Detailed Lesson Plan Science Elementary Subject

Detailed Lesson Plan Science Elementary Subject

OFFICE OF THE EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR Dear Reader: For the past 30 years, PCARRD has steadfastly provided the directions in developing and modernizing the agriculture, forestry, and natural resources sectors to meet the country’s ever-challenging demands for food security, economic growth, and sustainable development. In order to keep a top-caliber research system, PCARRD has streamlined its R&D efforts by pursuing important commodities on crops, livestock, agricultural resource management, forestry and environment, and socioeconomics.

To this end, PCARRD has come up with this special publication, R&D Status and Directions (2000 and Beyond), composed of different volumes. Each volume provides essential information on the R&D status and directions of a specific commodity prioritized by PCARRD and the National Agriculture and Resources Research and Development Network (NARRDN). This volume specifically discusses wood production forest. PCARRD hopes that the information contained in this book will pave the way to more focused R&D work on this commodity. Very truly yours, PATRICIO S. FAYLON Executive Director

R&D Status and Directions (2000 and Beyond) Wood Production Forest PHILIPPINE COUNCIL FOR AGRICULTURE, FORESTRY AND NATURAL RESOURCES RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT Department of Science and Technology Los Banos, Laguna 2003 First Edition 2003 ISBN 971-20-0506-2 Bibliographic Citation: Wood Production Forest Commodity Team (2001). R&D status and directions (2000 and beyond): wood production forest. Los Banos, Laguna: PCARRD-DOST, 2003. 31p. Volume Editors: For. Vella A. Atienza For. Marcelino U. Siladan Forestry and Environment Research Division PCARRD Ms. Eileen C. Cardona Applied Communication Division PCARRD i ………………………………………………………………………………………………. R&D Status and Directions Foreword or the past 30 years, PCARRD has been tasked to identify R&D gaps, establish a system of R&D priorities, and provide directions for agriculture, forestry, and natural resources. In carrying out these tasks, PCARRD has been assessing the R&D performance of the different commodities. Among these commodities is wood. It is is still considered the backbone of the forestbased industries, which are 60% wood-based in nature.

These industries include pulp and paper, housing and construction, furniture and handicraft, and veneer and plywood. Natural forests and tree plantations are the main sources of wood. Despite the country’s lackluster performance in terms of wood production, it managed to land ninth in industrial roundwood production among the Asian countries in 1999. Currently, the Philippines is making a name as the leading exporter of yemane wood to Japan, Taiwan, and Singapore. Yemane, together with bagras, falcata, and mangium, is widely planted in the country.

This document presents the supply and demand situation of wood, taking into account the wood-based industries. It also presents the trends, strengths and weaknesses, challenges, and issues affecting the industry. Policy recommendations and science and technology (S&T) interventions needed to boost the industry are likewise discussed. PCARRD hopes that the sustainability of the wood production forest (WPF) can be vigorously pursued. May this publication serve as a guide for researchers, scientists, the academe, and the wood-based industries as they pursue their various WPF-related activities.

F Wood Production Forest ………………………………………………………………….. ……………………………………………… iii 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 PATRICIO S. FAYLON Executive Director PCARRD Acknowledgment CARRD would like to thank and commend the efforts of the Wood Production Forest Commodity Team (2001) for preparing the manuscript: team leader, For. Leonardo D. Angeles; the team members, Dr. Wilfredo M. America, Dr. Reynaldo E. ela Cruz, Dr. Antonio C. Manila, and Dr. Teodoro R. Villanueva; and the commodity specialist, For. Marcelino U. Siladan of PCARRD’s Forestry and Environment Research Division (FERD). PCARRD also recognizes the following for their invaluable help in putting together this publication: All the various government and nongovernment agencies, state colleges and universities, and other concerned individuals who have shared their data/ information; Dr. Beatriz P. del Rosario, PCARRD deputy executive director for research and development (R&D) for providing the overall direction; Dr.

Celso B. Lantican, For. Neria A. Andin, Dr. Leuvina M. Tandug, and Dr. Isidro D. Esteban for their invaluable comments and inputs in refining the researchable areas and in improving the manuscript; and The FERD-based technical secretariat for their efforts in preparing the manuscript and for providing additional data and information; Dr. Rogelio C. Serrano, FERD director (on leave), and Dr. Romulo T. Aggangan, acting director, for their technical support; and For. Vella A. Atienza, FERD staff, for assisting in the production process.

Appreciation is also extended to PCARRD’s Applied Communication Division (ACD) for the overall coordination in producing this publication––Dr. Aida R. Librero, acting director and Dr. Norma V. Llemit, ACD director, for reviewing the manuscript; Dr. Lorna C. Malicsi for supervising the production process; Ms. Eileen C. Cardona for editing; Ms. Marina T. de Ramos for preparing the layout and camera-ready proof; Mr. Simeon R. Manahan Jr. for designing the cover; and Ms. Carmelita B. Alamban for coordinating the overall production flow. P v ………………………………………………………………………………………………. R&D Status and Directions 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Contents Foreword ………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. iii Acknowledgment ……………………………………………………………………………………………….. iv Wood Production Forest Commodity Team ………………………………………………………… ii List of Acronyms and Abbreviations …………………………………………………………………… viii Introduction ………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 PART I. R&D STATUS Commodity Industry Situation …………………………………………………………………………… Wood Production in the Philippines ………………………………………………………………

Tree Plantations in the Philippines ………………………………………………………………. Domestic and International Demand for Wood ……………………………………………… The International Wood Trade ……………………………………………………………………… Annual Earnings …………………………………………………………………………………………… Technological Milestones ……………………………………………………………………………………

R&D Investments (1995–2000) ………………………………………………………………………. Major Completed and Ongoing Projects ………………………………………………………… Completed Projects …………………………………………………………………………………. Ongoing Projects ……………………………………………………………………………………… Principal Technological Milestones …………………………………………………………………….

Resource Production and Management …………………………………………………………. Resource Utilization and Product Development ……………………………………………. Institutional Capability ……………………………………………………………………………………… Human Resources …………………………………………………………………………………………. Physical Resources ………………………………………………………………………………………..

Centers of Excellence ………………………………………………………………………………. R&D Gaps ………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. Major R&D Problems ……………………………………………………………………………………. Technical Barriers to Raw Material Production ……………………………………….. Technical Barriers to Postharvest and Utilization ……………………………………. 5 7 7 8 9 10 10 11 11 12 13 14 14 15 15 15 16 18 18 18 18 Wood Production Forest ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. v PART II. R&D DIRECTIONS Challenges/Issues ………………………………………………………………………………………………. Changes in the Economic Structure ………………………………………………………………. Globalization and Trade Liberalization ………………………………………………………….

Trends in the Industry ………………………………………………………………………………….. Major R&D Programs and Policies ……………………………………………………………………… Major R&D Interventions ……………………………………………………………………………… Regulations on Timber Utilization ………………………………………………………………… Harvesting ……………………………………………………………………………………………….

Transporting …………………………………………………………………………………………… Importation …………………………………………………………………………………………….. S&T Interventions/Technology Forecast …………………………………………………………….. Recommendations …………………………………………………………………………………………. Capability Building ……………………………………………………………………………………….

R&D Priorities ……………………………………………………………………………………………… Production Aspects ………………………………………………………………………………….. Utilization, Promotion, and Marketing …………………………………………………….. Policy Advocacy ……………………………………………………………………………………………. References …………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 3 23 24 24 25 25 26 26 26 27 28 28 28 29 29 29 30 31 List of Tables 1 2 3 4 5 6 Log production volume (m3) by source, 1999…………………………………………………… Distribution and volume of plantation-sourced logs by species, 2000 ……………… Estimated area of tree plantations in the Philippines, 1998 …………………………… Log imports, 1995–2000 …………………………………………………………………………………. Lumber imports, 1995–2000 ……………………………………………………………………………

Export sales performance (in $) of the furniture industry, 1996–2000 …………….. 6 6 7 8 8 9 vi ………………………………………………………………………………………………. R&D Status and Directions Wood Production Forest Commodity Team (2001) Team Leader: 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 For. Leonardo D. Angeles Executive Director Philippine Wood Producers Association Legaspi Village, Makati City Dr. Wilfredo M. America Chief

Science Research Specialist Materials Properties Evaluation Division Forest Products Research and Development Institute College, Laguna Dr. Reynaldo E. de la Cruz Professor Forest Biological Sciences College of Forestry and Natural Resources University of the Philippines Los Banos College, Laguna Dr. Antonio C. Manila Division Chief and Project Director National Integrated Protected Areas Project Protected Areas and Wildlife Bureau Department of Environment and Natural Resources Ninoy Aquino Parks and Wildlife Center North Avenue, Diliman, Quezon City Dr.

Teodoro R. Villanueva Associate Professor Institute of Renewable Natural Resources College of Forestry and Natural Resources UPLB, College, Laguna Team Members: Commodity Specialist: For. Marcelino U. Siladan Science Research Specialist Forestry and Environment Research Division (FERD) PCARRD, Los Banos, Laguna Wood Production Forest ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. vii List of Acronyms and Abbreviations 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 AAC A&D AWP B BETP BPI CAR CBFMA C-CARRD CENRO CFIP CFNR CIF CMU CRMF DA DAO DENR DMMMSU DNA DOST DSS DTI ERDB ERDS FAO FBL FHIRDP FIBFI FLMA FMB FPRDI GAA GDP GIA GIS GNP GTI – annual allowable cut alienable and disposable annual work plan billion Bureau of Export Trade Promotion Bureau of Plant Industry Cordillera Administrative Region community-based forest management agreement Caraga Consortium for

Agriculture, Forestry and Resources Research and Development Community Environment and Natural Resources Office Chamber of Furniture Industries of the Philippines College of Forestry and Natural Resources commerce cost, insurance, and freight Central Mindanao University community resources management framework Department of Agriculture DENR Administrative Order Department of Environment and Natural Resources Don Mariano Marcos Memorial State University deoxyribonucleic acid Department of Science and Technology decision support system Department of Trade and Industry Ecosystems Research and Development Bureau Ecosystems Research and Development Service Food and Agriculture Organization forest biotechnology laboratory Furniture and Handicraft Industries Research and Development Program Furniture Industry Board Foundation, Inc. forest land management agreement Forest Management Bureau Forest Products Research and Development Institute general appropriations act gross domestic product grants-in-aid geographic information system gross national product Green Tropics International viii ………………………………………………………………………………………………. R&D Status and Directions IAOP ICT IEC IFMA ISO ITP ITPS LSU M MMSU NARRDN NAMRIA NFRDP NGO NORMISIST NVSIT PENRO PFDA PQO PRI PTFI PTLA R&D RED RISE RM RS RUP S&T SCU SDR SHTF SIFMA SMF SPA SPLTP TCA TLA TTS UPLB WVSU – ntegrated annual operations plan information and communications technology information, education, and communication industrial forest management agreement International Organization for Standardization industrial tree plantation industrial tree plantation species Leyte State University million Mariano Marcos State University National Agriculture and Resources Research and Development Network National Mapping and Resource Inventory Authority National Furniture Research and Development Program nongovernment organization Northern Mindanao State Institute of Science and Technology Nueva Vizcaya State Institute of Technology Provincial Environment and Natural Resources Office private forest development agreement Plant Quarantine Office Paper Industries Corporation of the Philippines Resources, Inc. Provident Tree Farms, Inc. rovisional timber license agreement research and development regional executive director research information series on ecosystems raw materials remote sensing resource use permit science and technology state colleges and universities saw-dry-rip smallholder tree farm socialized industrial forest management agreement self-monitoring form seed production areas special private land timber permit Tarlac College of Agriculture timber license agreement technology transfer series University of the Philippines Los Banos Western Visayas State University Wood Production Forest ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. ix Introduction 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 T e wood production forest (WPF) commodity has two major areas of concern—natural forests and man-made or plantation forests. In the natural forests, the government allows communities (that are holders of socialized industrial forest management agreements [SIFMAs]) and industries (that are holders of industrial forest management agreements [IFMAs] and forest land management agreements [FLMAs]) to utilize timber on a sustainable basis. In these areas, the government allows logging concessionaires to extract substantial amount of timber under the annual allowable cut (AAC), which ensures that the sustainability of the forest is not jeopardized. The man-made production forests include tree plantations (e. g. industrial tree plantations [ITPs], tree farms, and holders of private forest development agreements [PFDA]). Because of the diminishing wood supply from the natural forests, these plantations are considered the backbone of the wood-based industry’s future. It has been predicted that the natural forests will be significantly reduced within the next ten years (Chamber of Furniture Industries of the Philippines [CFIP]-PCARRD-Forest Management Bureau [FMB] 2001). The natural and man-made production forests also cover the mangrove forest (i. e. , its production and utilization aspects) as well as nontimber forest products such as coconut and buri lumber. However, the production aspects of the latter species are under the minor forest plants commodity.

The WPF commodity supports the following major wood-based industries: Primary wood processing industry (lumber industry); Wood furniture industry; Pulp and paper industry; Plantation timber industry; Housing and construction industry including panelboards; and Woodcraft and wooden accessories. 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 R&D Status Commodity Industry Situation 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Wood Production in the Philippines W ood Production Forest (WPF), as referred in this book, is primarily wood production and utilization.

The succeeding discussions, therefore, refer to the supply and demand of wood, both from the natural and plantation forests, taking into account the wood-based industries, which are the main users of the material. The country’s annual log production registered a downward trend from 1990 to 1997. In that period, log production went down from 2. 5 million (M) m3 to 566,000 m3 or an average decline of 277,000 m 3 /yr (FMB-Department of Environment and Natural Resources [DENR] 2000). Compounding the issue is the fact that the Philippines’ annual wood consumption, placed at 4. 02 M m3, is more than its annual production. The production decline may have been attributed to the decrease in the number of timber licensees.

The decrease may have been a result of the suspension and/or cancellation of licenses for violations of existing forestry laws, rules, and regulations; expiration and nonrenewal of licenses; and imposition of logging moratorium, or log ban in certain parts of the country. Thus, a decline in AAC followed. The government has been determined to save the remaining natural forest resources, which are being depleted faster than they are being replenished; and which are in the brink of extinction because of denudation, forest fires, and other human activities in the uplands. However, production increased again in 1998–2000 at an average of 820,000 m3/yr (FMB-DENR 2000). This may have been attributed to the rise in production of the country’s timber plantations.

Logs are extracted from natural forests and private tree plantations that are holders of any of these: timber license agreement (TLA), IFMA, community-based forest management agreement (CBFMA), and the provisional timber license agreement (PTLA). Logs are also sourced from small private tree farmers and from private lands that are holders of either a private forest development agreement (PFDA) or a private land timber permit (PLTP). Table 1 shows that in 1999, log production from these sources totaled 730,000 m3. Of this figure, 26% came from plantations with TLAs, 2% with PTLAs, 39% with IFMAs, 2% with PFDAs, 2% with PLTPs, 1% with CBFMAs, and 28% from smallholder tree farms (SHFT).

Of the total log production in 1999, 525,000 m 3 or 72% came from timber plantations (Table 1). It can be noted that the combined production from IFMA and private plantations has already surpassed the volume produced by TLA holders in the natural forests. The same trend is happening globally, and this trend is expected to continue. Plantations will be increasingly important sources of industrial wood in the future. This will reduce timber harvesting in natural forests (Food and Agriculture Organization [FAO] 1999). Wood Production Forest ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 5 Table 1.

Log production volume (m3) by source, 1999. a Sources A. Mainly Natural Sources TLA PTLA Subtotal B. Plantation-sourced IFMA PFDA PLTP CBFM SHTF Subtotal Total a Volume (in ‘000 m3) Percentage (%) 189. 8 14. 6 204. 4 26 2 28 284. 7 14. 6 14. 6 7. 3 204. 4 525. 6 730. 0 39 2 2 1 28 72 100 FMB-DENR Records 1999. Table 2. Distribution and volume of plantation-sourced logs by species, 2000. a Industrial Tree Plantation Species (ITPS) Falcata (Paraserianthes falcataria) Gubas (Endospermum peltatum) Mangium (Acacia mangium) Bagras (Eucalyptus deglupta) Para rubber (Hevea brasiliensis) Yemane (Gmelina arborea) Total a Volume (in ‘000 m3) 322 33 90 19 27 34 525 Al Rashid et al. 2000. 6 ……………………………………………………………………………………………… R&D Status and Directions Table 2 shows the distribution of plantation-sourced logs by species in 2000. Domestic and International Demand for Wood From 1995 to 2000, the country imported 3. 9 M m3 of logs worth $505. 94 M (Table 4). During this period, the country imported an annual average volume of 657,000 m3 at an annual average value of $84. 32 M. The country imported about 636,000 m3 of industrial roundwood (FAO 1999). It also imported 567,000 m3 of sawnwood. In 1999, Asia was still the leading importer of industrial roundwood with a total volume of 68. 1 M m 3, followed by Europe with total imports of 44. 70 M m3. Japan was the world’s leading importer of industrial roundwood, with a total volume of 47. 86 M m 3, followed by South Korea (9. 07 M m 3), Finland (7. 32 M m 3), and Canada (7. 02 M m3). Tree Plantations in the Philippines Table 3 shows that in 1998, there were around 168,100 ha of existing forest plantations in the country. Sixty-eight percent of these (around 113,560 ha) were developed by CBFM holders in 2,819 project sites. Those established within private lands had an estimated area of 40,500 ha (24%). The remaining 8% represented forest plantations established by IFMA holders who had no processing plants.

The most common forest species planted were falcata, bagras, para rubber, narra, mahogany, yemane, mangium, and giant ipil-ipil. Table 3. Estimated area of tree plantations in the Philippines, 1998. a Areas of Plantations (ha) Within Private Lands 832. 38 996. 78 43. 78 761. 91 728. 90 1,057. 46 2,426. 16 8,991. 66 214. 04 3,824. 34 8,402. 46 6,457. 77 2,881. 41 2,881. 41 40,500. 46 Within Public Lands: IFMA Areasb 509 1,037 4,133 383 875 428 1,261 614 1,682 373 1,469 961 315 14,040 Within Public Lands: CBFM Areas 23,917. 58 11,215. 99 4,725. 90 1,534. 54 2,136. 10 9,028. 05 3,504. 49 4,117. 54 4,796. 45 7,617. 43 8,726. 05 8,226. 18 4,589. 50 8,806. 18 1,305. 23 9,312. 93 113,560. 14

Region Region I Region II Region III Region IVa Region IVb Region V Region VI Region VII Region VIII Region IX Region X Region XI Region XII Region XIII ARMM CAR Total a b Total 25,258. 96 13,249. 77 8,902. 68 2,679. 45 3,740. 00 10,085. 51 6,358. 65 14,370. 20 5,624. 49 13,123. 77 17,501. 51 16,152. 95 8,431. 91 12,002. 59 1,305. 23 9,312. 93 168,100. 60 Carandang, M. G. et al. and FMB-DENR Records (1999). IFMA holders without processing plants. Wood Production Forest ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 7 Table 4. Log imports, 1995–2000. a Year 2000 1999 1998 1997 1996 1995 Total Annual Average a b The International Wood Trade

Value in $ (CIF)b 54,340,693 69,450,136 54,875,834 117,821,197 127,412,566 82,036,115 505,936,541 84,322,756 Volume in m3 584,759 583,643 434,903 768,474 877,585 694,954 3,944,318 657,386 FMB-DENR 2000. Commerce cost, insurance, and freight. Japan was the biggest importer of sawnwood with 11. 53 M m3. In 1999, Japan’s sawnwood consumption totaled 36. 01 M m3 (FAO 1999). The Philippines’ lumber imports registered an annual average volume of 399,000 m 3 during the same period (Table 5). The annual average value of the imported lumber in 1999 was $104 M. Table 5. Lumber Imports, 1995–2000. a Year 2000 1999 1998 1997 1996 1995 Total Annual Average a Volume in m3 358,514 381,235 296,147 411,657 567,426 378,531 2,393,510 398,918

Value in $ (CIF) 79,810,286 116,771,575 71,188,685 112,639,911 161,972,198 82,225,192 624,607,847 104,101,308 FMB-DENR 2000. Based on the 1999 FAO report on the state of the world’s forest, the United States ranked first in terms of industrial roundwood production at 407 M m3, followed far behind by Canada at 183 M m3. In contrast, the Philippines ranked ninth among the Asian countries in terms of industrial roundwood (tree plantation logs) production with logs produced totaling 3. 39 M m3. Log productions in other Asian countries were as follows: China, 109 M m3; Malaysia, 35. 77 M m3; Indonesia, 47. 24 M m3; India, 24. 99 M m 3 ; Japan, 22. 0 M m 3 ; Turkey, 10. 74 M m3; Iran, 4. 90 M m3; and Vietnam, 4. 49 M m3. China was the biggest producer of sawnwood totaling 26. 97 M m 3, followed by Japan with 24. 49 M m 3. In 1999, the Philippines’ sawnwood production was about 313,000 m3 and of this, 143,000 m3 was exported. In 1996, the Philippines’ largest production was on fuelwood and charcoal, totaling 37. 28 M m3, followed by industrial roundwood (3. 39 M m 3 ), paper and paperboard (613,000 m 3 ), wood-based panels (596,000 m3), sawnwood (567,000 m3), and pulp and paper (149,000 m3) (FAO 1999). The country’s major client for wood is Japan. Wood exported to Japan is mostly yemane (Gmelina arborea).

The Japanese gave the wood the trade name, “white teakwood” because in terms of strength, the wood is almost similar to the world’s popular teakwood (Tectona grandis). But yemane wood has a lighter texture than the teakwood. The Philippines is also exporting yemane wood to Taiwan and Singapore. It has been said that while Malaysia has its rubberwood, the Philippines has its yemane. 8 ………………………………………………………………………………………………. R&D Status and Directions Yemane is currently being widely used by the furniture, housing, and construction industries because of its strength characteristics.

The wood’s versatility has made it an important raw material in the wood-based industries. Annual Earnings From 1996 to 2000, the furniture export sales grew by about 25%. Furniture had a 1% share of the Philippine export merchandise in 2000 (Bureau of Export Trade Promotion [BETP]-Department of Trade and Industry [DTI]). Under the furniture sector, wood furniture contributed the biggest share in the country’s exports in 2000, amounting to $143 M. Table 6 shows the comparative export sales performance of the forestbased furniture industry from 1996 to 2000. Table 6 shows that of the estimated furniture export sales of $320 M in 2000, about 42% were made of wood, 32% of rattan, and 5% of bamboo.

The industry set a target growth rate of 75–100% for 2000– 2004 to be able to meet the export sales target of $1 billion (B) by 2004 (CFIP-PCARRD-FMB 2001). It can be seen that the furniture industry is still predominantly wood-based and the trend is expected to continue in the next 10–20 years. Table 6. Export sales performance (in $) of the furniture industry, 1996–2000. a Product Wood furniture Rattan furniture Bamboo furniture Buri furniture Furnishings Parts of furniture Total a 2000 143,295,184 118,024,538 3,180,533 458,130 1,713,392 53,311,752 319,983,529 1999 132,669,481 112,886,571 2,673,867 253,424 1,450,493 43,616,025 293,549,861 1998 128,326,693 108,263,807 1,903,731 1,758,606 2,524,815 26,231,772 269,009,424 997 116,524,941 123,018,530 1,786,325 3,514,408 4,811,770 18,756,070 268,412,044 1996 100,729,795 119,292,775 1,572,322 4,387,184 3,528,747 11,816,613 241,327,436 BETP-DTI 2001. Wood Production Forest ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 9 Technological Milestones 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 R&D Investments (1995–2000) rom 1995 to 2000, the National Agriculture and Resources Research and Development Network (NARRDN) spent an estimated P46. 8 M on WPF-related R&D. Investments of about P15. M came from the regular general appropriations act (GAA) of agencies, particularly those of the Department of Environment and Natural Resources (DENR)-Ecosystems Research And Development Service (ERDS) in the Cordillera Administrative Region (CAR) and Regions I–XIII. The R&D conducted were on phenology and seed technology; nursery management technologies of various reforestation species and dynamics of the natural forest; timber stand improvement; regeneration studies; field performance of reforestation species; species and provenance trials; and tree plantation development and management. A number of state colleges and universities (SCUs), on the other hand, provided some P6. 2 M for R&D efforts related to nursery, plantation development, and management of indigenous and introduced reforestation species.

Major SCUs engaged in WPF R&D include the Mariano Marcos State University (MMSU) in Batac, Ilocos Norte; Don Mariano Marcos Memorial State University (DMMMSU) in Bacnotan, La Union; Tarlac College of Agriculture (TCA) in Camiling, Tarlac; Nueva Vizcaya State Institute of Technology (NVSIT) in Nueva Vizcaya; Western Visayas State University (WVSU) in Lambunao, Iloilo; Leyte State University (formerly ViSCA) in Baybay, Leyte; and Central F Mindanao University (CMU) in Musuan, Bukidnon. These SCUs are also offering forestry courses in their curricula. The Ecosystems Research and Development Bureau (ERDB), the R&D arm of DENR, had an estimated investment of P5. 7 M.

Its R&D work was concentrated mostly on the secondary-growth forest and dipterocarps; phenology and seed technology of dipterocarps and other indigenous tree species; nursery techniques for specific species; and plantation development and management. It also pursued R&D work on mangroves. The Forest Products Research and Development Institute (FPRDI), one of the R&D institutes of the Department of Science and Technology (DOST), focuses on forest products R&D. It invested about P3. 4 M. FPRDI’s R&D efforts were mostly on determining the basic properties of local and foreign raw materials, sawmilling, drying, seasoning and preservation, finishing, product development, and manufacturing.

It also focused on these industries: furniture, handicraft, housing and construction, pulp and paper, as well as veneer and plywood. The University of the Philippines Los Banos (UPLB) College of Forestry and Natural Resources (CFNR) invested about P1. 3 M in the form of counterpart R&D funds. Its R&D work was mostly focused on silvicultural techniques of both natural and plantation forests and on wood utilization for pulp and paper, veneer, and plywood. PCARRD and DOST grants-in-aid (GIA) shared investments of about P12. 1 M and P4. 4 M, respectively. Their R&D 10 ……………………………………………………………………………………………….

R&D Status and Directions investments were focused mainly on R&D support for raw materials production (e. g. , phenology, seed technology, plantation development and management, forest biotechnology including biofertilizers, tissue culture, and macropropagation), and utilization studies in support of the furniture industry. The private sector, particularly the furniture and handicraft industry, shared some P2. 5 M for R&D in wood processing, drying, and utilization. on furniture manufacturing skills (sawmilling, drying, turning, gluing, finishing, and packaging); and 10. Developed a decision support system (DSS) for yemane plantation development and management.

The program was implemented by researchers from UPLB CFNR, ERDB, Green Tropics International (GTI), DENRERDS Region VI, FPRDI, MMSU, and by investors from the private sector such as Betis Crafts, a leading Pampanga-based furniture exporting company that specializes in using yemane; the Iloilo-based bamboo tiles manufacturer, Monoso Philippines (MONPHIL); the Chamber of Furniture Industries of the Philippines (CFIP) and its training arm, the Furniture Industry Board Foundation, Inc. (FIBFI); and Designs Ligna, a Bicutan-based furniture company which operationalized the specialization and complementation scheme using plantation wood for furniture. Forest biotechnology to produce genetically superior planting stocks for ITPs in the Philippines. This program was the initial R&D work of UPLB CFNR on forest biotechnology. It was implemented for two years (1997– 1998) consisting of these three projects: 1. Project I.

Application of microbial (mycorrhiza, rhizobium, and organic) fertilizer in reforestation in the Philippines with two studies: field testing of biofertilizers; and creating a database on the response of leguminous trees to biofertilizers. 2. Project II. Project IIa was on tree improvement and breeding of selected industrial plantation species with the following objectives: establish clonal orchards from Major Completed and Ongoing Projects Major completed and ongoing projects being supported by PCARRD under the WPF commodity include the following: Completed Projects National Furniture R&D Program (NFRDP). This had 15 projects that were implemented from 1996 to 1999. Generated from the program were the following: 1.

Did site-species matching to ensure good growth of tree species; 2. Established plantations and utilized lesser-used tree species; 3. Developed wood-bending technology; 4. Developed finger-jointing technology; 5. Improved drying schedule for yemane; 6. Piloted common service facilities in furniture manufacturing; 7. Piloted complementation and specialization in furniture manufacturing; 8. Developed bamboo pole maker for furniture parts and components; 9. Trained furniture supervisors on management skills and labor force Wood Production Forest ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 11 elected phenotypes among the existing provenances and hybrids; develop hybrids from plus trees and mass produce these, together with selected parents, through asexual means; and conduct progeny tests and start a seed orchard for each of the target species. Project IIb was on tree improvement and breeding of selected species through protoplast technology aimed at establishing a protocol for callus induction of Acacia mangium, A. auriculiformis, G. arborea, and Eucalyptus spp. 3. Project III. Mass propagation of priority reforestation species for the forest biotechnology laboratory by tissue culture techniques. Initial in vitro work was made on A. mangium, P. falcataria, and G. arborea. Ongoing Projects Species-site compatibility assessment for improved reforestation planning being implemented by GTI and ERDB.

Application of forest biotechnology for the mass production of genetically superior trees for agroforestry, CBFM, and industrial forest plantation. This program has the following components: 1. Macroselection of genetically superior phenotypes of four priority ITPS: falcata, mangium, bagras, and mahogany; 2. Macropropagation through rooting of stem cuttings of the four priority selected tree species; and 3. Micropropagation of genetically superior priority tree species. Other soon-to-be implemented components of the program are studies on testing the priority tree species for mycorrhiza and rhizobia, micrografting, protoplast fusion, molecular characterization, and scaling-up for and commercializing genetically superior planting materials to prospective adopters.

The program is being implemented by the UPLB CFNR in cooperation with ERDB researchers. It has technical and financial support from the Centre Internationale de Cooperation en Recherche Agronomique pour le Development (CIRAD)-Foret and the French Embassy. Industrial tree plantation (ITP)-based industries’ R&D support program in the Caraga Region, which is being implemented by DENR Caraga and the Northern Mindanao State Institute of Science and Technology (NORMISIST). The program is being coordinated by the Caraga Consortium for Agriculture, Forestry and Resources Research and Development (C-CARRD), with NORMISIST and DOST Region XIII as the base agencies operating the consortium. These are its ongoing projects: 1.

Development of site-species match map for ITPS in selected municipalities in Agusan del Sur being implemented by DENR Region XIII; 2. Socioeconomic studies for ITPbased industries in the Caraga Region. This is being implemented by NORMISIST. 12 ………………………………………………………………………………………………. R&D Status and Directions Principal Technological Milestones 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 T he following are the highlights of the WPF commodity from 1990 to date, regarding its products, processes, knowledge, and the technologies generated. The commodity boasts of a wide number of packaged technologies from production to utilization.

A few recent technologies and information, packaged and disseminated by PCARRD through the NARRDN, are as follows: Philippines Recommends Series Builder’s Woodworks; Coconut Timber Utilization; Dipterocarp Production; Fast-growing Hardwoods; Fuelwood and Charcoal Utilization; Lumber; Mangrove Production and Harvesting; Pines; Reforestation (being revised); Veneer and Plywood; Wood Furniture; and Woodwool Cement Board. Industry Profile Primary Wood Processing Industry; Plantation Timber Industry; and Basketry and Gifts, Toys, and Houseware. Other sources of information and technologies on forestry are materials packaged and developed by the NARRDN such as these: Resource information series on ecosystems (RISE). Published by ERDB, this material provides brief and concise information and technology on the production of the tree species featured. Technology transfer series (TTS). This material is the regional

DENR offices’ counterpart publication of RISE. Featured in this series are R&D results on gmelina, mahogany, narra, bamboo, and rattan plantation development and management. These were packaged and published by DENR Region VI as output of one of its NFRDP project components. As a result of decades of R&D and the ongoing Furniture and Handicraft Industries R&D Program (FHIRDP), the following specific technologies/information are the subjects of the current efforts on technology transfer and information dissemination: Book Series Propagation of Some Indigenous Reforestation Species (Vols. I and II); and Status of Timber Industry in the Philippines.

Wood Production Forest ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 13 Resource Production and Management Seed technology and nursery production practices and management for the following important tree species: bagras, yemane, narra, Acacia mangium, E. camaldulensis, A. auriculiformis, falcata, dipterocarps (e. g. , red/white lauan, tangile, almon, and mayapis), selected mangrove species (e. g. , bakauan lalaki and bakauan babae, tangal, and pagatpat), local pines (Benguet and Mindoro pines); Use of organic and biofertilizers in planting material production and plantation development (e. g. Biotab, MycoVAM, and Mycogroe); Clonal propagation technique in nursery planting material production; Spacing and thinning as silvicultural techniques in plantation development and management; Plantation establishment and management techniques; Timber stand improvement system; Assisted natural regeneration techniques; and Line planting technique in tree farming. Resource Utilization and Product Development Utilization of lesser-used tree species; Utilization of industrial tree species for furniture; Basic physicomechanical properties of selected indigenous and tree plantation species; Saw-dry-rip (SDR) method in sawmilling small diameter timber; Drying techniques for selected ITPS yemane, mangium, eucalyptus); Seasoning techniques for ITPS using high-pressure sap displacement (HPSD) techniques; Finishing techniques for furniture and woodcraft using the spray booth technology; Utilization of ITPS for wood-wool cement-bonded boards; Wood lamination techniques for production of wider board lumber; Finger-jointing technology in panelboard and furniture manufacturing; Wood bending technology for wood furniture and accessories; Wood furniture manufacturing technology; Builder’s woodworks manufacturing technology; Veneer and plywood manufacturing technology; and Coconut wood processing technology. 14 ………………………………………………………………………………………………. R&D Status and Directions Institutional Capability 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Human Resources A t present, a considerable number of research scientists, as well as field and laboratory technicians are working closely on the commodity.

More than 30 experts are working in ERDB on various fields like seed technology, nursery techniques, phenology, silviculture and forest management, tissue culture, and macropropagation. Their specific focus are mostly on dipterocarps, indigenous tree species, mangroves, ITPS, and multipurpose tree species. The majority of researchers working on the commodity are with the DENR-ERDS based in every region. Each ERDS is estimated to have about three lead scientists and five field and laboratory technicians or research assistants. It is estimated that the ERDS workforce nationwide is more or less 112. In most cases, these scientists and researchers are also working on other commodities. In the SCUs, very few people are closely working on WPF.

Though research is one of their functions, they have limited time for it. Only about 50 scientists from the SCUs are working on the commodity. Most of them have Ph. D. degrees and are very capable of conducting forestry R&D using the high-end sciences such as biotechnology. A large number of these scientists are from the UPLB CFNR. Being the premier institution for forest products utilization R&D, FPRDI has a considerable number of scientists and researchers. With the rapid advancement of S&T is the need of the WPF commodity for expertise in forest biotechnology (e. g. , on deoxyribonucleic acid [DNA] fingerprinting, somatic embryogenesis, and forest genetics/breeding) and on new materials science.

The primary expertise of the current WPF manpower is on forest resource management, specifically on nursery management, plantation/reforestation development, and management of raw material production. In utilization R&D, the areas of expertise are on basic physicomechanical properties, raw material processing for housing and construction, furniture, veneer and plywood, and pulp and paper. Other experts can also be tapped to conduct R&D on developing new materials using traditional wood raw materials. For example, chemistry experts on gluing and adhesives can work with wood physicists to develop gluing techniques to produce wide-diameter lumber using the wood lamination technique. Physical Resources

The DENR has a very good “laboratory” where scientists can conduct their field researches. Almost every region has a forest reservation where researchers can do various field trials. The regions, however, still lack basic laboratories (e. g. , for soil and seed testing). PCARRD and DENR made initial investments on these types of Wood Production Forest ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 15 laboratories in DENR-ERDS Region X in Malaybalay, Bukidnon; DENR-ERDS CAR in Loakan, Benguet; and DENR-ERDS Region XI in Nabunturan, Compostela Valley. The laboratories, however, were not sustained and were not able to operate as originally intended.

On forest biotechnology, a state-of-theart laboratory that can handle advanced studies to produce genetically superior planting materials has just begun construction. On forest products utilization, facilities at FPRDI and UPLB CFNR are modest enough to perform R&D as mandated. These facilities only need some reconditioning. Available in these facilities are new equipment for sawmilling, veneering, drying, finishing, and product testing. In fact, FPRDI is now working on its ISO (International Organization for Standardization) accreditation. Almost all regions lack basic facilities such as soil, seed, and seed storage laboratories. In addition, previous laboratories established now require major facelifts.

However, researchers in Luzon can avail themselves of the UPLB soil and biotechnology laboratories and other research facilities (e. g. , geographic information system [GIS], herbarium, and live genebank/botanical garden). As well, UPLB has a variety of experts who can serve as consultants. The FPRDI facilities are also very accessible to Luzon clients. But because it is the only institution that caters to forest products utilization, clients from as far as Mindanao have no choice but to go to Los Banos. The DENR-ERDS offices in the regions have nurseries, clonal propagation chambers, live genebanks, plantations and reforestation areas, and natural forests as experimental sites. Basic facilities such as soil laboratories may be available in overnment laboratories such as those of the Department of Agriculture (DA) and SCUs in the area. Indeed, there are enough resources (manpower, facilities) for WPF R&D in Luzon. However, much still needs to be done to supply the resource deficiency in the Visayas and Mindanao. Centers of Excellence The following are the WPF commodity’s centers of excellence, their locations, and fields of specialization: The UPLB CFNR is the center of excellence on GIS applications in developing and managing forestry and natural resources. PCARRD, DOST, and UPLB jointly developed the GIS laboratory, which can be considered at par with the best facilities in the country such as those of the National Mapping and Resource Inventory Authority (NAMRIA).

The FPRDI is the center of excellence in forest products and it specializes in wood processing, drying, finishing, basic properties, testing, and product development. The UPLB CFNR’s Forest Biological Sciences Department works on a wide array of ITPS and indigenous tree species specifically on genetic selection, macropropagation, micropropagation, and biofertilizers (mycorrhiza and rhizobium). The Paper Industries Corporation of the Philippines Resources, Inc. (PRI) works on hybridization, clonal propagation, and selection of bagras and falcata. The Provident Tree Farms, Inc. (PTFI) works on clonal propagation, seed orchard development, and selection of yemane and mangium. 6 ………………………………………………………………………………………………. R&D Status and Directions The ERDB-DENR is into micropropagation and macropropagation of bagras and dipterocarps. The UPLB CFNR and the Institute of Renewable Natural Resources are using GIS, remote sensing (RS), and DSS in resource planning and management, while ERDB-DENR is using GIS and RS for R&D in resource management. The DENR-ERDS Region XIII specializes in R&D on dipterocarps and ITPS, while DENR-ERDS Region X focuses on ITPS. The DENR-ERDS CAR is involved in seed technology, nursery, plantation development, pine forest conservation and management, and on mossy forest R&D.

The mangrove forest R&D centers are the DENR-ERDS offices in Regions IV (for Pagbilao, Quezon); VI (for Iloilo, Antique, Capiz, and Aklan); VII (for Cebu, Bohol, and Negros Oriental); and VIII (for Tacloban and Southern Leyte). Wood Production Forest ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 17 R&D Gaps 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Major R&D Problems he decline in natural forests has made it more difficult for the wood-based industries to cope with the increasing demand for traditional raw materials. However, the constraints have been considered as opportunities for R&D.

Technical Barriers to Raw Material Production Planting materials are of inferior quality, thus affecting their growth and yield performance. The seed orchards in the regions are not properly designed. There is insufficient knowledge and practice of site-species compatibility in plantation development and management. Smallholder tree farmers have insufficient technical know-how on tree farming. Tree farmers have poor appreciation of the importance of silvicultural management (e. g. , thinning and pruning) in tree plantation development and management. Extension workers have insufficient knowledge on the new trends of tree farming (e. g. , closely spaced planting and no thinning). Species selection procedure is poor (i. e. little attention is given to wood quality, end use, and species-site compatibility). A scientific, yet practical and systematic national site classification scheme is wanting. Exotic species are overemphasized. T Seed collection practices are faulty. Phenological data are inadequate. Plantation management practices from site preparation to harvest time are poor. There is overemphasis on CBFM and less attention to ITPs. Technology transfer programs (e. g. , mass propagation by cuttings and biofertilizers like mycorrhiza and rhizobium) are either poor or nonexistent. There is urgent need for skills development and technology transfer on plantation development and management (e. g. seed technology, production of genetically superior planting materials, nursery/clonal propagation techniques, and plantation development and management). Technical Barriers to Postharvest and Utilization Furniture manufacturers are not adept at using ITPS because of the shift in the use of dipterocarp species from the natural forests to the use of ITPS. Kiln–drying facilities are insufficient in the country, thus resulting in insufficient supply of kiln-dried lumber for manufacturing furniture. Sawmilling facilities are insufficient to process small-diameter tree plantation species. Lumber grading system for locally produced ITP lumber is insufficient, thus affecting the finished products’ quality and durability. 8 ………………………………………………………………………………………………. R&D Status and Directions There is a need for more efficient harvesting and transport, utilization, and processing/manufacturing technologies. Raw materials (RM) are of poor quality because of the unsuitability of species used and the high proportion of juvenile wood. The available technologies and machinery are not suitable for smalldiameter timber. There is poor recovery in harvesting and processing. Sawmills are banned in the countryside. There are barriers to securing harvesting permits and the free flow of transporting raw materials. Constraints are present on checkpoints. Circular saws are banned within or near the plantation sites.

Wood Production Forest ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 19 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 R&D Directions Challenges/Issues 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 he management of the remaining natural forests, both on the technical and policy sides, is considered a critical issue today and in the future. The economic sustainability of the wood industry is highly volatile and is entirely dependent on the government’s management strategies.

The future of the forestry sector shall be shaped according to the right mix of protection, utilization, and conservation. The unpredictable policy environment on the total log ban places the industry in an awkward situation in terms of investment and development. Alongside this, private tree farmers, ITP developers, and those wanting to invest are wary of the negative impacts of the future policy environment on their investment decisions. Specifically, the policy issues on logging in the secondary logged-over areas and in the remaining natural stands may persist in the next 5–10 years. The legal issues on the private sector’s bid to operate within the natural forests need to be addressed by the government and the private sector in the future.

Moreover, the quest for viable socioeconomic approaches to address the balance between protection and utilization casts some doubts on the appropriateness of CBFM as a strategy to manage the remaining natural forests. Also, ensuring the productivity of the forests is an urgent concern. The quality of plantations is highly dependent on the quality of inputs (e. g. , labor, time, and T planting materials). The issue on the integrity of the seed production areas (SPAs) still remains; therefore, it is important that an appropriate design be made for these to be considered good SPAs. Likewise, the success of reforestation and tree farming is highly dependent on the technical, manpower, and financial inputs.

More efficient and cost-effective technologies for WPF production and utilization must also be generated. The role of forests in curbing global warming and sustaining the various ecosystems is likewise an important issue. Therefore, concerned agencies must urgently include this in their agenda. Changes in the Economic Structure The last ten years (1991–2000) saw the reduction of the AAC for the primary wood industry. This led to a dramatic change (both decreasing and increasing trends) in the industry in terms of its gross domestic product (GDP) contribution. In the ‘60s and the late ‘70s, the wood sector was one of the major contributors to the country’s gross national product (GNP).

With the increasing areas being developed for tree farming, the ITP sector is expected to reinvigorate the wood sector’s contribution to the country’s economic development in the next ten years. Wood Production Forest ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 23 Globalization and Trade Liberalization The country has long been importing wood materials because logging had been reduced in the last ten years. In this light, trade liberalization and the entry of China into the world market are likely to impact positively on the Philippine wood-based industries.

In effect, more and cheaper wood raw materials coming from various countries will be available. The direct beneficiaries are the downstream industries such as the furniture, housing, and construction sectors. While the country is building up its own raw materials from the tree plantations, the primary wood industry, however, may be affected because of the entry of cheap raw materials. It is important that the tree farmers will have to ensure that the quality of logs produced is globally competitive. Indirectly, trade liberalization will reduce the pressure on the country’s remaining natural forests. Trends in the Industry According to the FAO report (1999) on the state of the world’s forests, the trends n wood resource utilization will dramatically shift to the use of tree plantation logs. Plantations will be increasingly important sources of raw materials of the wood-based industries in the future, thus potentially reducing timber harvests from the natural forests. Forest plantations in the world have been increasing and this trend is expected to continue. In the Philippines, from a drastic drop in log production in the early ‘90s, it started to increase again in 1998 at an average rate of 87,000 m3/yr. As early as 1990, PCARRD has been influencing the wood-based industries to start shifting from the use of natural forest wood to the use of tree plantation wood.

It has even embarked on investing its resources, in partnership with Betis Crafts, to develop and improve the drying schedule for yemane. At present, the industry is looking for other potential commercial ITPS. This condition is dictated by the existing plantations established. Considered as future sources of raw materials for the wood-based industries are species that are planted in large areas. These include A. mangium, Eucalyptus camaldulensis and other eucalyptus hybrids, S. macrophylla, and E. deglupta. 24 ………………………………………………………………………………………………. R&D Status and Directions Major R&D Programs and Policies 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Major R&D Interventions he ongoing Forest Biotechnology Program, being implemented by UPLB CFNR and ERDB, will address the need for quality planting materials. Its long-term goal is to produce short-rotation and quality poles (i. e. , are straight, pest-resistant, and high-yielding). Other interventions will be the following: Conduct initial field trials for macropropagated genetically superior trees. Develop and refine in vitro propagation protocols for the four priority ITPS. Test the genetically superior trees for rhizobia and mycorrhiza. The S&T Anchor Program for ITP in Caraga will address the sector’s pest and disease problems.

The modality that will be developed by DENR Caraga and NORMISIST will be on pest and disease monitoring, setting up of sampling plots, and community involvement. Other interventions will be the following: Implement clonal propagation activities; Conduct thinning studies in selected sites; and Study the extent and utilization of wood wastes from ITPS. T Under the FHIRDP is a project that seeks to re-evaluate the sources and causes of wastes from harvesting to utilization. The project will focus primarily on the development of appropriate harvesting techniques suited for smallholder tree farmers. The existing loading means are the crude, old, and inefficient carabao logging and use of the Bataan system.

The latter method of gathering felled logs from the harvest site to the roadside or to the sawmills, with the use of an American Willys Jeep or a 6×6 truck, originated from a Bataan logging company. Other interventions will be the following: Conduct study on coppicing yemane and on hydrology. Provide community-based raw materials production system. Establish pilot demonstration tree farms for thinning and other silvicultural techniques. Fully develop GIS-based furniture and handicraft resource inventory system for selected sites in Caraga, Cagayan Valley, and Quezon. Develop CBFM-based production systems for selected species for furniture and handicraft.

Assess growth and yield performance of ITPS applied with various thinning systems. Develop modalities on CBFM-based raw material (RM) production system for furniture and handicraft. Wood Production Forest ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 25 A component project of this program plans to study the volume and nature of thin-outs from ITPS, and how these materials can be converted into high-value products. Farmers are hesitant to conduct thinning as they do not want to reduce the number of trees. WPF R&D shall explore the development of new materials out of the existing characteristics of the ITPS.

Because the allowable cut from the natural forests has been reduced, the industry is now slowly shifting to ITPS. The use of ITPS and the development of new materials for the industry are measures to sustain the woodbased industry. Areas of concern include particleboard production and wide panelboard development from various ITPS and wood hardening, among other things. Regulations on Timber Utilization As stipulated under P. D. 705 (Revised Forestry Reform Code of the Philippines), cutting, gathering, collecting, or removing timber or other forest products from any forest land, alienable and disposable (A&D) public land, or private land needs prior authority or permit from the DENR.