Hand Book Of M. S / M. Phil & Ph. D Research Proposal / Synopsis Compiled By: Mr. Nasir Shaheen Additional Registrar & Mr. Ijaz Ahmad Coordinator M. Phil / Ph. D Programs Qurtuba University of Science and Information Technology, Peshawar. e Left Blank Intentionally 4 Preface As a rule, the main components of a research study are nearly the same in all disciplines throughout the world. Though, various styles of referencing and citation are used by the researchers in their research work i. e.
APA, MLA, Harvard, Chicago, Turabian etc. Nonetheless, every established university develops its own customized format for its students’ facilitation in presentation of research proposals and theses. This handbook is compiled to facilitate the M. S / M. Phil and Ph. D students of Qurtuba University in developing their research proposals and to bring an overall uniformity in their research proposals. The format suggested in this handbook is mandatory for all M. S / M. Phil and Ph. D. students to develop and submit their proposal for approval of Board of Advanced Studies and Research (BOASAR).
Further, the students are required to prepare their research proposal under the supervision of their respective supervisors. The purpose of the research proposal / synopsis is to help the scholars to focus and define their research plans. A well developed research proposal needs to include certain basic components, in which a number of questions are to be addressed. Why research on the proposed topic should be undertaken and what gains are likely to be achieved? What has been done previously in this or related areas? What are the objectives of the study and how these will be achieved? What methodology is to be used to carry out the study?
An extensive initial exercise should help in designing a sound research project, which is likely to make a significant contribution in successful completion of M. S / M. Phil and Ph. D. research. 1 1 – Preliminary Section 1. 1 Title Page: The title page of the research proposal / synopsis should include title of the research project, name of the student (with qualifications), name of the supervisor(s), place of work and date (month and year) of submission. The topic for research should be selected carefully. It should be specific and well formulated in order to show the nature of work involved as far as possible (See Sample) . 2 Certificates: The following certificates should be attached after title page: i – Detailed Marks Sheet (part of the proposal) iii – Approval Certificate (as a part of the proposal / synopsis) 1. 3 (See sample) Table of Contents: List the sections of proposal / synopsis and page references. Use hierarchy of titles and sub titles. 2 2 – Body of Research Proposal / Synopsis 2. 1 Introduction: It should provide a brief description to introduce the area of the proposed research work and provide background information relating to the social / political / historical / educational / organizational (etc) context of the study. . 2 Literature Review: A review of the relevant literature showing the work done previously in the area of proposed research is essential to plan further research effectively. The information given in the review should be supported by references. The function of the literature review is to show your supervisor and the department that you are aware of significant writers / researchers in the field, and to indicate which issues / topics you will focus on in your review. Literature review is not expected to be extensive for the proposal / synopsis.
You should demonstrate critical analysis and your review should be shaped by your argument and should seek to establish your theoretical orientation. 2. 3 Research Problem / Questions: A concise research problem statement that, in one to three sentences, describes specifically what the problem is that you intend to solve. It explains what problems or issues you wish to explore and why you wish to explore them. 3 2. 4 Research Objective: The General /Global Objective should state the expected contribution of the research to the general body of knowledge in the subject area.
The Specific Objectives should state how specifically the general objectives will be achieved. 2. 5 Hypotheses (Optional): The students may include hypothesis of the study in their proposal depending on the nature of the research. Hypotheses should be in the form of Null Hypothesis (H0) and Alternate Hypothesis (H1). 2. 6 Methodology: The Methodology section is very important because it documents how you plan to tackle your research problem. Depending on the nature and the underlying methodological pproach to be adopted for the proposed research work the followings may be documented in this section: Research Design and Method • Indicate which research design is to be adopted/used (if any) • Is the research QUANTITATIVE or QUALITATIVE in nature in terms of the methodology? • Discuss and justify your choice of research method • Highlight and discuss the relevance of the adopted method to your study • Describe how the adopted method will be applied Research Type • Is the research Explorative, Descriptive, Causal or a Case study method? Techniques / Tools /Approaches / Instrumentation/Devices Which techniques, tools/instruments, approaches etc will be adopted and used to develop/produce, present/demonstrate the expected results of the proposed study • Highlight and discuss the relevance of these techniques /tools / instruments /approaches to your study. 4 • Describe how these techniques/tools/ instruments or approaches will be applied or used Data Collection Methods (if applicable) • Clearly indicate as to whether you are going to use primary or secondary data • Indicate what does primary or secondary data mean (i. e. provide a theoretical perspective). • Identify the secondary data which you are going to use for your study.
Population and Sampling Procedures (if applicable) • Identify and document the population or reference for the study. In case of different components of the population, clearly indicate this • Discuss the various sampling frames, types and techniques that will be adopted including an indication of the type of statistical data analysis that will be carried out to analyze the results In brief the guiding principle for writing the methodology section is that it should contain sufficient information for the reader to determine whether the methodology is sound. It may well be the longest section of your proposal. . 7 Significance of the Study: While documenting the significance of the research you need to indicate how your research will refine, revise, or extend the frontiers of existing knowledge in the area under investigation. Note that such refinements, revisions, or extensions may have substantive, theoretical, or methodological significance. The documentation of the significance of the study should, among other things, address the following questions: • What are the specific, significant, unique/major contributions that the proposed research work will make to the area/body of knowledge? What will be the expected results/outcome of the proposed research? • What will be the practical implications/use of the expected results/outcome? • How will the expected results/outcome of the study be implemented, including a statement on its possible impact and on what innovations will come about through its implementation (if any)? 5 • What areas/directions of further/subsequent research work are likely to arise from the expected outcome/findings or results of the proposed study? • What will be improved or changed as a result of the proposed research work? . 8 Limitation: Document the potential weaknesses or the possible limitations of the expected results/outcome of the proposed study and the limitations of the approaches, procedures, methods etc to be adopted to achieve the expected results of the proposed study. Also to be included are statements relating to issues, factors beyond the control of the study. 2. 9 References & Bibliography: A section listing relevant references on which the research proposal is based should be included. Only references cited in the text are to be included in the reference list. The tudents of Social Sciences should use APA style for citation while students of Linguistics and Literature should use MLA Style for citation. The student should add the relevant Bibliography in the last part after References in alphabetical order. 2. 10 Student Profile: A comprehensive student profile consisting of bio data, educational qualification and professional background of the student should be the last part of the proposal. The student profile should be made as per suggested format. [see sample] 6 3 – Referencing and Citation – For Social Sciences All the students of Social Sciences i. . Management Sciences, Political Sciences, International Relations and Education are required to use the following style of referencing and citation in their proposals. (The basic concept is taken from APA style of referencing) 3. 1 Handling Quotes in the Text • Short quotations (fewer than 40 words) are incorporated into the text and enclosed by double quotation marks (“ ”). • Long quotations (more than 40 words) are typed in a double-spaced block with no quotation marks. Indent five spaces and type the entire quotation on the indented margin without the usual opening paragraph indentation.
Give citation information in parentheses ( ) after last sentence in block quotation, with no punctuation following parentheses. If you have a quote within a short quote, enclose it in single quotation marks (‘ ‘). If you have a quote within a block quotation, enclose it in double quotation marks (“ ”). • • • Ellipsis points (…) are used to indicate material omitted from the body of a quotation, but should not be used at the beginning or end of a quotation. 3. 2 In-Text Citation Citations within the text of your paper refer the reader to an alphabetical reference list at the end of the paper.
APA format uses the author-date method of citation. The author’s last name and the publication date are inserted at the appropriate point in the text, following the material cited. Suffixes such as PhD. or Jr. are not included. Works by a single author: If the author is mentioned in the paper, provide the year of publication in ( ) just after the name: Ex: Hacking (1998) covers material on public record about chronic fatigue syndrome. If the author is not mentioned in the paper, at the end of the quote or paraphrase use the author’s last name and the year, separated by a comma:
Ex: The article covers material on public record about chronic fatigue syndrome (Hacking, 1998). If both the author and the date are mentioned in the text, a parenthetical reference is not needed. Ex: In a 1993 article, Gould explains Darwin’s most successful theory. 7 For exact quotations, cite specific page numbers following the year. Ex: Emily Bronte “expressed increasing hostility for the world of human relationships, whether sexual or social” (Taylor, 1988, p. 11). For paraphrased passages, page numbers are encouraged, but not required. The year is required. For an online source with no pagination:
If page numbers are not provided on an electronic source, use the abbreviation “para. ” to indicate the paragraph location of direct quotes. Ex: In exchange for that cooperation, authorities have recommended a sentence of 15 years in prison (Hayes, 2009, para. 4). Works by two authors: Provide the last names of both authors. Use the word “and” to separate the names in the sentence, and use an & to separate their names in the parenthetical citation. Ex: As Sullivan and Thomas (1998) point out… Ex: The turmoil in the Middle East is the result of politics (Sullivan & Thomas, 1998). Works by more than two authors:
Use the last names of all authors in the first citation. Then, in all following citations, include only the last name of the first author followed by “et al. ” Ex: Writing becomes better as the child matures (Britton, Thomas, & Miller, 1996). Ex: According to Britton et al. (1996), a child s writing improves over time. Works with no author identified: When a work has no author identified, cite the first two or three words of the reference list entry followed by the year. The first entry is usually the title. Italicize the title of a periodical or book; use double quotation marks around the title of an article or chapter.
Ex: in the book Language Use (1991). Ex: article on language use (“World languages,” 1993). Secondary Sources: When a work mentions another, previously published work, acknowledge the original author in your text, but give the source you are using in the reference list. Use the phrase “as cited in” for your in-text reference. Ex: As Villa points out, “Perhaps the conflict seems so strong because the stakes are so low” (as cited in Affleck, Allen, & Della, 1996). Personal Communication (Including letters, e-mail, and interviews): Do not add this information to your reference list. You should cite the information in text only.
Give the initials as well as the surname of the communicator, and provide an exact date: Ex: L. J. Smith (personal communication, September 20, 2009). Ex: (A. N. Jones, personal communication, March 18, 2009). 8 3. 3 Reference List: BOOKS Note: In titles of books in the reference list, capitalize only the first word of the title, the first word after a colon, and proper nouns. Author’s name. (publication date). Title. City and state of publication: Publisher. Books by one author Ex: Alvarez, M. (1999). The trip within. New York, NY: Random House. In-text citation: (Alvarez, 1999). Books by two to even authors Authors’ names in the order in which they appear. (date). Title of publication. City and state: Publisher. Ex: Strunk, W. , Jr. , Jones, T. , & White, E. B. (1979). The elements of style (3rd ed. ). New York, NY: Macmillan. In-text citation: (Strunk, Jones, & White, 1979). List the first six authors, then insert three ellipsis points, and add the last Author’s name. Books with 8 or more authors Ex: Engberg, M. , Dugan, J. P. , Haworth, J. , Williams, T. , Kelly, B. , Johnson, W. , … Stewart, S. (2009). Navigating the complexity of higher education in preparation program administration.
San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass. First in-text citation: (Engberg, Dugan, Haworth, Williams, Kelly, Johnson, Smith, & Stewart, 2009). Subsequent in-text citations: (Engberg, et al. , 2009). Alphabetize group authors by the first significant word of the name. Books by a group, (date). Title. City: Publisher (When the author and publisher are institutional, or the same, use the word “Author” as the name of the publisher). corporate authors Ex: Springhouse Corporation. (2002). Assessment made incredibly easy. Springhouse, PA: Author. In-text citation: (Springhouse Corporation, 2002).
For a book with an editor but no author, begin with the name of the editor (or editors) followed by the abbreviation “Ed. ” (or “Eds. ” for more than one editor) in parentheses. Books with Editors Ex: Duncan, G. J. , & Brooks-Gunn, J. (Eds. ). (1997). Consequences of growing up poor. New York, NY: Russell Sage Foundation. In-text citation: (Duncan & Brooks-Gunn, 1997). 9 Ex: Haybron, D. M. (2008). Philosophy and the science of subjective well- being. In M. Eid & R. J. Larsen (Eds. ), The science of subjective well-being (pp. 17-43). New York, NY: Guilford Press. In-text citation: (Haybron, 2008).
Cite as you normally would, but add information about the editor in parentheses after the book title. A book written by an Ex: Plath, Sylvia. (2000). The unabridged journals (K. V. Kukil, Ed. ). author but overseen by an New York, NY: Anchor. editor For a book with a chapter written by an author but edited by another person In-text citation: (Plath, 2000). 3. 4 Reference List: ARTICLES Author’s name. (date). Title of chapter or entry. In Editors (Eds. ), Title of reference book. (Vol. #, pp. #). Location: Publisher. Article or entry in a reference book Ex: Field, T. (2002). Child abuse and neglect. In A. Kazdin (Ed. , Encyclopedia of psychology. (Vol. 2, pp. 61-65). Washington, D. C. : Oxford. In-text citation: (Field, 2002). Ex: Schizophrenia. (1983). In A. Kazdin (Ed. ), The encyclopedia of psychology. (Vol. 10, p. 104). New York, NY: Wiley. In-text citation: (Schizophrenia, 1983). Scholarly journals are often published by volume, and page numbers may continue throughout the year instead of beginning each issue with page 1. After the italicized title of the journal, give the volume number (also italicized, but do not use Vol. ) followed by the page numbers at the end of the citation (do not use pp. ) Articles in scholarly Author(s). (date).
Title of article. Title of Periodical or Journal, volume journals and periodicals #, page #s. paginated by volume Ex: Spitch, M. L. , Verzy, H. N. , & Wilkie, D. M. (1993). Subjective shortening: A model of pigeon s memory for event duration. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Animal Behavior Processes, 9, 14-66. Articles in journals paginated by issues In-text citation: (Spitch, Verzy, & Wilkie, 1993). When each issue of a journal begins with page 1, include the issue number in paranthesesAuthor. (date). Title of article. Title of Journal, volume # (issue #), page #s. Ex: Scruton, R. (1996). The eclipse of listening. The New Criterion, 0 News magazines are usually published weekly or monthly. Note the month (and date, if given), along with the year. Remember to include volume and issue numbers if available. Articles in magazines (7. 01. 7) Articles in newspapers (7. 01. 7) Ex: Cortese, A. (1998, January 26). There’s more than one way to play monopoly. Business Week, 3562(1), 36. In-text citation: (Cortese, 1998). Begin with the name of the author, if one is given, followed by the year, month, and day of publication. Page numbers are introduced with “p. ” (or “pp. ” for multiple pages). Ex: Haney, D. Q. (1998, February 20). Finding eats at mystery of appetite.
The Oregonian, pp. A1, A17. In-text citation: (Haney, 1998). 3. 5 Reference List: ELECTRONIC SOURCES (Including: Web sites, electronic books, Pro Quest, EBSCO host and other library databases) If you cannot find some of this information for your reference, cite what is available. Note: The updated guidelines for electronic sources state that the digital object identifier number (DOI) must be included if one is assigned. “A DOI is a unique alphanumeric string assigned by a registration agency to identify content and provide a persistent link to its location on the Internet” (American Psychological Association, 2010, 189).
Note: If a DOI is available, use it at the end of a citation. If it is not available, use the URL of the web site from which the information was retrieved. Note: Retrieval dates are only necessary if the information will prove difficult to find again due to revision (ex. Wikis). Note: Titles of documents or articles are not in italics and only the first word is capitalized. Titles of journals and other periodicals are to be written in italics and all major words are capitalized. Titles of web sites are capitalized but not in italics. 11 Author(s). (Date of Publication). Title of document. Retrieved from electronic address
Ex: Shiltz, T. (2002). Strategies for prevention and early intervention of male eating disorders. Retrieved from http://nationaleatingdisorders. org/p. asp? WebPage_ID=286&Profile_ID= 41172 Web site (Not a periodical article) Articles from an online journal Articles from an online magazine U. S. government report from a government agency Web site An online video In text citation: (Shiltz, 2002). Ex: Butler, Heidi. (2009, November 19). Pennsylvania professor of the year. Retrieved from http://www. northampton. edu/Northampton- NOW/What-anHonor. htm In text citation: When referring to a specific piece of nformation, include paragraph numbers in the reference. Use “para. ” Example: (Butler, 2003, paras. 2-3). Author(s). (Year of Publication). Title of article. Journal Title, Volume Number (Issue Number), pages if available. Retrieved from electronic address Ex: Royce, W. S. , Gebelt, J. L. , & Duff, R. W. (2003). Female athletes: Being both athletic and feminine. Athletic Insight, 5(1), 5662. Retrieved from http://www. athleticinsight. com/VOL5Iss1/FeminineAthl etes. htm In text citation: (Royce, Gebelt, & Duff, 2003). Author(s). (Date of Publication). Title of article. Title of Magazine, Volume Number (if given) (Issue Number), page(s).
Retrieved from electronic address. Ex: Rauch, J. (2002, May). The marrying kind. The Atlantic Online, 289(5). Retrieved from http://www. theatlantic. com/issues/2002/05/rauch. htm In text citation: (Rauch, 2002). Ex: Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, and Firearms. (2002). ATF accountability report, 2001. Retrieved from http://www. atf. gov/pub/gen_pub/2001annrpt/fy2001an nrpt. pdf In text citation: First citation: (Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, and Firearms [ATF], 2002). Second and subsequent citations: (ATF, 2002). Ex: Norton, R. (2006, November 4). How to train a cat to operate a light switch [Video file]. Retreived from 2 http://www. youtube. com/watch? v=Vja83KLQXZs A blog post In-text citation: (Norton, 2006). Ex: Grohol, J. M. (2009, November 17). The psychology of terrorism [Web log message]. Retrieved from http://psychcentral. com/blog/archives/2009/11/17/thepsychology-of-terrorism/ In-text citation: (Grohol, 2009). Author(s). (Year of publication). Title [information about format or version if available]. doi or website that document was retrieved from. Online Book (E-Book) Ex: Thompson, Art. (1997). The stompbox. Retrieved from http://www. netlibrary. com/ In text citation: (Thompson, 1997). Ex: Schinraldi, G. R. (2001).
The post-traumatic stress disorder sourcebook: A guide to healing, recovery, and growth [Adobe Digital Editions version]. doi: 10. 1036/0071393722 In text citation: (Schinraldi, 2001). 3. 6 Reference List: MEDIA Single episode from television series Video Ex: Astrof, J. & Ottesen, P. (Writers), & Burrows, J. (Director). (1994). The one with the blackout [Television series episode]. In K. Bright, M. Kauffman, & D. Crane (Executive producers), Friends. Burbank, CA: Warner Bros. Entertainment Inc. In-text citation: (Astrof, Ottesen, & Burrows, 1994). Ex: Thomas, J. & McLaren, M. (Producers), & Linklater, R. (Director). (2006).
Fast Food Nation [DVD]. Beverly Hills, CA: Twentieth Century Fox Home Entertainment. In-text citation: (Thomas, McLaren, & Linklater, 2006). 13 3. 7 Reference List: GENERAL REFERENCE DATABASES Please note: The name of the database used and the date the article was retrieved is no longer needed. Including: Britannica Online, Credo Reference, and Gale Virtual Reference Library Child care. (2001). In World of Sociology, Gale. Retrieved from http://www. credoreference. com In text citation: (“Child care,” 2001). Steinberg, Laurence. (2001). Parent-child relationships. In B. Strickland (Ed. ), The Gale encyclopedia of psychology (2nd ed. pp. 473477). Retrieved from http://go. galegroup. com In text citation: (Steinberg, 2001) 3. 8 Reference List: GENERAL SUBJECT DATABASES General reference format: Author, A. A. , Author, B. B. , & Author, C. C. (year). Title of article. Title of periodical, xx, pp-pp. doi: xx. xxxxxxxxxx Please note: If there is not a digital object identification number (DOI), include the home page of the database in the reference. Use this format: Retrieved from http://www… Including: Pro Quest Central and EBSCOhost Examples (without DOI): Edmondson, J. (2002). The will of the people. The Reading Teacher, 55(5), 452-454.
Retrieved from http://proquest. umi. com In text citation: (Edmondson, 2002). Saldinger, A. , Cain, A. , & Porterfield, K. (2003, Summer). Managing traumatic stress in children anticipating parental death. Psychiatry, 66(2), 168. Retrieved from http://proquest. umi. com In text citation: First citation: (Saldinger, Cain, & Porterfield, 2003). Subsequent citations: (Saldinger et al. , 2003). Example (with DOI): Fox, K. , Gover, A. , & Kaukinen, C. (2009). The effects of low self-control and childhood maltreatment on stalking victimization among men and women. American Journal of Criminal Justice, 34(3/4), 181-197. doi:10. 007/s12103009-9064-4 In text citation: (Fox, Gover & Kaukinen, 2009 14 3. 9 Reference List: CURRENT/CONTROVERSIAL ISSUES DATABASES CQ Researcher Clemmitt, M. (2009, August 28). Health-care reform. CQ Researcher, 19, 693-716. Retrieved from http://library. cqpress. com In-text citation: (Clemmitt, 2009) (magazine—“Issues and Controversies”) Child care. (2009, October 22). Issues and Controversies on File. Retrieved from http://www. 2facts. com In-text citation: (“Child care,” 2009) Facts on File (magazine—“Today’s Science”) A reverse on reverse revolution? (2009, November). Today’s Science. Retrieved from http://www. 2facts. com
In-text citation: (“A reverse on reverse revolution? ,” 2009) (“World News Digest”) Swine flu: U. S. begins vaccinations. (2009, October 15). Facts on File World News Digest. Retrieved from http://www. 2facts. com In-text citation: (“Swine flu,” 2009) Horrigan, J. B. (2003). The Internet fosters online communities. In J. D. Torr (Ed. ), Current Controversies: The Information Age (n. p. ). San Diego, CA: Greenhaven Press. Retrieved from http://find. galegroup. com In-text citation: (Horrigan, 2003) Opposing Viewpoints ACLU urges Senate committee. (1999). In T. O Neill (Ed. ), Opposing Viewpoints Digests Series: Biomedical Ethics (n. . ). San Diego, CA: Greenhaven Press. Retrieved from http://find. galegroup. com In-text citation: (“ACLU urges Senate committee,” 1999). Epstein, E. (2005, March 23). Left and right united to challenge Patriot Act provisions. San Francisco Chronicle, p. A3. Retrieved from http://find. galegroup. com In-text citation: (Epstein, 2005) 15 3. 10 Reference List: SUBJECT-SPECIFIC DATABASES Access Science Ex: Stack, S. M. & Anderson, L. K. Chromosome. doi:10. 1036/1097-8542. 134900 In text citation: (Stack & Anderson, 2000). The African American Experience Ex: Loucky, J. , Armstrong, J. , & Estrada, L. J. (2006). Asylum.
In Immigration in America today: An encyclopedia (n. p. ). Westport, CT: Greenwood Press. Retrieved from http://aae. greenwood. com In text citation: (Loucky, Armstrong, & Estrada, 2006). Author(s). (Date of Publication). Title of report (Accession No. xx). Location: Publisher. Retrieved from http://search. ebscohost. com Ex: Unruh, D. , Bullis, M. , Todis, B. , Waintrup, M. , Atkins, T. , & National Center on Secondary Education and Transition. (2007). Programs and practices for special education students in alternative education settings (Accession No. ED495869). Research to Practice Brief 6(1). National Center on Secondary
Education and Transition (NCSET), University of Minnesota. Retrieved from http://search. ebscohost. com ERIC First in text citation: (Unruh, Bullis, Todis, Waintrup, Atkins, & National Center on Secondary Education and Transittion, 2001). Subsequent citations: (Unruh et al. , 2001). Ex: Dunlap, G. , & Bunton-Pierce, M. (1999). Autism and Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) (Accession No. Washington, D. C. : Office of ED436068). Special Education and Rehabilitative Services (ED). Retrieved from http://search. ebscohost. com In text citation: (Dunlap & Bunton-Pierce, 1999). 16 History Databases: US Ex: O’Brien, P. (2000).
Viewpoint: Yes, internment of Japanese Americans was necessary for national security because some of them were suspected of disloyalty (Document No. BT2306200089). In R. J. Allison (Ed. ), History in dispute: Vol. 3. American social and political movements, 1900-1945. Farmington Hills, MI: Gale. Retrieved from http://galenet. galegroup. com In-text citation: (O’Brien, 2000). Hoover’s Online Ex: Murray, B. (n. d. ). Just Born Inc. Retrieved from http://premium. hoovers. com In-text citation: (Murray, n. d. ). CINAHL Ex: Frame, K. (2003). Empowering preadolescents with ADHD: Demons or delights (Accession No. 2003096143).
Advances in Nursing Science 26(2), 131-139. Retrieved from search. ebscohost. com In-text citation: (Frame, 2003). PsycArticles Ex: Alderfer, C. P. (2003). The science and nonscience of Psychologists’ responses to The Bell Curve. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice 34(3). 287-293. doi:10. 1037/0735-7028. 34. 3. 287 In-text citation: (Alderfer, 2003). PubMed Central Ex: Weiss, M. , & Murray, C. (2003). Assessment and management of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder in adults. Canadian Medical Association Journal 168(6). 715-722. Retrieved from http://www. ncbi. nlm. nih. gov In-text citation: (Weiss & Murray, 2003).
Westlaw Campus Ex: Lobel, J. (2002). The war on terrorism and civil liberties. University of Pittsburgh Law Review. Retrieved from http://campus. westlaw. com In-text citation: (Lobel, 2002). 17 4 – Referencing and Citation – For Literature and Linguistics Reference citation in the text should be as follows. The citation should be as brief as possible while directing the reader to the correct reference. • • More than one author with same name Add the first initial (or full first name if initial is the same): (A. Patterson 183; L. Patterson 230) • Two or three authors Give all author names: (Rabking, Greenberg, and Olander vii) • 4. 1
Single author Simply use Name followed by any relevant page number: (Marcuse 197) In text: Tannen has argued this point (178–85) More than three authors Follow the bibliographic entry: (Lauter et al. 2425) or all last names if given Books A Book by a Single Author Fukuyama, Francis. Our Posthuman Future: Consequences of the Biotechnology Revolution. New York: Farrar, 2002. An Anthology or a Compilation Lopate, Phillip, ed. The Art of the Personal Essay: An Anthology from the Classical Era to the Present. New York: Anchor-Doubleday, 1994. Spafford, Peter, comp. and ed. Interference: The Story of Czechoslovakia in the Words of Its Writers.
Cheltenham: New Clarion, 1992. Two or More Books by the Same Author (Use three hyphens followed by period and then title, or comma and ed. … if necessary) Borroff, Marie. Language and the Past: Verbal Artistry in Frost, Stevens, and Moore. Chicago: U of Chicago P, 1979. —, trans. Sir Gawain and the Green Knight. New York: Norton, 1967. —, ed. Wallace Stevens: A Collection of Critical Essays. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice, 1963. 18 A Book by Two or More Authors Eggins, Suzanne, and Diana Slade. Analysing Casual Conversation. London: Cassell, 1997. If there are more than three authors, you may name only the first and add et al. “and others”), or you may give all names in full in the order in which they appear on the title page. Gilman, Sander, et al. Hysteria beyond Freud. Berkeley: U of California P, 1993. Or Gilman, Sander, Helen King, Roy Porter, George Rousseau, and Elaine Showalter. Hysteria beyond Freud. Berkeley: U of California P, 1993. Repeat names in full if the same person is part of a different authorship. Do not use three hyphens unless the total authorship is the same A Book by a Corporate Author American Medical Association. The American Medical Association Encyclopedia of Medicine. Ed. Charles B. Layman. New York: Random, 1989.
A Work in an Anthology Allende, Isabel. “Toad’s Mouth. ” Trans. Margaret Sayers Peden. A Hammock beneath the Mangoes: Stories from Latin America. Ed Thomas Colchie. New York: Plume, 1992. 83–88. Often the works in anthologies have been published before. If you wish to inform your reader of the date when a previously published piece other than a scholarly article first appeared, you may follow the title of the piece with the year of original publication and a period. Franklin, Benjamin. “Emigration to America. ” 1782. The Faber Book of America. Ed. Christopher Ricks and William L. Vance. Boston: Faber, 1992. 24–26.
An Article in a Reference Book “Noon”. The Oxford English Dictionary. 2nd ed. 1989. Mohanty, Jitendra M. “Indian Philosophy. ” The New Encyclopedia Britannica: Macropaedia. 15th ed. 1987. An Introduction, a Preface, a Foreword or an Afterword Borges, Jorge Luis. Foreword. Selected Poems, 1923–1967. By Borges. Ed. Norman Thomas Di Giovanni. New York: Delta-Dell, 1973. xv–xvi. If the introduction, preface, foreword, or afterword has a title, give the title, enclosed in 19 quotation marks, immediately before the name of the part. Brodsky, Joseph. “Poetry as a Form of Resistance to Reality. ” Foreword. Winter Dialogue .
By Tomas Venclova. Trans. Diana Senechal. Evanston: HydraNorthwestern UP, 1997. vii– xviii. An Anonymous Book Encyclopedia of Virginia. New York: Somerset, 1993. A Translation Beowulf. Trans. E. Talbot Donaldson. Ed. Nicholas Howe. New York: Norton, 2001. Hildegard of Bingen. Selected Writings. Trans. Mark Atherton. New York: Penguin, 2001. A Book Published in a Second or Subsequent Edition Bondanella, Peter. Italian Cinema: From Neorealism to the Present. 3rd ed. New York: Continuum, 2001. A Multivolume Work Blanco, Richard L. , ed. The American Revolution, 1775–1783: An Encyclopedia. 2 vols. Hamden: Garland, 1993.
Crane, Stephen. The University of Virginia Edition of the Works of Stephen Crane. Ed. Fredson Bowers. 10 vols. Charlottesville: UP of Virginia, 1969–76. If you are using one volume of a multivolume work state the number of the volume: Lawrence, D. H. The Letters of D. H. Lawrence. Ed. James T. Boulton. Vol. 8. New York: Cambridge UP, 2000. A Book in a Series Neruda, Pablo. Canto General. Trans. Jack Schmitt. Latin Amer. Lit. and Culture 7. Berkeley: U of California P, 1991. A Republished Book Atwood, Margaret. The Blind Assassin. 2000. New York: Knopf-Random, 2001. A Book with Multiple Publishers Wells, H. G. The Time Machine. 895. London: Dent; Rutland: Tuttle, 1992. A Government Publication Great Britain. Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries, and Food. Dept. of the Environment, Transport, and the Regions. Our Countryside, the Future: A Fair Deal for Rural England. London: HMSO, 2000. New York State. Commission on the Adirondacks in the Twenty-First Century. The Adirondack Park in the Twenty-First-Century. Albany: State of New York, 1990. 20 Poore, Benjamin Perley, comp. A Descriptive Catalogue of the Government Publications of the United States, September 5, 1774–March 4, 1881. US 48th Cong. , 2nd sess. Misc. Doc. 67. Washington: GPO, 1885.
The Published Proceedings of a Conference Hualde, Jose Ignacio. “Patterns of Correspondence in the Adaptation of Spanish Borrowings in Basque. ” Proceedings of the Twenty-Fifth Annual Meeting of the Berkeley Linguistics Society, February 12–15, 1999: General Session and Parasession on Loan Word Phenomena. Ed. Steve S. Chang, Lily Liaw, and Josef Ruppenhofer. Berkeley: Berkeley Linguistics Soc. , 2000. 348–58. Freed, Barbara F. , ed. Foreign Language Acquisition Research and the Classroom. Proc. of Consortium for Lang. Teaching and Learning Conf. , Oct. 1989, U of Pennsylvania. Lexington: Heath, 1991. An Unpublished Dissertation
Boyle, Anthony T. “The Epistemological Evolution of Renaissance Utopian Literature, 1516– 1657. ” Diss. New York U, 1983. A Published Dissertation Dietze, Rudolf F. Ralph Ellison: The Genesis of an Artist. Diss. U Erlangen-Nurnberg, 1982. Erlanger Beitrage zur Sprach- und Kunstwissenschaft 70. Nurnberg: Carl, 1982. 4. 2 Journals and Newspapers An Article in a Journal with Continuous Pagination Hanks, Patrick. “Do Word Meanings Exist? ” Computers and the Humanities 34 (2000): 205–15. Mann, Susan. “Myths of Asian Womanhood. ” Journal of Asian Studies 59 (2000): 835–62. An Article in a Journal that pages each issue separately
Albada, Kelly F. “The Public and Private Dialogue about the American Family on Television. ” Journal of Communication 50. 4 (2000): 79–110. Some journals do not use volume numbers at all, numbering issues only. Treat the issue numbers of such journals as you would volume numbers. 21 An Article in a Newspaper Jeromack, Paul. “This Once, a David of the Art World Does Goliath a Favor. ” New York Times 13 July 2002, late ed. : B7+. Abbreviate months as follows: Jan. , Feb. , Mar. , Apr. , May, June, July, Aug. , Sept. , Oct. , Nov. , Dec. An Article in a Magazine Mehta, Pratap Bhanu. “Exploding Myths. ” New Republic 6 June 1998: 17–19.
An Anonymous Article “Dubious Venture. ” Time 3 Jan. 1994: 64–65. A Special Issue Perret, Delphine, and Marie-Denise Shelton, eds. Maryse Conde. Spec. issue of Callaloo 18. 3 (1995): 535–711. Somin, Ilya. “Do Politicians Pander? ” State Autonomy. Spec. issue of Critical Review 14. 2–3 (2000): 147–55. A Legal Source New York Times Co. v. Tasini. No. 00-201. Supreme Ct. of the US. 25 June 2001. 4. 3 Electronic Publications Basic Entry Document from Internet Site Zeki, Semir. “Artistic Creativity and the Brain. ” Science 6 July 2001: 51–52. Science Magazine. 2002. Amer. Assn. For the Advancement of Science. 24 Sept. 2002 . Entire Internet Site
Electronic Text Center. Ed. David Seaman. 2002. Alderman Lib. , U of Virginia. 19 June 2002 . Online Books Nagata, Linda. Goddesses. 2000. Scifi. com. 4 Oct. 2002 . Keats, John. “Ode on a Grecian Urn. ” Poetical Works. 1884. Bartleby. com: Great Books Online. Ed. Steven van Leeuwen. 2002. 5 May 2002 . United States. Dept. of Justice. Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention. Law Enforcement and Juvenile Crime. By Howard N. Snyder. Dec. 2001. 29 June 2002 . 22 Online Periodicals Butler, Darrell L. , and Martin Sellbom. “Barriers to Adopting Technology for Teaching and Learning. ” Educause Quarterly 25. 2 (2002): 22–28. Educause. Aug. 2002 . Publications on CD-ROM, Diskette or Magnetic Tape It is important to state the publication medium as different formats may be different. Braunmuller, A. R. , ed. Macbeth. By William Shakespeare. CD-ROM. New York: Voyager, 1994. E-mail Communication Harner, James L. E-mail to the author. 20 Aug. 2002. 23 5 – Formatting and Presentation 5. 1 Page Size and Quality: AA4 (A4-Fine paper) should be used for submission of proposal / synopsis. Minimum paper weight should be 80 grams. 5. 2 Page Setup / Margins: At least 1? -1? inches (3. 17-3. 81cm) on the right-hand side, 3/4 – 1 inch (2 2. 54cm) at the bottom of the page, and about ? 0. 75 inches (1. 27 – 1. 90cm) at the outer edge. 5. 3 Page Numbering: The best position for the page number is at top-centre or top right ? inch (1. 27 cm) below the edge. Pages containing figures and illustration should be suitable paginated. 5. 4 Font: New Times Roman font should be used throughout the proposal / synopsis. 5. 5 Font Size: Title Page 22 (Bold) Chapter Titles 16 (Bold) Headings 14 (Bold) Sub Headings 12 (Bold) Text 12 Footnotes / End notes 10 Footnotes be given on the same page where reference is quoted 5. 6 Paragraph Setting: Line spacing should be 1. 5 and all the paragraph should be justified (Ctrl + J).
No tab is required at the starting of a new paragraph. Use one line space between paragraphs for differentiation. 5. 7 Number of Copies: The students are required to submit 20 to 25 copies (as per coordinator’s directive) other than the master copy, to be presented to Board of Advanced Studies and Research (BOASAR). 5. 8 Binding: Only one master copy should be in tape binding with plastic cover and no need of binding for the rest of copies. 5. 9 Submission of Soft Copy of Proposal: The students are required to send a PDF copy of their research proposal to the program coordinator on the following e-mail address: [email protected] edu. pk 25 Research Proposal The Role of Contingency Employees in Organizational Performance (A Case Study of Islamia College, Peshawar) By Nisar Muhammad M. S – Management Sciences Student I. D: 4818 Supervisor Dr. …………………. Department of Management Sciences ________________________________________________________________ Qurtuba University of Science and Information Technology Peshawar. 26 Recommendation Sheet Certified that the research proposal of Mr / Ms. [Your Official Name], Student I. D # 0000, with the title “Research Title [ Bold,14pt, Title Case]” has been reviewed and recommended to be presented to
Board of Advance Studies and Research (BOASAR) for final review and approval. ______________________ Supervisor: Dr…………………………… 27 Table of Contents 1. Introduction……………………………………………………………… 3 2. Literature Review……………………………………………………….. 3 3. Research Problem / Question….. ……………………………………….. 3 4. Research Objective……………………………………………………… 4 5. Hypothesis (Optional).. …………………………………………………. 4 6. Methodology…………………………………………………………….. 4 7. Significance of the study………………………………………………… 5 8. Scope and Limitations………………………………………………….. 6 9. References………………………………………………………………. 6 28 The Role of Contingency Employees in Organizational
Performance (A Case Study of Islamia College Peshawar) By: Nisar Muhammad 1. Introduction: The proposal should start with proper headings and sub-headings as per suggested standard format. 29 Student Profile Paste a passport size e-photo here Name: ____________________________ s/o _________________________________ Program: _________________________ ID #: ____________________ Cell No: _______________________ Land Line No: ___________________________ Email: ____________________________________ Educational Qualification: (Starting From the highest Degree) Certificate / Degree Year Division / Grade
Board / University Professional Experience: S. No Organization Designation From To 1 2 3 4 Personal Statement (a short paragraph about yourself):____________________________ __________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________ ______________________ (Signature of the student)