It is an undeniable fact that narrative authorship is one of the most hard constructs to learn in an English authorship category. One of the aims of the KBSM English course of study ( 2000 ) states that pupils should be able to ‘listen, position, read and respond to different texts, and express thoughts, sentiments, ideas and feelings imaginatively and creatively in spoken and written signifier ‘ . Therefore, narrative authorship has become a staple inquiry in the Continuous Writing subdivision of Paper 1 for the English SPM scrutiny. Despite the 9 old ages of composing experience the pupils had, bulk of the pupils in Malaysia are still doing serious composing mistakes in their narrative essay. These mistakes are largely lingual mistakes but mistakes made in composing mechanics are every bit as damaging.
Since the KBSM course of study ‘s origin, instructors all around the state and even pedagogues in universities have been seeking to order a methodological analysis on learning authorship. However, merely a little minority would turn to Computer Assisted Language Learning ( CALL ) as a possible solution and how many would really recognize that young persons of this coevals are really much technologically savvy? By working this tendency, we might be able to incorporate engineering into the schoolroom on a whole new degree, beyond the initial theories of CALL. Video games, a signifier of amusement enjoyed by young persons and grownups likewise hold a well of possible in helping linguistic communication acquisition. In this research, I will be looking at how playing a specific genre of picture games will act upon the narrative authorship accomplishments of a Malayan ESL scholar.
Background of Problem
Video games are a large portion of the lives of pupils all around the universe. Based on the annual hardware gross revenues statistics released by VGChartz.com, 28.4 million gambling consoles were sold as of July 2010 and 12 % of the consoles were sold in the Asiatic part ( excepting Japan ) . Additionally, The Entertainment Software Association ( 2010 ) estimated about 25 % of worldwide gamers are below 18 old ages of age. By synergizing both statistics, it has become an undeniable fact that pupils below 18 old ages of age would hold played some signifier of video game. This opened a well of possible where linguistic communication acquisition elements could be integrated into video games. Harmonizing to Salisch, Oppl and Kristen ( 2006 ) , educational games can better a kid ‘s cognition in about all topics including reading, speech production, listening and composing accomplishments in the kid ‘s native linguistic communication. Therefore, it could be said that picture games play a important function in enriching a scholar ‘s composing ability as video game narratives are normally narrative driven to plunge the participant into its narrative.
Presently, instructors in Malaysia are still discerning about the use of Computer Assisted Language Learning tools in the schoolroom. The failure of English for the Teaching of Mathematics and Science is one of the testaments to this fact. Countless CALL courseware were developed but non to the full utilized by the instructor. Teachers in Malaysia still prefer to utilize traditional learning methods of chalk and talk over technology-aided instruction methods. The true potency of CALL has yet to be to the full tapped by English instructors in Malaysia. The ineffectualness of current English instruction methodological analysiss could possibly be that the pupils, being technologically savvy, happen the traditional lessons drilling, uninteresting and non exciting. Teachers who refuse to encompass the technological civilization of the pupils such as the Internet and video games may hold missed out on the assorted benefits these tools could potentially offer.
In this survey, I will be utilizing the action-adventure picture game developed by the award winning developer, Naughty Dog Inc. , entitled ‘UNCHARTED 2: Among Thievesa„? ‘ entirely for the PlayStationA® 3 bet oning console. This game has been dubbed as one of the best action escapade titles of all time developed for the PlayStationA®3 console. Harmonizing to Arne Meyer ( 2010 ) , a Community Strategist of Naughty Dog Inc, ‘UNCHARTED 2: Among Thievesa„? ‘ has sold over 3.8 million transcripts worldwide and has won legion Game of The Year award. This game featured dramatic in-game events that will do the participant an active participant in the cinematic experience and its gambling engine, designed specifically for the PlayStation3 console, successfully captured human emotions for in-game portraiture. This characteristic of the game made it alone and set it apart from all the other picture games of the same genre.
This research seeks to turn to some of the pressing issues in the gray country of video games and linguistic communication acquisition through extended interaction with a commercially available picture game. Can playing a picture game truly help pupils in geting certain linguistic communication accomplishment? More specifically, this research is designed to analyze larning from games by measuring what adolescents in Form 4 learn by playing an bing, off the shelf, commercially available electronic picture game: ‘UNCHARTED 2: Among Thievesa„? ‘ . The game ‘Uncharted 2: Among Thievesa„? ‘ was developed to entertain, but can besides be used to learn narrative composing due to its immersive game drama experience and narrative construction.
The current coevals of ESL scholars in Malaysia is turning up in an progressively technologically advanced universe. In a coevals where traditional acquisition methods are going disused, instructors of ESL would necessitate to switch their paradigms to accept modern learning methods which revolved around engineering itself. Over the past few old ages, research in Computer Assisted Language Learning ( CALL ) has been impactful and it has become an constituted fact that linguistic communication acquisition through CALL methods are really much successful in the current coevals of ESL scholars. However, advocates of CALL have yet to develop a method which specifically targets the narrative authorship ability of an ESL scholar. Research workers and instructors would hold that the narrative accomplishment is the trickiest accomplishment to learn in an ESL schoolroom as narrative authorship required a high degree of originative thought. But, many research workers failed to see an of import tool in their research: picture games. Although legion research have been done on the effects of video games on a kid ‘s psychological development and acquisition, small or none have focused on its effects on an ESL scholar ‘s narrative authorship ability, particularly in a local context. Because of this, picture games are non to the full exploited for their wealth in linguistic communication instruction.
The general perceptual experience of video games in the older coevals is that picture games do non lend anything to the educational development of a kid. Video games are seen as distracting, un-educational, and unhealthy. It was frequently blamed for doing pupils to execute severely in their surveies. These misconceptions are farther aggravated by the legion researches which seemed to link picture games and violent behaviour in kids. These factors caused video games to be stigmatized and overlooked as a possible linguistic communication larning tool. However, recent surveies concluded that there are no existent correlativity between playing picture games and negative behaviour development among kids ; some kids even performed better than their non-game playing equals ( Durkin & A ; Barber, 2002 ) . It would be interesting to analyze at the extent of lingual betterment influenced by the picture game and the factors doing it as current surveies have yet to happen a solid correlativity between video game playing and narrative authorship accomplishment development.
Most ESL scholars ‘ acquisition of an L2 from video games is inadvertent. This means, the games were non designed with linguistic communication acquisition as its end, instead, the game was written with the exclusive aim of plunging the participant into the narrative and doing them bury that they are really playing the game ( Dansky 2007 ) . This created a pseudo-immersion environment where the scholar ‘s L2 ( in this instance, English ) is used was the chief medium of communicating as the full game is presented in English. Professional game authors are normally incognizant of the fact that the narrative construction they applied in their game book are being subconsciously absorbed by participants to develop narrative composing constructions of their ain. Since most Malayan parents and pedagogues do non play nor understand picture games, they are non cognizant that picture games are embedded with a rich narrative construction which could be transferred to its participants.
Most parents and pedagogues frequently complained that childs presents are passing excessively much clip playing video games. They felt that picture games are non relevant to a child ‘s academic advancement and that clip is better exhausted making something more productive. These sentiments stemmed from the fact that grownups are merely loath to accept the outgrowth of new engineerings and unwilling to interrupt out of the traditional ‘safe-zones ‘ based on theories and methods which worked good over the old ages. Parents and pedagogues likewise needed to be informed on the potency of video games heightening linguistic communication acquisition and to be taught how to utilize this tool efficaciously. Once they learn to see through their kid ‘s eyes, they will eventually interrupt the stigma which plagued pictures games for old ages.
There is besides a go oning confusion between edutainment package and commercial picture games. Edutainment package were designed in the 1980s and falls under type 2 of Communicative CALL. Many ESL instructors were either non positive or incognizant that edutainment package designed under the Communicative CALL stage is able to better an ESL scholar ‘s linguistic communication acquisition. Furthermore, these package are frequently expansive and were extremely dependent on progressively bettering computing machine hardware, therefore, edutainment package had been shunned by the learning community in general. Now, with the outgrowth of commercial gambling, instructors of ESL will be able to work commercial picture games to enrich their schoolroom. Hardware jobs which plagued edutainment were made disused with bet oning consoles and teachers no longer hold to obtain a licence to utilize the package in the schoolroom due to the Fair Use clause under the Digital Millennium Copyright Act ( DCMA ) . ESL instructors would hold to understand that edutainment package and commercial package are separate entities and that commercial picture games are merely every bit educational as its edutainment opposite number. Besides, commercial picture games have a greater potency of heightening linguistic communication acquisition compared to edutainment package as the bulk of edutainment package focused on all topic but English and it is still designed with drill and pattern methodological analysiss in head ; an out-of-date attack in the ELT universe.
Purpose of Research
The intent of this research is to place the elements in the narrative construction used in action-adventure picture games in relation to general ESL narration. Apart from that, this survey besides aims to analyze the influence of action-adventure picture games in scholars of ESL ‘s narrative authorship ability.
Aims of Research
There are two aims in this research. It aims to: –
place the elements in the narrative construction used in action escapade picture games in relation to general ESL narration.
analyze the influence of action escapade picture games in scholars of ESL ‘s narrative authorship ability.
The followers are the research inquiries that I will look into: –
what are the elements in the narrative construction used in action escapade picture games in relation to general ESL narration?
how would action gamble picture games influence an ESL scholar ‘s narrative authorship ability?
Scope of Research
This research will be done on 5 selected Form 4 male pupils of Maktab Sultan Abu Bakar ( English College ) JB and would be look intoing the influence of action-adventure picture games on their narrative authorship ability by concentrating on the narrative constructions used in their written narrative.
Significance of Research
The impact the research may convey is that in the hereafter, professionals from both the academic and video game industry may be able to clearly separate between edutainment games and commercial picture games. An avenue of future coaction to bring forth a game which is both gratifying and written utilizing pedagogical theories of linguistic communication acquisition could be done to sublimely integrate linguistic communication larning teaching method with commercial picture games. Blending both the gambling industry and the academic industry would open up an ocean of larning chances for both professionals to farther innovate in their Fieldss. Game interior decorators would be able to plan a game which still held true to the game design doctrine of doing games fun, prosecuting, synergistic and cinematic and at the same clip, doing the game a well of linguistic communication instruction resources for linguistic communication practicians. Language instructors may besides profit from future coactions with game authors as they will be able to leave their narrative authorship cognition to be taught in schools.
Apart from that, hopefully from the fruitful nature of this research, instructors of ESL would recognize that playing picture games are non merely a waste of clip. Teachers could tackle the potency of video games to integrate a picture game into the schoolroom by holding the pupils composing brooding diaries to chronicle their gambling experience and that written and unwritten assignments could be given based on the played game. Learners of ESL would no longer happen English as a drilling topic to larn as video games would excite their involvement and their acquisition of L2 may be hastened with the background cognition activated. Teachers of ESL could besides experiment with the different genres of commercial picture games available in the market to happen new dynamic resources to develop teaching stuffs and lessons. These eternal possibilities would basically take the stigmatisation of video games among instructors of ESL in Malaysia to further work the full potency of video games as an synergistic linguistic communication larning tool.
Last but non least, this research would open up new possibilities and agencies of supplying meaningful and piquant content through an electronic medium, hence, broadening the range and execution of Computer Assisted Language Learning in Malaysia. CALL ‘s development in Malaysia boomed with the authorities ‘s English for the Teaching of Mathematics and Science ( ETMS ) . But, it is once more put on a dead clasp as the authorities reversed the policy in 2009. This research, if done right, would be able to kick get down CALL ‘s development in Malaysia and perchance launch Malaysia into video game design. Once the learning community recognized the potency of commercial picture games, game developers in Malaysia would derive the motive to bring forth high quality games which are suited to the Malaysian context, retaining the really aspects which made commercially successful picture games fun and prosecuting, at the same clip imbued with educational ends as stated in the National Education Philosophy.
Restrictions of Research.
As this is a little graduated table research, it is bound to hold its restrictions. This research uses an experimental research design with a purposive sampling method ; choosing merely 5 respondents, the consequences derived from this survey might non stand for the general population. This is due to the hardware restriction of the survey which merely allows for 2 PlayStationA®3 console to be used throughout the 6 hebdomad survey ( budget constrains ) , restricting the figure of participants in order to run into the 6 hebdomad period. Besides, this research will merely be taking in Form 4 male pupils of Maktab Sultan Abu Bakar ( English College ) JB, therefore, the effects of the picture game would hold on female pupils could non be done due to the gender choice. Last, I ‘m concentrating merely on the construction of the narrative essay produced by the respondents. So, this research would non be able to find the effects of video game in other countries of linguistic communication larning such as vocabulary acquisition, grammar sweetening, unwritten accomplishments etc.
Definition of Footings
Action-adventure gamesA combine elements of their two constituent genres, action and escapade. Typically having long-run obstructions that must be overcome utilizing a tool or point as purchase, every bit good as many smaller obstructions about invariably in the manner, that require elements of action games to get the better of. Action-adventure games tend to concentrate on geographic expedition and normally affect point assemblage, simple mystifier resolution, and combat.
A narrative is basically a narrative that is created in a constructive format that describes a sequence ofA fictionalA orA non-fictionalA events.
Video Game Narrative
Video game narration is the constituent of storytelling within the picture game ‘s book. It serves as a method by which the narrative stuffs are communicated to the audience.
In video game design, the narrative is what really happens in the class of the game which can be differentiated from its game mechanics and be translated into a narrative.
The backstory inside informations the history prior to the events of the game and it provides the reply to the inquiry “ What happened antecedently? ” and “ What caused this state of affairs to go on? ”
Submergence is defined in video game design as the province of head where a individual is wholly absorbed in what they are making. This is the ultimate end in every game narrative as entire submergence allows the participants to be absorbed into the narrative and allows maximal amusement experience.