Developmental chapter 8

Developmental chapter 8

when do first friendships form?
between ages 2-6.
early childhood friendship
when children converse, act out complementary roles and learn that their own desires for companionship and toys are best met when they consider others needs and interests.
How did erikson regard play
as a means through which young children learn about themselves and their social world. Play permits preschoolers to try out new skills with little risk of criticism and failure.
self-concept
the set of attributes, abilities, attitudes and attitudes that an individual believes defines who he or she is.
Preschoolers self concepts
-Are very concrete.
-usually, they mention observable characteristics, such as their name, physical appearance, possessions and everyday behaviors.
-are often so bound up with specific possessions and actions that they spend much time asserting their rights to objects (MINE)
self-esteem
the judgments we make about our own worth and the feelings associated with those judgments.
What are preschoolers self-esteem like?
because they cannot distinguish between their desired and their actual competence, they usually rate their own ability as extremely high and underestimate task difficulty
How does parental criticism of worth effect preschoolers?
by age 3. children with a history of parental criticism of thier worth and performance give up easily when faced with a challenge and express shame and despondency after failing.
emotional competence
between ages 2-6 children make strides in emotional abilities that are collectively called emotional competence
what is the order that emotional development occurs?
1. emotional understanding: becoming better able to talk about feelings and to respond appropriately to others emotional signals

2. emotional self regulation:comping with intense negative emotion

3. self-conscious emotions and empathy: both contribute to their developing sense of morality.

What is the extent to which preschoolers can understand emotion
-they can refer to causes consequences, and behavioral signs of emotion.
-can predict what a playmate expressing a certain emotion might do next.
-they come up with effective ways to relieve others negative feelings IE hugging someone who is sad.
-can not interpret situations with conflicting cues.
effortful control
-a form of emotional self-regulation.
-Inhibiting impulses and shifting attention- also continues to be vital in managing emotion during early childhood
self conscious emotions
-feelings that involve injury to or enhancement of their sense of self.
self conscious emotions in preschoolers
-as self-concepts develop, preschoolers become increasingly sensitive to praise and blame or to the possibility of such feedback.
-they depend on the messages of adults to know when to feel proud, ashamed or guilty.
Empathy
-feel with another person and responding emotionally in a similar way
-an important motivator of prosocial, or alruistic behavior.
prosocial, or altruistic behavior.
actions that benefit another person without any expected reward for the self.
does empathy always lead to empathy in preschool children?
No, for some children empathizing with an upset adult or peer escalates intp personal distress. In trying o reduce these feeling, the child focuses on his own anxiety rather than the person in need.
Sympathy
feelings of concern or sorrow for another’s plight.
Mildred parten’s peer sociability
Concluded that social development proceeds in a three-step sequence. 1. nonsocial activity, 2. parallel play 3. associative play 4. cooperative play.
nonsocial activity
unoccupied, onlooker behavior and solitary play
Parallel play
a child plays near other children with similar materials but does not try to influence their behavior
associative play
children engage in separate activities but exchange toys and comment on one anther’s behavior
cooperative play
a more advanced type of interaction, children orient toward a common goal, such as acting out a make believe them
Do we agree with Parten’s peer sociability thoery?
Yes and no. We agree that these play forms emerge in the order suggested, but that later-appearing ones do not replace earlier ones in a developmental sequence.
developmental sequence of cognitive play categories
Functional play, constructive play, make-believe play
functional play
simple repetitive motor movements with or without objects, especially common in first two years. IE running around a room.
Constructive play
Creating or constructing something, common between 3-6 years. IE making a house out of toy blocks.
Make-believe play
Acting out everyday and imaginary roles, especially common between 2-6 years. IE playing house
what types of nonsocial activity is cause for concern?
aimless wandering, hovering near peers, and functional play involving repetitive motor action.
what do 4-7 year olds regard friendship as?
Pleasurable play and sharing of toys. As yet friendship does not have a long-term, enduring quality.
direct parental influences on early peer interactions
providing play oppertunities, parents show children how to initiate their own peer contacts
indirect parental influences on early peer interactions
-secure attachment to parents are linked to better peer interaction
-parent child play is effective context for promoting peer-interaction.
children’s morality
child’s morality is externally controlled by adults. Gradually, it become regulated by inner standards
induction (the psychoanalytic perspective)
is a conscience formation promoting type of discipline in which an adult helps the child notie feelings by pointing our the effects of the child’s misbehavior on others.
discipline that relies too heavily on threats of punishment or with drawl of love does what to a child? (the psychoanalytic perspective)
-makes the child to anxious to think clearly and figure out the right thing to do.
– it makes the child feel little guilt about violating standards.
What is the role of guilt/ empathy-based guilt (the psychoanalytic perspective)
inducing empathy-based guilt by explaining that the child is harming someone and has disappointed the parent is a means of influencing children without using coercion.
empathy-based guilt (the psychoanalytic perspective)
expressions of personal responsibility and regret IE sorry I hurt him
according to social learning theory, how is morality acquired?(social learning theory)
through reinforcement and modeling
What characteristics of models affect children’s willingness to imitate(social learning theory)
1. warmth and responsiveness of the model/adult
2. competence and power.
3. consistency between assertions and behavior.
How can you increase the effectiveness of Harsh punishment? (social learning theory)
Consistency, A warm parent-child relationship, explanations.
How do psychoanalytic, behaviorist and cognitive-developmental perspectives on morality differ?
in contrast to the psychoanalytic and behaviorist approaches to morality (which focuses on how children acquire ready-made standards from adults) The cognitive-developmental perspective views children as active thinkers that they develop on thier own about justice and fairness.
Moral imperatives
preschoolers distinguish from moral imperatives: protect people’s rights and welfare; from two other types of rules and expectations: Social conventions and matters of personal choice
social conventions (The cognitive-developmental perspective)
customs determined solely by consensus, such as table manners
matters of personal choice (The cognitive-developmental perspective)
choice of friends, hairstyle, ect which do not violate rights and are up to the individual
proactive aggression
the first type of aggression to emerge (by the second year).
-children act to fulfill a need or desire-obtain an object, privilege, space or social reward, and unemotionally attack a person to achieve their goal.
reactive aggression
an angry, defensive response to provocation or a blocked goal and is meant to hurt another person
three forms of proactive and reactive aggression?
-physical aggression:(direct or indirect) harms others through physical injury
-verbal aggression:(direct) harms others through threats of physical aggression, name calling or hostile teasing.
– relational aggression: (both direct and indirect) damages another’s peer relationships through social exclusion, malicious gossip or friendship manipulation.
relationship of tv viewing in childhood and early adolescence.
the more tv watched in chilhood and early adolescence the greater amount of annual aggressive acts committed by the young person.
gender typing
refers to any association of objects, activities, roles, or traits with one sex or the other in ways that conform to cultural stereotypes.
gelman, taloer and nguyen 2004
Mothers, when reading to their 2-6 year old’s often labeled gender, even when they did not have to. at age 2 mothers did it more then children, by age 6 children exceeded their mothers gender labeling while reading.
David reimer
-Born as a boy
-penis cut off during circumcision
-brought up as a girl
-terrible confused childhood where he was treated as a girl, but acted like a guy.
-at 14 parents told him about the accident, and he opted to return to being male and have a penis constructed.
-life started going well, got married.
-then his twin brother killed himself, he lost all his money in a shady business deal, wife left him and he eventually killed himself as well.
-Sh-it
who extend gender-role learning?
Teachers, parents, peers, broader social environment
gender identity
an image of one self as relatively masculine or feminine in characteristics.
Masculine characteristics
ambitious, competitive, and self sufficient
feminine characteristics
affectionate, cheerful and soft spoken
androgyny
scoring high on both masculine and feminine personality characteristics.
gender constancy
a full understanding of the biologically based permanence of their gender, including the realization that sex remains the same even if clothing, hairstyle and play activities change. Happens around 6 years of age
gender schema theory
an information processing approach to gender typing that combines social learning and cognitive developmental features. It explains how environmental pressures and children’s cognition’s work together to shape gender-role development.
– IE at an early age children pick up gender-typed preferences and behaviors from others. At the same time they organize their experiences into gender schemas, or girl/boy categories.
-they then pick their gender and incorporate it into thier self-perceptions
child rearing styles
combinations of parenting behaviors that occur over a wide range of situations, creating an enduring child-rearing climate
authoritarian child rearing style
is low in acceptance and involvement, high in coercive control and low in autonomy granting.
authoritative child rearing style
most successful approach, involves high acceptance and involvement, adaptive control techniques, and appropriate autonomy granting.
permissive child rearing style
is warm and accepting but uninvolved. overindulging or inattentive and engage little control. Grant TO MUCH autonomy
uninvolved child rearing style
combines low acceptance and involvement with little control and general indifference to issues of autonomy
maltreatment takes what forms?
Physical abuse
Sexual abuse
neglect: failing to meet basic needs
emotional abuse:social isolation, repeated unreasonable demands, ridicule, humiliation, terrorizing
parental characteristics of child maltreatment
psychological disturbance, substance abuse. history of abuse as a child, desire to satisfy unmet emotional needs throught the child, young age (under 30), low education
child characteristics of maltreatment
premature or sick as a baby, difficult temperament, developmental problems
family characteristics of maltreatment
low income, homelessness, marital instability, social isolation, physical abuse of mother by husband or BF, large families with closely spaced children, high stress life.
community factors of maltreatment
violence and social isolation, few: parks, child-care centers, religious institutions
culture factors of maltreatment
approval of physical force and violence to solve problems.