Development Of Mathematical Understanding Education Essay

Development Of Mathematical Understanding Education Essay

1.0 Introduction

1.1 What is seminal fluid ; how it is made and what is it composed of

Seminal fluid is a substance found in many male species sexual generative secretory organs. Semen is the nebulose white organic structure fluid that is emitted from the urethra of the phallus during interjection. It is made up of a assortment of molecules and cells such as leukocytes, proteolytic and other enzymes every bit good as fruit sugar and is a medium for elimination and transit of sperm cell. In the human male species, production occurs in the prostate secretory organs and gonadal which are slightly thankless sex accoutrement secretory organs until they malfunction or cease to work at all with the prevailing effects being drastically lower the rates of birthrate.

Semen is composed largely of H2O, likely about 90 % by weight. After that, it ‘s a mixture of amino acids ( proteins ) , minerals, saccharides ( sugars ) , and a little figure of other things. Semen has a basic pH degree intending it is the antonym of acidic by nature – this is to antagonize and neutralize the vagina ‘s acidic pH and increase the sperm cell ‘s opportunities of endurance.

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Besides sperm, seeds is made of secernments from the seven lower urinary piece of land constructions. These constructions include: seminal cysts ( which account for 60-70 % of the fluid ) , prostatic secretory organ ( which accounts for 20-30 % ) and the staying per centum is shared by the epididymis, vessel deferens, ampullae of the vessel, Cowper ‘s secretory organs and secretory organs of Littre. Semen itself has high concentrations of K, Zn, citric acid, fructose, phosphorylcholine, spermine, free amino acids, prostaglandins and enzymes, which nourish and protect the sperm. Beginning: ( hypertext transfer protocol: // # funfacts )

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Main Production sitesA

Seminal fluid is largely produced in four topographic points ; in the seminal cysts, the male testicles, the prostate secretory organ and in the Cowper ‘s secretory organs.

The Seminal Vesicles: This is where the milklike white protein based substance ( semenogelin I and II ) that seeds largely consists of is chiefly produced ( Ulvsback et al. 1992 ) .A These semenogelins interact with each other and coagulumate after interjection ( Aumuller and Riva 1992 ) . ( Spermatozoa wellness depends on this substance for foods which they will utilize to prolong them on their manner to fertilise the female ova.A This fluid is besides alkalic in nature and helps to neutralize the acidic conditions within the female generative system.

The Male Testes: This is the organ where the production of sperm cells occurs. Spermatozoa cells are cultivated here until they mature. After that they are so stored in the Ampulla where they wait to be ejaculated out of the organic structure. They are besides protected by glycocalyx secernments from the testicle, motorial canals, epididymis and accessary secretory organs ( Schroeter et al. 1999 ) .

The Prostate Gland: The prostate secretory organ besides produces an alkalic solution that acts as a protective barrier for the sperm cells against the sourness of the female sexual generative environment. The pH of the fluid is maintained above 7 by the action of prostate prostasomes ( et Al. 1999 ) . The fluid produced, is a protastic serine peptidase and helps the liquification of the semenogelins clot ( Peter et al. 1998 ) The prostate is besides an of import beginning of superoxide anion aggregators in worlds ( Gavella et al. 1996 )

A The Cowper ‘s Glands: These secretory organs produce a clear slippery liquid besides known as pre-cum which is excreted during arousal or sexual stimulation.A It is produced by the Cowper ‘s or bulbouretheral secretory organs and creates a medium for which sperm can be transported and swim in through the male generative piece of land and acts as a lubricator to cut down clash during sexual activity.

Seminal fluid Composition and maps

Semens contains citric acid, free amino acids, fructose, enzymes, phosphorylcholine, prostaglandin, K, and Zn. The mean volume of seeds produced in a individual interjection varies from 2 to 5 milliliter. The seeds from a individual interjection may incorporate between 40 million and 600 million sperm, depending on the volume of the semen and the length of clip since the last interjection. Samples used for medical intents are obtained by holding the giver masturbate. If a sample can non be produced without sexual intercourse, non-reactive rubbers can be used to roll up the seeds.

The procedure of secernment of seminal fluid in male mammals is finally under androgenic and estrogenic control, with a intensifying consequence happening between these two types of gonadal steroids ( Reaside et al. 1999 ) . Oxytocin secreted by the posterior hypophysis, lactogenic hormone secreted by the front tooth can besides command activity of sexual accoutrement secretory organs in mammals ( Gemmell and Sernia 1989 ; Kumar and Farooq 1994 ; Gonzalez et Al. 1994 ; Watson et Al. 1999 ) .

There is a general consensus that the three major functional facets of seminal fluid are, its function in sperm competition, its map to help birthrate and in conclusion its function in the transmittal of venereal diseases. This is due to the composing of the seminal fluid being attributed to the secernment of many different tissues and that are under the control of a assortment of different constituents of the neuroendocrine system. The functionality of the seminal fluid constituents may be duplicated but in the procedure they will synergize and complement each other. As an illustration, increased immunosuppressive action of the seminal fluid on the female generative piece of land aimed at increasing sperm viability may besides ease the transmittal of sexually catching pathogens, therefore increasing the choice force per unit area on females to get the better of immunosuppression. ( Birkhead et al. 1993 ) .

Seminal fluid is responsible for sperm capacitation for the ability to fertilise female ‘s egg cell. Besides some proteins secreted by male accessary secretory organs have been implicated in the procedure of sperm capacitation. ( Gillott 1996 ) . Structural proteins of the spermatophre that are secreted by sex accoutrement secretory organs, such as trehalase and sugars such as trehalose, may play a function in the activation of sperm within the female ‘s Bursa copulatrix ( Yaginuma et al. 1996 ) . The procedure of capacitation of sperm involves the acquisition of a coat of saccharides that from the glycocalyx ( Schroeter et al. 1999 ) . Most of those saccharides are attached to proteins organizing glycoprotein composites that are produced by accessary secretory organs and other tissues of the male generative system. Acquisition of a glycocalyx is indispensable in some taxa for the attainment of full capacitation of sperm and fertilizing ability. ( Schroeter et al.1999 ) .

In work forces, accessary secretory organs secrete 5′-necleotidase, an enzyme that hydrolyses nuleotides into phosphate and nucleosides, which may play a function in the alteration of sperm surface during capacitation ( Konrad et al. 1998 ) . Capacitation in human sperm is besides increased by tripeptide amides found in seminal plasma ( Khan et al. 1992 ) .

Other endocrines and substances are besides found in seminal fluid such as, edothelin which facilitates transit of sperm and besides heighten sperm motions through the womb by myometrial contraction stimulation ( casey et Al. 1992 ) . The same is the instance with bradykinin which helps transporation by its smooth musculus loosen uping belongingss ( Charlse Worth et Al. 1999 ) .

1.2 Which metals have been found in seminal fluid and why?

The interaction between metals and biomeolecules are important and major in biological categorizations. The metals preponderantly determine many metabolic reactions and fewer of them cat as the aetiological agents in environmentally induced neurological upsets.

Aluminum, Zinc, Mg, Ca and lead hints can be round in seminal fluid in edge ionic signifier. These metals are of course found in minor hints and have an array of effects and utilizations and are collected in different avenues. It has been suggested that heavy metals may hold inauspicious impacts on male generative wellness [ Benoff S, Jacob A, Hurley, 2000 ; Telisman.S et Al, 2000 ] even at comparatively low exposures [ ; Telisman.S et Al 2007 ] . The heavy metals may adversely impact the male generative system, either by bring oning hypothalamic-pituitary axis break or by direct seeds quality decrease during spermatogenesis [ Wyrobek AJ et Al 1997 ] .

Several metals are suspected endocrinal disruptor compounds and/or generative poisons such as chiefly lead ( Pb ) and Cd ( Cd ) . Human populations could be exposed to heavy metals at hint concentrations normally through consumption of contaminated H2O and nutrient or contact with contaminated air or dirt.

Blood and seminal Pb concentrations every bit good as seeds quality among both occupationally exposed and unexposed work forces has been studied and concluded to hold a important opposite association [ De Rosa M et Al 2003 ; JurasoviA‡ J et Al 2004 ; Telisman.S et Al, 2000, Eibensteiner L et Al 2005 ] . Cadmium has been connected to impaired seeds quality and altered hormonal degrees in work forces [ Pant N et Al 2003, Telisman.S et Al, 2000, Akinloye O et Al 2006 ; Zeng X et Al 2002 ] . Although Cd has been considered as an hormone disruptor, the mechanisms involved are non yet clear [ Henson MC et Al 2004 ] . Mercury ( Hg ) has been found to bring on abnormalcies in sperm morphology and motility in animate being vito surveies [ Mohamed MK et Al, 1987 ; Rao Mv et Al, 1989 ] . Choy et Al. [ Choy CM et Al, 2002 ] described Hg concentrations in seminal fluid and sperm abnormalcies in subfertile males. But contrary to that, Meeker et Al. [ Meeker JD et Al 2008 ] discounted that claim after happening no relationship between seeds quality and Hg degrees in blood.

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The intent of seminal plasma Zn on sperm maps has been a subject of involvement to many scientists. Zinc organs from the prostate is good established and found in seminal plasma as Zn citrate or edge to glycoprotein derived from seminal cysts ( Marmar et al. 1975, Arver 1982, Arver and Eliasson 1982 ; Kavanagh 1983 ; Lafond et Al. 1986 ) has been recognised since 1921 ( Bertrand and Vladesco, 1921 )

It has been found that Zn is indispensable to the decondensation of chromatin at the right clip every bit good as stableness. ( kvist et Al. 1987,1988 ) . Zinc is thought to play a function as a refinisher of an built-in mechanism for head-tail withdrawal of sperm cell ( Bjorndahl and Kvist, 1982 ) . The entire benefit or injury of Zn is vague because it has been reported that high degrees of Zn concentrations have been related to lowered sperm mortality, whilst others have reported that high Zn content in seminal plasma to be associated with a high grade of sperm cell motility ( Stankovic and Mikac-Devic, 1976 ; Caldamone et Al. 1979 ) .

Zinc lack is associated with hypogonadism and deficient development of secondary sex features in worlds ( Prasad, 1991 ) . Besides high Zn concentrations have been reported to deject oxygen consumption in the sperm cell ( Huacuja et al. , 1973 ; Foresta et al. , 1990 ) , and albumin-induced acrosome reaction ( Foresta et al. , 1990 ) . Zinc has besides been found to be responsible for the antibacterial activity of seminal plasma ( Fair et al. 1976 ) and decreases in degrees are seen in prostate infections ( Marmar et al. 1975, Abyholm et Al. 1981 ; Papadimas et Al. 1983 ) .

The entire Zn content in seeds from mammals was found to be at high degrees, and Zn has been found to be critical to spermatogenesis. But Zn can besides do wasting of the seminiferous tubules in the rat and ensuing in the failure in spermatogenesis ( Millar et al. , 1958 ; Underwood, 1977 ; Endre et al. , 1990 ) . Besides, high concentrations of Zinc have been reported to deject oxygen consumption in the sperm cell ( Huacuja et al. , 1973 ; Foresta et al. , 1990 ) , and albumin-induced acrosome reaction ( Foresta et al. , 1990 ) . Consiquently there have been conflicting studies on the consequence of seminal Zn on sperm motility ( Stankovic and Mikac-Devic, 1976 ; Danscher et al. ,

1978 ; Caldamone et al. , 1979 ; Lewis-Jones et al. , 1996 ) . One such struggle arises when it is demonstrated that chelation of Zn ions affects sperm motility ( Saito et al. , 1967 ; Danscher and Rebbe, 1974 ) , and it has been suggested that bioavailable Zn edge to vesicular high molecular weight proteins instead than entire seminal Zn should be a step of the consequence of Zn on sperm map ( Bjorndahl et al. , 1991 ; Carpino et al. , 1998 ) .

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Like zinc Mg besides originates chiefly from the prostate secretory organ and the degrees of this component in seminal plasma reflect prostate map ( Eliasson and Lindhomer, 1972 ) . The Mg degrees normally closely correlative with those of zinc concentrations ( Adamopoulos and Deliyiannis, 1983 ) .Lead a metal best known for being environmentally harmful doing it teratogenic and abortifacient. Lead disposal in animate beings causes sterility. Lead is non of course present in high sums in the organic structure but can be increased due to industrial exposure. The lead exposure has been observed to do teratospermia and to expose positive correlativity to blood lead degrees ( Lancranjan et al.1975 ) .

Seminal fluid is rich in Ca and helps modulate sperm map as the concentration of Ca in seeds determines sperm motility, the ability of sperm to travel. However surveies show that an increased concentration of Ca ion was damaging to human sperm motility.Calcium is of import for sperm physiology including motility ( Morton et al. , 1974 ; Lindemann et al. , 1987 ) , metamorphosis ( Peterson and Freund, 1976 ) , acrosome reaction, and fertilisation ( Yanagimachi and Usui, 1974 ; Yanagimachi, 1981 ) . The function of seminal Ca in sperm motility is, nevertheless, non to the full understood. Thomas and Meizel ( 1988 ) found chelation of extracellular Ca ions with EGTA to suppress acrosome reaction, but at the same clip to hold no consequence on motility.Metals are omnipresent at low degree concentrations and are ingested by the general population either voluntarily through addendums or involuntarily through consumption of contaminated nutrient and H2O or contact with contaminated dirt, dust, or air.

Some metals, such as Cd, lead, arsenic, and quicksilver, are incidental xenobiotics that can be measured in most of the general popu- lation [ Centers for Disease Control and Prevention ( CDC ) 2005 ] . Because widespread human exposure and organic structure load have been demonstrated, there is turning concern for inauspicious wellness effects associated with low-level exposures encountered in the environment. Human and carnal grounds suggests that these metals may hold inauspicious impacts on male generative wellness at comparatively low lev- ELs. For illustration, Cd has been linked to hapless human seeds quality and DNA harm ( Telisman et al. 2000 ; Xu et Al. 2003 ) ; Pb may adversely impact sperm form, motility, and DNA unity ( Eibensteiner et al. 2005 ; Hernandez-Ochoa et Al. 2005 ; Jurasovic et Al. 2004 ; Telisman et al. 2007 ) ; and methyl- quicksilver is associated with sperm abnormalcies in subfertile males ( Choy et al. 2002 ) . However, human informations on nonoccupational

Exposure to these metals has been limited ( e.g. , Hg ) , missing ( e.g. , As ) , or inconsistent across surveies ( e.g. , Cd ) . We designed the present survey to research relationships between these incidental metals and seeds quality among work forces with exposure degrees that are likely to be representative of those found among the U.S. general population.

Several other metals, such as Cr, Cu, manganese, Mo, Se, and Zn, are indispensable for good wellness but may be harmful above certain degrees [ Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry ( ATSDR ) 2003, 2004, 2005 ; Greger 1999 ; Institute of Medicine ( IOM ) 2001 ] . For exam- ple, Cr, Mn, and Cu, which act as cofactors for a assortment of of import enzymes, have been associated with decreased seeds quality in gnawers and in worlds ( Adejuwon et al. 1996 ; Huang et Al. 2000 ; Kumar et Al. 2005 ; Telisman et al. 2000 ; Wirth et Al. 2007 ) . Mo is besides an of import cofactor for a limited num- ber of human enzymes and has demonstrated generative toxicity in carnal surveies ( IOM 2001 ) . On the other manus, low doses of metals such as Cu, Se, and Zn may hold protective effects on male generative results ( Benofft al. 1997 ; Evenson et Al. 1993 ; Lyubimov et Al. 2004 ; Olson et Al. 2005 ) and may help in antagonizing the effects of Cd, Pb, or other metals ( Telisman et al. 2000 ; Xu et Al. 2003 ) . Because the possible exists for a figure of metals to positively or negatively affect male reproduction either separately or together, we besides included these metals in our analysis. This wk represents the most comprehensive survey to day of the month on metal exposures at environ- mental degrees and human seeds quality.

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Table 1.1 demoing the effects of different metals on male generative system

The tabular array below shows what Marthur and her co-workers found on how different metals affect the human male and male animate beings ‘ generative systems.

Table taken from Journal of Biological Science by Marthur et al. , 2010

The human race is going more and more industrialised and at the same time urbanised. This is one of many factors which has induced the effects of ionic edge metals in male generative systems and caused worldwide qui vive ( Chowdhury, 2009 ; Turgut et Al. 2003 ) . Marthur et al. , 2010 were looking at one of the most toxic and inauspicious effects with in the human males generative system.

An inflow in natural stuffs ingestion rates and graduated table has made the presence of metal compounds in the environment of all time more omnipresent. Anthropogenetic activities have been established as one of the prima causes for ecotoxicological effects. Metallic elements are various in composing and toxic stoping points, so they can non portion an exact chemical footing in toxicology. Metallic elements in ionic signifier have a inclination to be sensitive and extremely reactive which means that they can respond with biological elements, such as the human male generative system in a figure of different ways. This in consequence allows exogenic metals to exercise toxic effects that are straight linked to steric re-arrangement which has been found to be responsible for biomolecule mal map. ( Kasprzak, 2002 and Kasprzak et al. , 2003 ) .

After consumption, metals can easy flux to the male generative system where the procedure of spermatogenesis is left vulnerable to changes. Similarly, the metals can interact and respond with familial make-up of the human male endocrines. Low sperm mortality and has been established to be a direct consequence of exposure to metals.

Looking back at this reappraisal it can be easy deduced that the toxicity and sensitiveness of metals can be mostly attributed to the hormonal change and spermatogenesis break and or malfunction.

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1.3 A brief debut to aluminium

Aluminum can be found bounteously in our environment. It is the 3rd most abundant component in the Earth ‘s crust, stand foring 8 % by weight of the entire constituents ( Martin, 1997 ) . The worlds are necessarily and invariably exposed to aluminium. High contents of aluminum can be found in some stones after the lithospheric rhythm where it is introduced into the Earth ‘s crust. Weathering of these stones is what causes aluminium-rich minerals to fade out, which forms indissoluble clay-like stuffs that finally are re-introduced into the Earth ‘s crust by deposit. Aluminium returns into the magma by farther subduction, which in bend completes the rhythm ( Exley, 2003 )

The attendant clay like stuffs play a important function in the lithospheric rhythm of aluminum so efficient ( Exely, 2003 ) these along with the hydroxyaluminosilicates, startle the aluminum content so that it does non over concentrate the biotic rhythm.

Normally aluminium enters the encephalon through the blood-brain barrier ( BBB ) . It is suspected that the aluminum enters the encephalon by receptor-mediated endocytosis as a compound with beta globulin ( Roskams and Connor, 1990 ) . it has been reported that aluminum can come in into the encephalon as a compound with beta globulin which is bound to citrate through a specific transporter, Xca?’ ( l-glutamate/l-cysteine ) system money changer is the most likely agent as explained by Nagaswa. ( Nagasawa et al 2005 ) . High aluminum consumption has been related to the appearence a neurodegenerative disease ( Perl & A ; Moalem, 2006 ; Kawahara, 2005 ) .

Aluminium has no biological benefit ( Yokel 2002 ) . It is a poison associated with some medical conditions such dialysis brain disorder ( Alfrey etA al. , 1976 ) , osteomalacia ( Parkinson etA al. , 1979 ) , and it has been found to hold links with many other diseases including Alzheimer ‘s disease ( Exley 1999 ; Gupta etA al. , 2005 ) , Parkinson ‘s disease ( PD ; Yasui etA al. , 1992 ) , and amyotrophic sidelong induration ( Kurland, 1988 ) .

1.4 How are worlds exposed to aluminium?

There are several avenues which worlds can be exposed to aluminium due to its natural copiousness in the environment. Traces can be found in nutrient, H2O and air and even more sums can be intentionally introduced by worlds ( Miller et al. , 1984 ; Cech and Montera. , 2000 ; Lettermann and Driscoll. , 1988 ) . Aluminium compounds can be found in pharmaceuticals like alkalizers, anodynes and antiperspirants. They are besides used in H2O intervention processes as coagulators and can even be found as metal in mundane consumer merchandises like foil paper and take away nutrient boxes. Aluminium compounds are besides found in about all workss. Edible workss that are of course high in aluminum include murphies, Spinacia oleracea and tea foliages ( WHO, 1998 ) . A recent survey at Keele University besides warned that unnecessarily high sums of aluminum are being used in the fabrication of baby powdered milk and that the aluminum content of expressions prepared from powdery milks was significantly higher than ready-made milks, ensuing in babies consuming up to 600 I?g of aluminum per twenty-four hours Exley and Burrell, 2010. Pregnant adult females may be potentially exposed to aluminium through the diet ( including imbibing H2O ) , dust and dirt consumption and some medicines ( Roig et al. , 2006 ) . Surveies have proven that aluminum is a major subscriber to pathologies such as dialysis dementedness, iron-adequate microcytic anemia, osteomalacia ( [ Suwalsky et al. , 2004 ] and [ Domingo, 2006 ] ) Over the past 40 old ages the controversial inquiry refering the possible function for aluminium neurotoxicity in lending to the pathogenesis of Alzheimer ‘s disease has been debated but remains unsolved.

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1.5 What do we already know about aluminum and seminal fluid

So far I have found out that although aluminum is largely a harmful metal with no direct biological benefit ( Yokel, 2002 ) , it is found in copiousness in our environment. ( Martin, 1997 ) .Aluminium in high concentrations was linked to reduced sperm motility ability ( Hovatta et al. , 1998 ) . It is besides responsible for impaired sperm quality. Research was undertaken to detect the underlying disagreements between sperm quality and geographic location by Hovatta and co-workers. Due to miss of elucidation as to factors doing the diminution, surveies to analyze seeds quality and the concentrations of aluminum, Cd and lead in sperm cell and seminal plasma in a group of employees of a refinery and a polyolefin mill and the consequences were compared with informations obtained from samples from sperm bank seeds quality ( Hovatta et al.,1998 ) .

The survey discovered that the average sperm concentrations were similar in the mill employees ( 96H106/ml ) . The sperm giver campaigners of the comparing group had a important difference of ( 104H106/ml ) in 352 giver campaigners at the sperm bank of the Family Federation of Finland ( 107H106/ml ) between May 1993 and May 1995 ( Hovvatta et al. , 1998 ) .

Research done in Finland discovered that high and unchanged sperm counts have been found ( Suominen and Vierula, 1993 ; Vierula et al. , 1996 ) . In contrast to that, two necropsy series of middle-aged Finnish work forces showed an addition in the incidence of upsets of spermatogenesis between the old ages 1981 and 1991 was unveiled ( Pajarinen et al. , 1997 ) . Meanwhile, decreased birthrate in Britain ran parallel with that in Finland, based on differences in the clip to construct ( Joffe, 1996 ) . Regional differences were besides apparent in the USA, with the highest mean sperm concentration being found in New York ( 131.03106/ml ) and ( A© European Society for Human Reproduction and Embryology ) 115 the lowest in California ( 72.73106/ml ) ( Fisch et al. , 1996 ) . A little addition in sperm concentration between the old ages 1972 and 1993 was seen in Seattle, Washington ( Paulsen et al. , 1996 ) .

It has been suggested that environmental factors played a function in the diminution observed in Europe, particularly environmental oestrogens ( Sharpe and Skakkebaek, 1993 ) . Oestrogens have besides been suggested to hold caused the addition seen in the incidence of cryptorchidy and testicular malignant neoplastic disease ( Sharpe and Skakkebaek, 1993 ; Skakkebaek and Keiding, 1994 ) . Heavy metals are potentially pollutants that may be harmful to sperm production. Exposure due to business or geographics to several metals is known to impair sperm quality ( Schrag and Dixon, 1985 ) . Substances such as lead and Cd concentrations have been measured in human seeds, seminal plasma, sperm cell, blood and piss, and high concentrations have been found to be related to impaired sperm quality ( Lancranjan et al. , 1975 ; Plechaty et al. , 1977 ; Braunstein et al. , 1978 ; Pleban and Mei, 1983 ; Stanwell-Smith et al. , 1983 ; Thomas and Borgan, 1983 ; Saaranen et al. , 1987, 1989 ; Chia et al. , 1992 ; Hu et al. , 1992 ; Xu et al. , 1993 ) . In several experiments, many metals have besides been shown to be harmful with respect to testicular map and sperm production ( Alabi et al. , 1985 ) . Aluminum may good be one of the possible pollutants, because it reduces the weight of the testicles and was seen to do reduced epididymal sperm counts in the mouse ( Llobet et al. , 1979 ) .

When aluminum is ingested in big sums, it leads to accumulation in certain mark variety meats such as the homo and animate being testicular tissues which consequences in harm occurring. The of long-run ingestion of aluminum showed suppressive effects on sexual behavior, lessening in birthrate and aggressive behavior ( Bataineh et al. , 1998 ) . There is grounds implicating androgenic endocrines involved in mechanisms of aluminum toxicity on male reproduction ( Sharpe, 1990 ) . To add to that, Guo et Al. ( 2005a ) carried out trials that proved that aluminium disposal significantly increased azotic oxide ( NO ) production and decreased both testicular adenosine 3aˆ?,5aˆ?-cyclic monophosphate ( camp ) and testosterone degrees. They demonstrated that inordinate NO activated inducible NO synthase ( NOS ) which may be involved in generative toxicity of aluminum.

Information refering the generative toxicity and testicular disfunction of aluminum still needs more research. Besides, the function of propolis against aluminum induced impairments in the generative ability of rats has non yet been discovered. The survey taken on by ( Yousef and Salama,2009 ) , was aimed at finding the generative toxicity of aluminum chloride in grownup male rats. It showed that aluminum enhanced lipid peroxidation in plasma, testicles, encephalon, kidney, lung and liver of coneies, and besides in civilization of coney sperm ( [ Yousef, 2004 ] , [ Yousef et al. , 2005 ] and [ Yousef et al. , 2007 ] ) . Besides, to measure the protective consequence of propolis against the possible testicular disfunction caused by aluminum chloride.

Table 1. Relative weights ( g/100A g organic structure weight ) of sex variety meats of male rats treated with AlCl3, propolis and AlCl3 + propolis.


Experimental groups






0.72A A±A 0.093

0.58A A±A 0.061**

0.78A A±A 0.0739***

0.66A A±A 0.091*

Seminal cyst

0.35A A±A 0.061

0.20A A±A 0.081**

0.39A A±A 0.105***

0.31A A±A 0.119*


0.27A A±A 0.036

0.19A A±A 0.037**

0.30A A±A 0.036***

0.24A A±A 0.041*

Prostate gland

0.16A A±A 0.023

0.14A A±A 0.021

0.16A A±A 0.017

0.15A A±A 0.02

Full-size tabular array

Valuess are expressed as meansA A±A SD ; nA =A 10 for each intervention group. Significant difference from the control group at **PA & lt ; A 0.01.

Treatment of male rats with AlCl3 significantly ( PA & lt ; A 0.01 ) decreased sperm concentration and motility rate. Meanwhile increased dead and unnatural sperm, as compared to command and propolis groups were seen in Table 2. Treatment with propolis entirely showed no important effects on sperm concentration and motility. while caused important ( PA & lt ; A 0.05 ) lessening in dead and unnatural sperm compared to command group. On the other manus, intervention with propolis in combination with AlCl3 caused significantly alleviated the diminution in sperm concentration and motility, and significantly decreased the per centum of dead and unnatural sperm compared to AlCl3 group. This means that propolis minimized the toxicity of AlCl3.ignificant difference from the AlCl3-intoxicated group at # PA & lt ; A 0.05 and # # PA & lt ; A 0.01.

Table 2. Changes in sperm concentration ( Sp. Conc. , A-106/ml ) , motility ( % ) , and dead ( % ) and unnatural ( % ) sperm of male rats treated with AlCl3, propolis and AlCl3A +A propolis.


Experimental groups




AlCl3 + Propolis

Sp. Conc.

212A A±A 15.5

148A A±A 8.1**

233A A±A 12.1 # #

199A A±A 7.5 # #


72.4A A±A 1.89

50.9A A±A 2.64**

79.7A A±A 1.64 # #

70.5A A±A 1.43 # #


25.2A A±A 1.95

45.1A A±A 2.21**

20.2A A±A 1.78* # #

28.8A A±A 3.01 # #


14.6A A±A 1.96

21.3A A±A 2.312**

11.6A A±A 1.27* # #

16.7A A±A 1.337 # #

Full-size tabular array

Valuess are expressed as meansA A±A SD ; nA =A 10 for each intervention group.Significant difference from the control group at *PA & lt ; A 0.05 and **PA & lt ; A 0.01.Significant difference from the AlCl3-intoxicated group at # PA & lt ; A 0.05 and # # PA & lt ; A 0.01.

This survey observed the consequence of aluminum chloride on sperm motility. ( Table 2 ) . Additionally, Dawson et al. , 1998 E.B. Dawson, S. Ritter, W.A. Harris, D.R. Evans and L.C. Powell, Comparison of sperm viability with seminal plasma metal degrees, Biol. Trace Elem. Res. 64 ( 1998 ) , pp. 215-223.Dawson et Al. ( 1998 ) found that high concentrations of aluminum in human sperm cell and seminal plasma are correlated with reduced sperm motility and viability. Motility is important in enabling the sperm to swim through the female generative piece of land and make the egg cell to accomplish fertilisation ( Aitken, 1995 ) . The observation can be concluded by stating that the lessening in sperm motility was caused in portion to the attendant decrease in testosterone production ( [ Guo et al. , 2005a ] and [ Yousef et al. , 2005 ] ) following aluminum intervention.

Table 3. Plasma testosterone concentration ( ng/ml ) and activity of testicular 17- ketosteroid reductase enzyme ( U/min/mg protein ) , and testes protein content ( mg/g tissue ) of male rats treated with AlCl3, propolis and AlCl3 + propolis.


Experimental groups




AlCl3 + Propolis


1.31A A±A 0.244

1.00A A±A 0.115*

1.51A A±A 0.113* #

1.15A A±A 0.064 #

17-Ketosteroid Reductase enzyme

14.6A A±A 2.02

10.2A A±A 1.13**

19.1A A±A 1.49** # #

12.8A A±A 2.03* #

Protein content

76A A±A 4.4

60A A±A 4.7**

105A A±A 5.3** # #

75A A±A 5.2 # #

Full-size tabular array

Valuess are expressed as meansA A±A SD ; nA =A 10 for each intervention group.Significant difference from the control group at *PA & lt ; A 0.05 and **PA & lt ; A 0.01.Significant difference from the AlCl3-intoxicated group at # PA & lt ; A 0.05 and # # PA & lt ; A 0.01.

Datas in Table 3 showed important lessening in plasma testosterone concentration ( PA A 0.05 ) and testicular protein ( PA A 0.01 ) in rats treated with AlCl3 compared to command. While, propolis significantly increased testosterone and protein content and alleviated the negative effects for AlCl3 in group 4 on these parametric quantities.

Aluminium chloride exposure displayed gonadotoxic effects in male rats and maternal decease was associated with foetal decease in pregnant rats. The exposure to aluminum increases the incidence of fetal abnormalcies in rats and mice ( Belles et al. , 1999 ) . The survey of Guo et Al. ( 2005a ) demonstrated that exposure to aluminium lowered plasma and testicular testosterone degrees in mice. It was suggested that the terrible decrease in male libido and birthrate following the aluminium disposal might be a consequence from inordinate aluminum accretion in the testicles and low testosterone concentrations. High degrees of aluminum in aluminium-treated mice were evident at hebdomad 3 before the effects on male libido and birthrate manifested. The disagreement was reasoned such that aluminium accretion failed to instantly impact the enzymes for androgen biogenesis or bring forth a possible perturbation in hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis. However, the present survey showed that AlCl3 caused important diminution in the activity of 17-ketosteroid reductase after 70A yearss intervention ( Table 3 ) .

Table 4. Changes in the activities of catalase ( CAT ; mol/h/g tissue ) and glutathione S-transferase ( GST ; I?mol/min/g tissue ) , and the degrees of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances ( TBARS ; nmol/g tissue ) and reduced glutathione ( GSH ; mM/g tissue ) in testicles of rats treated with AlCl3, propolis and AlCl3A +A propolis.


Experimental groups






6.96A A±A 1.140

3.01A A±A 0.578 **

9.95A A±A 1.050 ** # #

5.89A A±A 0.793 # #


1.08A A±A 0.100

0.59A A±A 0.154**

1.43A A±A 0.299 ** # #

0.96A A±A 0.125 # #


71.8A A±A 5.58

195.9A A±A 10.62 **

60.4A A±A 6.18 * # #

97.4A A±A 9.58 * # #


6.02A A±A 0.694

4.15A A±A 0.690 *

8.25A A±A 0.902 * # #

5.74A A±A 1.863 #

Full-size tabular array

Valuess are expressed as meansA A±A SD ; nA =A 10 for each intervention group.Significant difference from the control group at *PA & lt ; A 0.05 and **PA & lt ; A 0.01.Significant difference from the AlCl3-intoxicated group at # PA & lt ; A 0.05 and # # PA & lt ; A 0.01.

The control testicles are surrounded by a dense hempen tissue capsule known as the adventitia albuginea The histological survey showed that.The testies are divided into lobules by thin hempen septa ; the interstitial tissue surrounds the lobules which contain several seminiferous tubules within them. The tubules are lined with germ cells in assorted phases of spermatogonia, some primary and secondary spermatocytes, spermatids and mature sperm cell that occupy the Centre of the tubule. Between the spermatogonia and the balance of the basal lamina are the sertoli cells. The interstitial tissue is supported by Leydig cells in chief. They occur singly or in bunchs and are embedded in the rich rete of blood and lymph capillaries. Observations of testicles treated with AlCl3 revealed several changes. The accretion of exfoliated source cells within some seminiferous tubules affected their architecture and left them disorganized. Some tubules exhibited ripening apprehension. And moreover, some source cells had little and darkly stained nuclei. Marked dilation and congestion of blood vass were noticed in the interstitial infinites. Hyperplasia of Leydig was detected in the interstitial tissue. The Leydig cells became crowded and formed dense bunchs that surrounded most of the seminiferous tubules ( Fig. 2 ) . Some subdivisions of testicles of the rats treated with propolis entirely showed that they were less or more similar to the control subdivisions ( Fig. 3 ) . Testis of rats treated with aluminium plus propolis revealed that it regained about all of its original construction and singular Restoration of the normal image of seminiferous tubules was attained. The germ cells appeared regular in form with disappearing of most cytoplasmatic vacuolization. Most of the karyon became vesicular ( Fig. 4 ) . Testes accumulate high aluminium over age in rats ( Gomez et al. , 1997 ) . Light microscopy of silver-stained paraffin subdivisions of the testicles demonstrated legion intracytoplasmic black-stained all right farinaceous inclusions in Leydig cells ( Reusche et al. , 1994 ) . The histological alterations in testicles of rats treated with AlCl3 ( Fig. 2 ) is coincident with the obtained informations by Khattab ( 2007 ) who studied the consequence of AlCl3 on the testicles of rats after an intraperitoneal injection was administered. The testicles showed histological disturbance including terrible harm within the seminiferous tubules and vascular devolution on the spermatogenic and sertoli cells cytol. The originative epithelial tissue of the seminiferous tubules was thinner in topographic points and spermatids became really scarce in presence. Sperm Numberss was low and there were no sperm in the lms. Besides, up on negatron microscopic surveies, in the aluminium-treated group, there were some anomalousnesss in the atomic membrane, amendss to some chondriosomes, ribosomes population lessening, and an addition in the figure of lysosomes in the sertoli cell cytol. In the primary spermatocyte cytol, there was an addition in the unsmooth endoplasmic Reticulum. Guo et Al. ( 2005b ) found that after 2 hebdomads of aluminum intervention, hurtful effects and histopathological alterations of testicular tissues were observed. However, noticeable spermatogenetic loss was viewed as necroses in the spermatids and sperm cell in aluminium-treated group at hebdomad 5. The damage caused by aluminum was accompanied chiefly by the drawn-out accretion of aluminum in the mice testest.

Fig. 1.A Photomicrograph of control testicle subdivision demoing interstitial cells ( I ) and germ cells ( G ) . H & A ; E discoloration ( 400A- ) .

Fig. 2.A Photomicrograph of testicle subdivision that treated with aluminum demoing germ cells ( G ) , exfoliated source cells ( E ) , hyperplasia of Leydig cells ( I ) and vacuolization ( V ) . H & A ; E discoloration ( 400A- ) .

Fig. 3.A Photomicrograph of testicle that treated with propolis demoing germ cells ( G ) . H & A ; E discoloration ( 400A- ) .

Fig. 4.A Photomicrograph of testicle subdivision that treated with Aluminium and propolis demoing germ cells ( G ) . H & A ; E discoloration ( 400A- ) .

1.6 Purposes and aims of my undertaking

In this undertaking my chief purpose was to find the presence of aluminum in seminal fluid and sperm cell. I had to found out if aluminum was present in the seminal fluid or the sperm cell.




I.M.D. Rashidi. Head of section & A ; member of adept commission

Dept of pathology Medical school Ahwaz medical university, Ahwaz


Aluminum is one of the most abundant elements in the Earth crust

and enters to the organic structure through imbibing H2O, foods and drugs

like antacids. Aluminium poising causes broad scope of upsets,

including: a lessening in the release of neurotransmiters and suppression

of electromotive force dependent Ca channels. The function of Ca on GnRH

release and its action is detected so, in this perusal, the consequence of

high aluminum consumption on rats spermatogenesis is investigated.

The experiment performed in four groups, a control group

and three experimental groups consumed 0.625, 1.25 and 2.5 milligram

aluminum per gm diet for 60 yearss. Epididymis and vessel deferens

were dissected cut and diluted with normal salin. In all groups weight

of vessel deferens, epididymis, testicle and whole animate being, sperm count

per gm deferens and epididymis tissues were determined so, the

testicular tissues fixed in formol for survey of histopathology.

The consequences have shown that in experimental groups which

consumed 1.25 and 2.5 milligram aluminum per gm diet, the vessel

deferens, epididymis, testicle and carnal weight were significantly

decreased. In this animals the figure of sperm per gm tissues

from vessel deferens, epididymis were reduced. The ripening apprehension is

seen in seminoferous canal and it have n’t spermatogenesis. Therefore,

this analyzing indicated that high aluminum consumption in rat have an

suppressing consequence on spermatogenesis and this consequence is dose dependant.

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