Caraga State University Cabadbaran Campus Cabadbaran City Dry Leaves as Sand Substitute for Blocks Submitted by: Dime Rose Diola Jerzeld Villalon Lyka Lou Arogancia Natasha Anne Payot Adviser: Prof. Nathalie Daminar Chapter 1 The Problem Background of the Study A leaf is a lateral photosynthetic appendage of the stem of a plant, commonly broad, flat, thin and of a green color. Leaves (plural) are the “food factories of plants, the sites where most of the plant’s energy is produced . There are leaves that provide a protective service when a plant is under attack.
Leaves may also serve as a storage sites or help obtain food for a plant . For plants, as defense, leaves protect them from enemies such as animals, diseases, and environmental extremes through specific defense mechanism . The most important contributions leaves make to our planet’s ecosystem are through their processing of oxygen and carbon dioxide. Oxygen, though a waste product of photosynthesis is essential to plant, animal, and human survival. As leaves break down carbon dioxide and release oxygen, they also help determine global climate patterns .
On the other side, a block is a molded rectangular brick of clay or sand enclosed in a molder and hardened for long hours and used as a building and paving material. Bricks were often used for reasons of speed and economy . The researchers aimed to make dry leaves into use not only by preserving it and use as decorations but by making it as one of the main component for concrete blocks. Also, to support the RA 9003 or known as Ecological Solid Waste Management Act for implement. Objectives of the Study
This study primarily aims to make dry leaves as one of the main component in making concrete blocks to lessen dry leaves in the surroundings since some of us burned dry leaves which disrupt our ecosystem by creating harmful gases through smoke. Since the depletion of the ozone layer is coming to its worst, the researchers find some way to control this problem and to have temporary solution that will lead to a permanent solution on how to lessen dry leaves without burning it or by causing some harm both to the planet and to the people.
And to support the waste management campaign in the country. Significance of the Study This study which aimed to find out if the dry leaves can be one of the main components in making blocks is significant to different sectors for various reasons: * Serves as an eye-opener for those who have problems regarding on how to reduce dry leaves in their community/area. * Provides durable and economical product. * Helps in controlling ecological waste. * Provide information to citizens with respect of continuous burning of dry leaves that destroys the planet or causing global warming. * Serve s motivating factor for home owners, construction workers and construction materials manufacturers to strengthen their capabilities for developing blocks and other processes to maximize the use of dry leaves in the society. Furthermore, the outcome of the study will provide empirical information to policy makers in Ecological Solid Waste Management (RA 9003). Dry leaves are usually burned down elsewhere and eventually produce hazardous gases in the air. Conducting this experiment does not only support RA 9003 but it also opens an avenue to develop technology in bricks in the community.
Likewise, this provides all people an opportunity to enjoy living in a clear, clean and hazard-free environment. Scope and Limitation Creating dry leaves as one of the component for concrete blocks is the main concern of this research. This study is limited only in using dry leaves, cement, water and a little use of small stones and if the study is a success, it can be use in constructing buildings. Review of the Related Literature The oldest discovered blocks, originally made from shaped mud and dating to before 7500 B.
C and were found at Tell Aswad, Egypt. The first sun-dry blocks were made in Mesopotamia (what is now Iraq), in the ancient city of Ur in about 4000 BC, although the arch used for drying the blocks was not actually found. Other examples of civilizations that used mud brick include the ancient Egyptians and the Indus. In Europe, blocks were often used for reasons of speed and economy, even in areas where stone was available. The buildings of the Industrial Revolution in Britain were largely constructed of block and timber due to the demand created .
In pre-modern China, brick-making or block-making was the job of a lowly and unskilled artisan, but a kiln master was respected as a step above the former . Bricks of concrete with sand aggregate can be made using a simple machine, and a basic assembly line method. A conveyor belt adds the mixture to a machine, which pours a measured amount of concrete into a form. The form is vibrated to remove bubbles. The form is then raised to reveal the wet bricks, spaced out on a plywood sheet. A small elevator then stacks these palettes, after which a forklift operator moves them to the brickyard for drying.
Definition of Terms carbon dioxide- a colorless, odorless incombustible gas somewhat heavier than air. In photosynthesis, carbon dioxide and water are absorbed by plants, which synthesize certain carbohydrates and release oxygen into the air. oxygen- odorless, colorless, tasteless, gaseous chemical element that occurs free in the atmosphere. photosynthesis- the production of organic substances, chiefly sugars, from carbon dioxide and water occurring in green plant cells supplied with enough light to allow chlorophyll to aid in the transformation of the radiant energy into a chemical form. zone layer- an atmospheric layer within the atmosphere absorbing ultraviolet radiation and preventing some heat loss from the earth. climate change- is a significant and lasting change in the statistical distribution of weather patterns over periods ranging from decades to millions of years. kiln- a furnace or oven for drying, burning or baking something as bricks, grain or pottery. Chapter 2 Research Methodology Research Design The researchers will use experimental method wherein the study focuses on the acceptability of the said topic.
Several data were gathered before coming up with a procedure. Research Instruments Materials used in the study: * Brick molder * Cement * Dry Leaves * Water * Shovel Procedure: 1. Pulverize the gathered dry leaves. 2. Mix the pulverized dry leaves, 3 cups cement and 2 cups water. 3. Using a shovel mix thoroughly then put in a block molder. 4. Shape mixed substance. 5. Wait for the block to dry. Research Locale The study was conducted at one of the researcher’s home in Brgy. 12, Cabadbaran City. The place is complete with materials that are use in the study.