Earth Science Exam Review Lessons (5-8)

Earth Science Exam Review Lessons (5-8)

Besides water, what does the water cycle transfer around the earth?
latent heat energy
Which statement below is not a way in which water affects the earth and the living things upon it?
Water is the power source that keeps the water cycle moving through all parts of the planet.
Which property helps water to move up plant conductive tissue like xylem and phloem?
capillary attraction
Which property causes water to dissolve most substances?
polarity
Which is precipitation?
the action of water vapor falling from clouds as rain and or snow
What is the largest reservoir of the hydrosphere?
oceans
Good water use plans will have ways ensure that enough water is available for the community. Which of the following should they also include plans for?
educating the public, protecting the environment, and conservation efforts
A person here in the United States uses about how many gallons of water each day?
20-80
Which of the following statements best describes why water pollutes easily?
Water can dissolve most substances because it is a polar molecule.
Besides surface water, what reservoir is currently a significant source of water for human use?
ground water
Households (homes) use more water than factories.
true
What is the power source that drives the water cycle?
heating from sunlight
How can government leaders help ensure that enough water is available for the future?
They can build more storage reservoirs.

They can educate the public about water use needs.

They can implement water conservation efforts.

Which property of water results in the ocean being a vast storehouse of heat energy?
specific heat
Which property helps insects to “stand” or “walk” on water?
surface tension
Which is the correct definition for the term transpiration?
the action of water vapor passing into the air because of plant growth and activity
All forms of rain, snow, or hail that fall to the earth from the atmosphere would collectively be called
precipitation
Which term below means “all the water surrounding the earth”?
hydrosphere
Agriculture uses more water that industries and homes.
true
Which property of water is created by the fact that opposite sides of the water molecule have opposite electric charges?
bipolar
In the following food chain, the shrimp would occupy which trophic level?

phytoplankton → zooplankton → shrimp

the second consumer level
What is the bottom trophic level of a food pyramid called?
the producer level
What are all processes used to produce freshwater from seawater collectively called?
desalination
Which property describes the movement of water in and out of cells?
osmosis
What directions do warm currents generally flow?
away from the equator
Which factor below does not affect the creation of ocean currents?
the magnetic polarity of Earth
Why is desalination of seawater done in only a few regions of the earth and even then in only limited ways?
It is very expensive compared to using rivers, lakes, or groundwater.
How do animals survive the pressure of the deep ocean?
Their internal body pressure is equal to the external water pressure.
A ten meter rise in sea level would flood about 25 percent of the U.S. population.
true
During periods of glaciation (ice ages), which of the following was true of the amount of water in the ocean reservoir?
There was less water in the ocean reservoir then than there is today.
What are some ways organisms cope with the danger of drying out at low tide and predation from the land and the sea?
They burrow in the sand.

They have hard shells.

They secrete coatings of mucus.

What is the process by which plants utilize sunlight to manufacture food molecules?
photosynthesis
If the ice caps of the Earth were to completely melt, the rise in sea level is estimated to be about five meters.
false
What advantage does small size give abyssal fish?
Being small means that they are more likely to be able to get enough food in an environment where food is limited.
The water in a wave moves in circular orbits as the wave crest passes over the surface, but the water doesn’t move forward with the wave .
true
Human activities may be accelerating the natural warming the earth has experienced since the last ice age ended some 12,000 year ago
true
What are photophores?
light-producing organs used for attracting prey, finding mates, and confusing predators.
Which statement concerning the volume of water in the oceans over geologic time is false?
The volume of water in oceans has not changed significantly since the earth was formed.
Which of the following has the greatest influence on the tides?
the gravitational pull of the moon
How are most ocean surface waves formed?
by the wind.
Which of the following statements is true about the intertidal zone?
It is a food/nutrient-rich place.
A lantern fish is caught at the bottom of a bay. The external pressure on the fish is 5,280 pounds per square foot. What is the internal pressure of the fish? (Note: water weighs 64.6 pounds per cubic foot.)
5,280 pounds per square foot.
How do the fish of the abyss use their photophores?
to attract prey

as a form of defense

to find mates

Which water sample below would be considered freshwater?
1000 ppm
In the following food chain, which trophic level would the zooplankton occupy?

phytoplankton → zooplankton → shrimp

the first consumer level
What is the energy source that powers photosynthesis?
sunlight.
What gas in our atmosphere is a key ingredient in fertilizers needed for plant growth?
nitrogen
What effect has the Montreal Protocol had on CFC levels in the atmosphere?
It has reduced the levels in the troposphere, but has not affected the level of CFC in the stratosphere.
What happens to the excess fertilizer that runs off farms and fields into the ocean?
It produces large dead zones in the ocean.
What does it mean when the text says the oceans are a carbon sink?
It means the oceans can store carbon dioxide dissolved in seawater.
Nitrogen is used to produce DNA and which other molecule needed for life?
protein
How do ice ages and the warm periods between them influence the water cycle?
They raise sea level.

They lower sea level.

They increase water storage in the ice cap reservoirs on land.

Plants affect the atmosphere. Which statement is false?
Plants release ozone destroying substances which block UV rays from Earth.
Which statement below is false as it relates to how deforestation affects the carbon in the atmosphere?
Forests store more carbon in the tissues of the vegetation than in all other sinks combined.
How has the level of carbon dioxide in the Earth’s atmosphere changed since 1958, when the first direct measurements were started?
It has increased.
Carbon in our atmosphere exists mainly as what molecule?
carbon dioxide
The carbon cycle can be thought of as interconnected carbon sources and sinks. Which statement below describes a carbon sink?
Carbon is removed from the air by forests and other plant life.
The carbon needed by living organisms comes from the atmosphere. Why do scientists not worry about the earth running out of carbon?
It is constantly recycled from the atmosphere through plants and animals and eventually decomposers, and then back into the atmosphere.
While international efforts to improve the atmosphere are important, it is also important that you and I take action to reduce our pollution. Why is this so?
Millions of small improvements can add up to make a big difference in the world.

Reducing our pollution means that the world is just a little bit cleaner, and individuals and families can save money in many cases as well.

Reducing pollution from individuals and families will not only affect ozone but many other forms of environmental degradation as well.

Volcanoes affect the atmosphere in profound ways. Which statement is false?
Volcanoes release oxygen into the atmosphere.
Ice cores contain actual samples of the air. Which kind of information cannot be obtained from these samples?
humidity levels
How does the flow of ocean currents affect the earth’s global climate?
They keep northern Europe warmer than it normally would be.

Currents move cold water from the poles toward the equator.

Currents move warm water from the tropics toward the poles.

Deep ocean currents are created by what two things?
temperature and salinity
Four students wrote definitions for the terms weather and climate. Which is the best response?
Weather is the current conditions in the atmosphere, and climate refers to the long term conditions on Earth.
Which statement best describes the current state of our understanding of the idea of global warming?
Global warming is a logical inference given the facts that carbon dioxide levels are rising as an effective greenhouse gas.
Coastline regions will have ___________________ because oceans do not heat too quickly in the summer and do not cool too quickly in the winter.
moderate temperature climates
What role does the Coriolis effect have on ocean surface circulation?
It causes currents to deflect to the right in the northern hemisphere and to the left in the southern hemisphere.