taking this course. Perhaps you feel nervous, or intimidated, or excited. How can you make your friend understand how you feel, without just flat out saying “I feel nervous, etc. ” What details will you include?
What kind of words will you use? Remember, your audience is your best friend. Post this essay under the name: “Friend. ” FRIEND Good afternoon, friend! I am writing to you to let you know that I have decided to take the ENGL 0930 class online. I heard that ENGL 0930 helps prepare students with the ability to write stronger essays. Next year I want to apply for the Faculty of Law. Law school deals with a lot of research papers and essays. I figured that this course would help me prepare for that. I will keep you updated with my progress! Essay 2 Narrate the same event, but for a different audience.
This time, imagine that you are writing a report to be submitted to the government agency or scholarship program that is paying for the course; or imagine that you are writing an article for your local newspaper about returning to school as a mature student, and that as part of this article you are relating the event of your first night at class. Post this essay under the name “Government Report” or “Newspaper. ” NEWSPAPER I am proud to announce that I have completed the first week of class for ENGL 0930. It is always a little bit intimidating to successfully complete the first assignment of any class.
I find the hardest part of any online class is figuring out how to find the notes and submit the assignments properly. I look forward to staying on top of my homework for this course. I have remained up to date on the assigned readings and can already notice an improvement in my writing habits. Descriptive Writing: Presents a person, place, object, era, or condition; it captures the essence or most prominent and distinctive features of what is being described. It presents information and verifiable facts. It leaves out the writer’s feelings, memories, impressions, and sensory detail. It does not imply value judgments. facts) * Subjective description creates a more personal sense of the subject being described. It might evoke the writer’s feelings and memories. It creates moods; it generates in the reader an emotional response. It might make value judgments. Diction: Deals with the type of words you choose. Abstract: Refers to a concept, an idea, to something that cannot be touched, heard, or seen. (happiness, justice) Concrete: Refers to a particular object; to what can be touched, heard, or seen; to something practical. (ladder, tongue, cloud). General: Refers to a class of idea or things; it is all-inclusive, sweeping.
Specific: Refers to something definite, limited, and precise. Denotative: Meaning of a word is its literal meaning, what the word actually refers to. (dictionary meaning). Connotative: Is what the word implies or suggests. (rug-rats, children (different meaning to different people)). Example Somewhere far to the north of Newfoundland, the St. Lawrence Seaway, Place Ville Marie, the Macdonald-Cartier Freeway, the bald-headed prairie, and Stanley Park lies an unreal world, conceived in the mind’s eye, born out of fantasy, and cauled in myth. It is a weird and terrible land where nothing is as it may seem.
Home of the iceworm and the igloo, of mad trappers and mushing Mounties, of pingos and polar bears, of the legions of the damned that were conjured into being by Robert Service, its voice is the baleful whisper of the aurora borealis, the eerie howl of Jack London’s malemutes, and the whining dirge of the CBC’s wind machines. It is a “white hell,” “the ultimate desolation,” “a howling wasteland,” “the Land that God forgot,” and “the Land God gave to Cain. ” It is a region almost wholly of our contriving, and we have made it so inimical a world that the truly alien moon, even as seen on television screens, seems to have more reality. Farley Mowat, “The Nature of the North” * List four or five words or phrases that seem especially effective in creating the mood or effect or main point of the essay. Consider why these words or phrases are especially effective (e. g. , list the connotations of each word or phrase; consider whether or not the words are concrete or abstract, and so on. * Farley Mowat uses subjective description near the end of the essay to create a depressing mood when describing “The Nature of the North. ” Mowat uses connotative phrases to describe the imagery and mood of the North. 1) “baleful whisper of the aurora borealis” This sentence uses a connotative meaning when it says “baleful whisper”. It is implying that the sound of the aurora borealis is very soft. The word baleful is an example of an abstract word. (2) “the eerie howl” This phrase uses a connotative meaning. It is describing the fear and unsettling feeling of the howl from the Alaskan Malemutes. The word “eerie” is an example of an abstract word. However, the Alaskan Malemutes would be an example of a concrete word because it can be seen. (3) “a howling wasteland” This phrase is another example of a connotative phrase.
This phrase is an example of concrete words. It can be both heard and seen. (4) “truly alien moon” This is an example of a connotative phrase. It is describing the mystery of the moon. The moon is an example of a concrete word because it can be seen. Comparison and Contrast: Comparison and contrast evaluates similarities and differences between or among subjects. It is especially useful in defining subjects as it helps us to understand the subject more clearly by demonstrating how it is the same or different to other things in the same class.
Comparison and contrast answers the question “How are things alike or different? ” (Lists the pros and cons). * To draw distinctions among related subjects by working to eliminate confusion between similar concepts. * To clarify choices between concepts by highlighting the differences between them. Subject-by-subject * This method divides the essay into two sections. Writers state all of the information about Subject A and then move into a discussion of subject B. * Best suited for short papers. Loses focus in longer papers. Enables writers to compare abstract subjects with ease.
Point-by-point * This method organized the discussion of two topics (A and B) on a number of specific, shares points. Discussed in a series of comparisons. * Better in longer essays. * Most effective when comparing several intricate points when the reader should keep in mind several detailed points in order to make a decision. * The disadvantage is it is difficult to discuss unique characteristics of either topic. Sentence: A group of related words containing a complete thought. Verb: Functions as the predicate of the sentence. Example: 1. Subject + Verb a.
The pilot flew 2. Subject + Verb + Object b. The pilot flew the place. 3. Subject +Verb + Indirect Object + Direct Object c. The store will not mail me a Christmas catalogue 4. Subject + linking verb + Subject Complement d. The car was rusty 5. Subject + Verb + Direct Object + Object Complement e. I painted the car blue Speech: Consists of 1. Nouns (person, place, thing) a. Nominative case i. Used for subjects (It was I) b. Objective Case ii. Used for objects of verbs c. Possessive Case iii. Used to indicate a sense of possession (apostrophe) 2. Pronouns d.
Personal e. Possessive f. Indefinite g. Interrogative iv. Who, Whom, Which, Whose, What h. Relative v. Who, Whom, Which, Whose, That i. Demonstrative vi. These, those, this, that 3. Verbs j. Person – who or what experience the action k. Number – how many subjects experience the action (singular, plural) l. Tense – When an action occurs: past, present, future vii. Simple tense: Divide time into past, present, and future viii. Present Tense: Describes what is happening, what is true at the moment, and what is consistently true over time. ix.
Past tense: Tells of an action completed or a condition ended x. Future Tense: Indicates an action yet to be taken or a condition not yet experienced. xi. Perfect Tense: Describe actions or occurrences completed or to be completed before a more recent or specific moment in time. m. Mood – What attitude is expressed towards the action: indicative, imperative, subjunctive xii. Indicative: Used for statements about real things (The door to the classroom opened) xiii. Imperative: Used for commands and direct requests (Open the door to the classroom) xiv.
Subjunctive: Expresses speculations and other unreal conditions, wishes, indirect requests. (If I were you, I would open the classroom door). n. Voice – whether the subject act or is acted upon. 4. Adjectives (words that describe, relate) a noun or pronoun o. Comparative adjective xv. Adjective – add –er, adverb – add – “more” xvi. Superlative – add – est adverb – add – “most” 5. Adverbs (words that modify, very, adjective, and adverbs) 6. Prepositions 7. Conjunctions p. Coordinate xvii. And, but, or, so q. Correlative xviii. Either.. or, both.. nd, neither…nor r. Subordinate xix. That, because, when, until s. Conjective xx. Therefore, however, nevertheless 8. Interjections (are exclamations; followed by an exclamation mark) Sentence 1. Simple Sentence a. Consists of one independent clause b. the dog and the cat ran away 2. Compound Sentence c. Consists of a grouping of two or more independent clauses usually joined by a coordinating conjunction (and, or, but) d. Bob won the bronze medal, but Spiro won the silver. 3. Complex Sentence e. Consists of one independent clause and one or more dependent clauses f.
When Deborah arrived, Mario took the roast out of the oven. 4. Compound-complex sentence g. Consists of at least two independent clauses and one dependent clauses. h. Unless we improve the quality of our acting, the director will hire new actors, or the producer will withdraw his money from the show. Fragment: An incomplete sentence or unit of thought that cannot logically stand alone. Example In the business environment, tone is especially important. Business writing is not literary writing. Literary artists use unique styles to “express” themselves to a general audience.
Business people write to particular persons in particular situations, not so much to express themselves as to accomplish particular purposes, “to get a job done. ” If a reader does not like a novelist’s tone, nothing much can happen to the writer short of failing to sell some books. In the business situation, however, an offensive style may not only prevent a sale but also may turn away a customer, work against a promotion, or even cost you a job. Identify and discuss two or three details that seem especially effective in developing the comparison in the essay above. The essay by John S. Fielden uses point-by-point comparison.
The second sentence of the essay says, “Business writing is not literary writing. ” This sentence tells the reader that there is a difference (comparison) between business writing and literary writing. This sentence in the essay is very effective because you know you are reading about a comparison and contrast essay right from the start. The first comparison in the essay is effective in describing the differences between business writing and literary writing. John S. Fielden is explaining the different audiences that each of the artists writes to and whether they “express” themselves or not.
It is effective when writing a comparison and contrast essay that the arrangements of point-by-point comparisons stay the same. Here, the writer starts off by comparing a literary artists point, following it up with a business artists point. The next comparison the writer follows the same order with the literary artist comparison first, then followed by the business artist’s comparison. Division and Classification Division: Division helps us to understand complex subjects by separating them into smaller parts or units. 1. Avoid over simplifying your subject. Inform the reader of all the possible exceptions to your categories. . Select a method of division that includes all parts of the whole. Eliminate possible gaps 3. Make sure that individual parts fit only one category. When you find that details or points can fit into more than one category, your method of division is not suited to your subject. 4. Avoid categories that include too many differences. Classification: Organizes or groups related subjects into categories according to a principle of classification. The principle of classification is a single standard that is used to organize categories. (Which tv channel to order, depends on what kind of person you are). 1.
You need to insure that the principle of classification is clear and that it generates discrete categories. 2. You need to insure that the classification is complete – this usually means having at least three categories. 3. As a general rule, do not classify opposites. * Example Many different kinds of signals are used by coaches. There are flash signals, which are just what the name implies: the coach may flash a hand across his face of chest to indicate a bunt or hit-and-run. There are holding signals, which are held in one position for several seconds. These might be a clenched fist, bent elbow, or both hands on knees.
Then there are the block signals. These divide the coach’s body into different sections, or blocks. Different players can be keyed to various parts of the block so the coach is actually giving several signals with the same sign. Rockwell Stensrud, “Who’s on third? ” Identify the principle of classification In the essay “Who’s on third? ” the classification method is used to discuss different types of hand signals used by baseball coaches. The author’s subject classification is official, not personal, because these particular hand signals were established through a certain method by professionals, not by the author.
Stensrud simply lists and describes the already established signals in a well organised essay. By doing so, the basic coach signals used in baseball can be easily understood by someone who is unfamiliar with the sport. Definition Definition: Definitions indicate meanings, determine limits or boundaries. 1. Lexical: Also known as the dictionary definitions of a word. It is fairly precise and limited in its application. These types of definitions have exact meanings that are shared and understood by a wide variety of different people. . Stipulative: Ascribes new shadings or nuances to accepted usages of a word or concept. A type of definition in which a new or currently-existing term is given a specific meaning for the purposes of argument or discussion in a given context. a. Regulatory: Officially designated terms that are subject to change. These definitions may be universally accepted but they can change, or be limited to a specific region or discipline. b. Example: Severe weather depends on where you live (thunderstorms, blizzards, hurricanes) c.
Qualifying: Limit meanings of words or concepts that is abstract and subject to dispute. d. Example: Genius – many people will disagree on what classifies as a genius. 3. Extended: Broaden our understanding of personal, cultural, or social implications in order to extend our sense of what a term or concept means. e. Evolving: Changes in community attitudes, social values, governmental policy, and scientific research. f. Example: Date Rape and women with consent g. Cultural: Shapes by history, values, and attitudes of a national, ethnic, or religious group. Cultural definitions differ from group to group. . Example: Tribute versus bribery – demonstrates one of the differences in perception between Chinese and American cultures. i. Personal: Express individual interpretations of words or ideas. Express their personal opinions. j. Example: Who is Black? Methods of Definition 1. Defining through synonyms: This is the simplest method of creating a definitions; this is the mode that is typically used in dictionaries and glossaries. 2. Defining by description: This method enables you to provide details about a word or a subject and gives readers a sense of what it might look, feel, taste, smell, or sound like. . Defining by example: This method provides specific illustrations to establish meaning; 4. Defining by comparison: This method uses analogies that readers can understand that infuse unfamiliar or foreign concepts with an air of familiarity. 5. Extended definitions: Qualify or limit the meaning of abstract, disputed, or highly complex words or concepts. Subordination: Place in a lower rank or station. RelationshipSubordinating conjunction Timeafter, before, since LocationWhere, wherever ReasonBecause, since Coordination: Place elements of a sentence into equal relationship.
RelationshipCoordinating conjunction Additionand Resultso Contrastbut, yet Parallelism: A word or group of words that matches the structure of a corresponding word or group of words. This can be done with sentences as well. Example: The strikers had tried pleading, threatening, and shouting. The strikers had tried pleas, threats, and shouts. Process Analysis Process Analysis: Uses explanation (describes how something works) and instruction (describes the methods through which a particular task is performed. * Negative outcomes should be anticipated and explained.
Argument and Persuasion * Aims to convince readers to change their minds, to accept a new idea, or to adopt a particular course of action. * Arguments are assertions designed to convince readers to accept an idea, adopt a solution, or to change their way of thinking. * Persuasion is the art of making emotional or dramatic statements that stir peoples passions and beliefs in order to encourage them to accept or adopt a particular viewpoint. * Logic: Supports a point of view or proposed action through reasoned arguments and the presentation of evidence. results, statistics, surveys, testimonies). * Emotion: Uses images, sensations, or shock appeals to lead people to react in a desired manner. * Ethnics: Ethnics use shared values to influence people. (Religion, patriotism, humanitarianism). Tone: Readers generally do not like to be preached at or harangued, or mocked, or insulted; not do readers want to have very deeply held personal views attacked by a writer. In addition, many of the subjects that we argue about are serious, sensitive, or controversial; therefore, sensitivity and awareness much be incorporated into your tone.