CHAPTER 10 Learners with Communication Disorders

CHAPTER 10 Learners with Communication Disorders

Communication requires
A) language.
B) encoding and decoding.
C) speech.
D) listening and speaking.
encoding and decoding
Requesting objects, rejecting interactions, sharing ideas, and seeking social interaction
are examples of
A) communicative function.
B) communication.
C) language.
D) expressive language.
communicative function
The communication of ideas through an arbitrary system of symbols used according to
certain rules that determine meaning is
A) speech.
B) language.
C) communication.
D) phonology.
language
Encoding, or sending messages, is referred to as
A) expressive language.
B) receptive language.
C) discourse.
D) communication.
expressive language
Decoding, or understanding messages, is referred to as
A) communication.
B) expressive language.
C) discourse.
D) receptive language.
receptive language
The neuromuscular activity of forming and sequencing the sounds of oral language is called
A) communication.
B) discourse.
C) speech.
D) phonology.
speech
“Phonology” refers to linguistic rules governing
A) construction of sentences.
B) sound combinations.
C) patterns of language use.
D) construction of word forms.
sound combinations
The meanings and concepts people attach to words and sentences are referred to as
A) morphology.
B) pragmatics.
C) syntax.
D) semantics.
semantics
A language disorder that involves problems with functional and socially appropriate communication is
A) communication.
B) semantics.
C) speech.
D) pragmatics.
pragmatics
Shaunta has a speech disorder which causes her to speak extremely slowly. This is a disorder of
A) articulation.
B) language.
C) voice.
D) fluency.
fluency
All of the following are examples of speech disorders EXCEPT
A) semantic disorder.
B) articulation disorder.
C) fluency disorder.
D) voice disorder.
semantic disorder
It is difficult to estimate the prevalence of communication disorders primarily
because
A) there is so much overlap with other categories of disability.
B) schools do not maintain accurate records in this area.
C) many parents are reluctant to allow their children to receive speech and
language services.
D) definitions of communication disorders vary so much from state to state.
there is so much overlap with other categories of disability.
Approximately what percentage of children identified for special education receives
services primarily for speech or language disorders?
A) 1%
B) 5%
C) 10%
D) 20%
20%
Approximately what percentage of preschool-age students is thought to have a speech
disorder?
A) 1%
B) 8-9%
C) 15%
D) 20%
8-9%
Approximately what percentage of the school-age population is thought to have a
language disorder?
A) 1%
B) 5%
C) 10%
D) 20%
1%
Which one of the following is the best example of a language variation?
A) African American English
B) acquired aphasia
C) stuttering
D) American Sign Language
African American English
Which of the following statements about communication variations is true?
A) If a student does not use the language expected in school, she or he has a
language disorder.
B) Someone with a language difference who also has difficulty communicating
even in his or her home language community.
C) Children of nondominant cultures should not be expected to learn the rules for
effective communication in the dominant culture.
D) Professionals no longer have a problem of bias in normative tests of language
assessment.
Someone with a language difference who also has difficulty communicating
even in his or her home language community.
Which statement is true concerning the comparison between the language of a
normally developing child and one with a language disorder?
A) The sequence of development is similar, but milestones are reached at later
years by the child with a disorder.
B) The sequence of development is different, but milestones are reached at around
the same ages.
C) The sequence of development is different, and milestones are reached later by
the child with a disorder.
D) There is no developmental difference; they just sound different.
The sequence of development is similar, but milestones are reached at later
years by the child with a disorder.
Most children make frequent speech errors until they
A) are 18 months old.
B) are 3 years old.
C) enter school (5-6 years old).
D) leave high school (16-18 years old).
enter school (5-6 years old)
The theory that language depends on brain development and proper brain functioning
and that language disorders resulting from brain dysfunction can sometimes be
compensated for is the theory of
A) biological maturation.
B) behavioral psychology.
C) information processing.
D) cognitive development.
biological maturation
The social interaction, or pragmatic, theory of language development suggests that
A) comprehending language is more important than producing language.
B) language is taught by direct instruction and arrangement of consequences.
C) language development is easily separated from social and cognitive
development.
D) the natural environment may be arranged to teach more effective language.
the natural environment may be arranged to teach more effective language.
At present, which theory of communication is considered to have the most direct
implications for speech-language pathologists and teachers?
A) cognitive development
B) pragmatic or social interaction
C) behavioral psychology
D) biological maturation
pragmatic or social interaction
Language disorders are generally classified according to two dimensions:
A) domain and etiology.
B) primary and secondary causes.
C) phonology and cause.
D) specific impairment and expressive delay.
domain and etiology
Each of the following statements about classification of language disorders is true
EXCEPT
A) If by age 2 years a child is not using two-word utterances, he might be
considered to have early expressive language delay (EELD).
B) About half the children whose language development is delayed at age 2 will
gradually catch up developmentally.
C) More than half of the children who show language impairments in
kindergarten will have obvious reading problems by second grade.
D) Difficulty in using language in social interactions and relationships is an
exclusive feature of secondary language disorders.
Difficulty in using language in social interactions and relationships is an
exclusive feature of secondary language disorders.
Specific language impairment refers to
A) language disorders resulting from learning disabilities.
B) language disorders with no identifiable cause.
C) language disorders occurring concomitantly with other disorders.
D) language disorders resulting from mental retardation.
language disorders with no identifiable cause
An example of a primary language disorder is a/an
A) phonological disorder.
B) articulation disorder.
C) early expressive language delay.
D) fluency disorder.
early expressive language delay
A failure of the child to understand the sound system of language at an age appropriate
level and in a culturally appropriate way represents
A) phonological disorders.
B) articulation disorders.
C) voice disorders.
D) developmental apraxia.
phonological disorders
Articulation disorders
A) are easily distinguished.
B) are genetically based.
C) have no known causes.
D) involve errors in sound production.
involve errors in sound production
Which one of the following is an articulation disorder?
A) lisping
B) stuttering
C) aphasia
D) mutism
lisping
The dimensions of voice are
A) resonance, pitch, and tone.
B) resonance, loudness, and quality.
C) pitch, loudness, and quality.
D) resonance, pitch, and quality.
pitch, loudness, and quality
Causes of voice disorders include all of the following EXCEPT
A) hearing loss.
B) cleft palate.
C) chicken pox.
D) cheerleading.
chicken pox
The most common fluency disorder is
A) stuttering.
B) acquired aphasia.
C) echolalia.
D) dysarthria.
stuttering
What percentage of children and adults are considered stutterers?
A) 1%
B) 2%
C) 5%
D) 8%
1%
Due to a brain injury, Ethan has difficulty selecting and sequencing speech. He knows
he makes errors and what he wants to say, but simply cannot. Henry’s condition is
A) dysarthria.
B) stuttering.
C) acquired apraxia.
D) acquired aphasia.
acquired apraxia
A disorder due to brain damage that affects a person’s respiratory support for making
speech sounds is
A) apraxia.
B) echolalia.
C) dysarthria.
D) aphasia.
dysarthria
The primary role of the classroom teacher is to facilitate development of which aspect
of language?
A) phonology
B) semantics
C) pragmatics
D) morphology
pragmatics
Which one of the following is an example of an alternative question-asking strategy?
A) focusing on student-initiated questions
B) reducing the complexity of a question
C) increasing interaction between student and teacher so both members ask and
answer questions
D) creating several questions with synonymous meaning
reducing the complexity of a question
Students with communication disorders may have trouble with stories about ideas or
events they have experienced or thought about, called
A) autobiographical narratives.
B) personal essays.
C) first-person accounts.
D) personal narratives.
personal narratives
The ability to transfer written words into speech is
A) phonology.
B) decoding.
C) encoding.
D) reading.
decoding
All of the following are guidelines that teachers and parents can follow when talking
with children with speech and language disorders EXCEPT
A) Lead the discussion.
B) Talk about things the child is interested in.
C) Allow enough time for the child to respond.
D) Provide opportunities for the child to communicate.
lead the discussion
Which of the following statements about written language development is true?
A) Written language and literacy are not usually problems for students with
speech and language disorders.
B) As students progress throughout the grades, written language takes on
increasing importance.
C) Students with language disorders tend to express themselves clearly in writing.
D) Mastering the alphabetic system is not part of written language instruction.
As students progress throughout the grades, written language takes on
increasing importance.
Methods of progress monitoring that involve a cycle of teaching, followed by testing,
and then reteaching as necessary are
A) dynamic assessments.
B) curriculum-based language and communication assessment.
C) curriculum-based management.
D) response to intervention.
dynamic assessments.
To document outcomes based on individual intervention plans, speech-language
pathologists use demographic and diagnostic data along with a series of scales that
measure
A) academic achievement.
B) functional communication.
C) social skills.
D) social communication.
functional communication.
Much of a child’s language and social development depend on two characteristics of
language interaction the child has with caregivers. What are the characteristics?
A) nature and quantity of the language
B) quality and variety of the language
C) variety and resonance of the language
D) loudness and functionality of the languag
nature and quantity of the language
Jeremy is a four-year-old boy who makes infantile noises and uses gestures to request
objects. He displays
B) acquired aphasia.
C) prelinguistic communication.
D) syntactic dysfunction.
prelinguistic communication.
Which procedure most closely resembles “milieu teaching?”
A) Fiona requests a ball from her teacher who asks “What do you want to do with
the ball?” The teacher gives Fiona the ball only when she replies to the
question.
B) Fiona requests a ball from her teacher who says “There are fun things to do
with a ball!” The teacher then gives Fiona the ball.
C) Fiona requests a ball from her teacher who asks “What do you want to do with
the ball?” The teacher waits five seconds, then gives Fiona the ball whether
she replies to the question or not.
D) Fiona’s teacher tells her to play with a ball, then observes her playing and
waits for opportunities to interact verbally with her.
Fiona requests a ball from her teacher who asks “What do you want to do with
the ball?” The teacher gives Fiona the ball only when she replies to the
question.
Ideally, the earliest intervention in the area of speech and language development, if
needed, should begin
A) during the first few months of life.
B) between the ages of 12 and 18 months.
C) when the child is of preschool age.
D) in kindergarten.
during the first few months of life.
Jennie is a preschooler with delayed language development. Language intervention at
this level generally focuses on
A) articulation.
B) verb forms and plurals.
C) discourse.
D) concept development.
discourse.
Each of the following statements about adolescents and adults with speech and
language problems is true EXCEPT
A) They might refer themselves to a speech-language pathologist because of
social embarrassment.
B) The loss of the ability to speak is typically more disabling than the loss of the
ability to use language.
C) People with severe disabilities may need to be taught an alternative to oral
language or be given an augmentative communication system.
D) There may be problems settings realistic goals for speech and language
learning.
The loss of the ability to speak is typically more disabling than the loss of the
ability to use language.
Which condition reduces the effectiveness of strategy training for adolescents with
speech and language disorders?
A) use of natural group settings
B) emphasis on vocational goals
C) poor reading skills
D) involvement of peers
poor reading skills