Embellishment Accessories with Special Treatments and Materials

EMBELLISHMENT ACCESSORIES WITH SPECIAL TREATMENTS AND MATERIALS DEREK CHUN KIT, CHAN BA(Hons) Scheme in Fashion and Textiles (Fashion Design Specialism) INSTITUTE OF TEXILES & CLOTHING THE HONG KONG POLYTECHNIC UNIVERSITY EMBELLISHMENT ACCESSORIES WITH SPECIAL TREATMENTS AND MATERIALS A Thesis Submitted In Partial Fulfillment of Requirements for the Degree of Bachelor of Arts (Honours) In Fashion and Textile (Fashion Design Specialism) Under the supervision of Dr. Jeanne Tan By Derek Chun Kit, Chan (08177691D)

Institute of Textiles & Clothing The Hong Kong Polytechnic University July 2011 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I would like to express my sincere gratitude to my Academic Supervisor Dr. Jeanne Tan, for her constant guidance, patience, invaluable advice and sustained interest throughout my preparation of the project work. Special thanks to my parents, my friends and all of the interviewees who have been giving me constant support and shared the joy and tears during my tertiary education life. I remain deeply in their debt.

AUTHORISATION I hereby declare that this thesis is my own work and that, to the best of my knowledge and belief, it reproduces no materials previously published or written, nor material that has been accepted for the award of any other degree or diploma, except where due acknowledgement has been made in the text. (Signed) (Name of student) ABSTRACT Fashion accessories and embellishments have an important role in fashion. It can be an ornamental item to complement the whole collection or even single outfit.

In order to study the creativity and design process behind fashion embellishment accessories design, this thesis aims to create accessories and embellishments using innovative methods and treatments . It utilizes creative materials and techniques in embellishment accessories design. Furthermore, designers can apply traditional decorative treatment on it to supplement the embellishment accessories design. The integration of the traditional decorative arts with new material treatments can create luxurious and innovative accessories and embellishments which are highly aesthetical.

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In this project, background and history of the traditional decorative techniques will be researched. At the same time, several experiments are carried out to make samples from new materials and treatments. After the experiment, survey will then conduct to collect comments and datum to find out the perception of the users. Feasible materials and treatments will then be selected and applied into the design of the collection. LIST OF TABLES Table. 1. 1 Table. 5. 1 Table. 5. 2 Table. 5. 3 Table. 5. 4 Table. 5. 5 Table. 5. 6 Table. 5. 7 Table. 5. 8 Table. 5. 9 Table. 5. 10 Table. 5. 11 Table. 5. 12 Table. 5. 13 Table. 5. 4 Project flow ……………………………………………………………….. …. 3 Age of the interviewee ……………………………………………. ……… …. 92 Occupational state of the interviewee …………………………………. …. 93 Monthly salary of the interviewee …………………………………. ….. …. 93 Fashion spending …………………………………………………………. …. 94 Needs of accessories ……………………………………………………… …. 94 Will you try something new and creative? ………………….. ……….. …. 95 Perception of new materials accessories ………………………. …….. …. 95 Preference of new materials accessories ………. ………………. ……. …. 96 Reasons to us new materials to design …………………. …………………. 97 Acceptability of experiment samples …………………………….. ….. . 98 Total score of the acceptability of the experimental samples …….. …. 99 Name of samples ……………………………………………………. ….. …. 100 Which one you like most? …………………………………………. ….. …. 101 Which one is the most applicable? …………………………. ……….. …. 102 LIST OF FIGURES Fig. 2. 1 Fig. 2. 2 Fig. 2. 3 Fig. 2. 4 Fig. 2. 5 Fig. 2. 6 Fig2. 7 Fig. 2. 8 Fig. 2. 9 English quilting …………………………………………………………….. …. 10 Italian quilting ………………………………. ………………………………. …11 Trapunto quilting …………………………. ……………………………. ….. …11 Applique………………………………………………………………………….. 12 Cornelly machine ………………………………………. …………. ……….. …14 Heat gun varies in different wattages. ……………………………….. …. 16 c. clover iron d. e. Soldering iron……………………………….. …….. …17 Tyvek………………………………………………………………………………. 18 (From left to right) tambour frame, Slate frame, Ring frames at the corner ……………. ……………………………………. …22 Fig. 2. 10 Fig. 2. 11 Structure of Tambour hook ……………………………………….. …….. …. 23 Bugles are made of glass or metal with smooth or ridged surfaces. ………………………………… …………….. …24 Fig. 2. 12 Sequins are available in a number of sizes and both types reflect light. …………………….. ……. ……….. …25 Fig. 2. 13 Pour and mix the solutions carefully and evenly ……………………… …29 Fig. 2. 14 Fig. 2. 5 Fig. 3. 1 Fig. 3. 2 Fig. 3. 3 Fig. 3. 4 Fig. 3. 5 Various type of open mould ………………………………….. ……….. …. 33 Closed mould ……………………………………………………….. …….. …. 34 Emily Crane …………………………………………………. ……….. …….. …40 Bio lace. …………………………………………………………….. ……….. …41 Glycerine with silvery food dyes ………………………………………….. …. 42 ‘biocouture jacket’ by Suzanne Lee …………………………………. ….. …. 43 Material growth after 10 days showing formation of mat on surface of liquid – bubble is the result of trapped oxygen produced during fermentation process ………………………. …. ……………………. ….. ….. …45 Fig. 3. 6 Fig. 3. 7 Fig. 3. 8 Fig. 3. 9 Fruity’ Bomber jacket – September 2007 ………………………. …. ….. …. 46 Manel Torres ………………………………………………………….. …….. …47 © Fabrican Ltd 2007 Photographer Gene Kiegel. ……………….. ……….. 48 The fabric is formed by the cross-linking of fibres, which adhere to one another, to create an instant non-woven fabric that can be easily sprayed on to any surface. Its properties can be tailored to meet the needs of each user. …….. ………….. …….. …50 Fig. 4. 1 (Left to right) organic vapours mask, barrier cream, hand cleaner, eye wash, first aid, thermometer, PVC gloves …. …… …. .53 Fig. 4. 2 Fig. 4. 3 epoxide is now mixing with polyamine. ……………………………… …. 54 (Left to right) Epoxy resin with golden colour, with silvery acrylic colour and without colour ……………………. ………. 56 Fig. 4. 4 Fig. 4. 5 Fig. 4. 6 There is precipitation when the colour and resin is mixed. ………. ………. 56 The colour cannot mix well in epoxy resin. ………………….. ….. ….. …. 57 (Left to right) Epoxy resin with golden colour, with silvery acrylic colour and without colour …………….. ………….. …. 57 Fig. 4. 7 Fig. 4. 8 Fig. 4. 9 Fig. 4. 10 Fig. 4. 11 Fig. 4. 12 Fig. 4. 13 Fig. 4. 14 Sphere shape resin under aqueous condition ………………………….. …. 59 Sphere shape of epoxy resin ………………………………………….. …….. 0 Dry network structure of resin ……………………………………… …… …. 60 Jelly wax melts easily in hot water ……………………………………… …. 61 Jelly wax provides a smooth surface what it is half dry. ………. ….. …. 62 Body moulding on dummy …………………………………. …. …. ……….. 63 Fabric solidification ………………………………………. ……. ………. …. 64 A sheet of handi-wrap also can perform same function to create drape on lace fabric ………………………… …….. …. 65 Fig. 4. 15 Fig. 4. 16 Drop resin under low viscosity ……………………………………. ….. …. 66 Brush mark shape in medium viscosity ………………………. ….. ….. …. 66 Fig. 4. 17 Fig. 4. 18 Fig. 4. 19 Fig. 4. 20 Fig. 4. 21 Fig. 4. 22 Fig. 4. 3 Fig. 4. 24 Fig. 4. 25 Fig. 4. 26 Fig. 4. 27 Fig. 4. 28 Fig. 4. 29 Fig. 4. 30 Fig. 4. 31 Fig. 4. 32 Fig. 4. 33 Fig. 4. 34 Fig. 4. 35 A very stiff solid resin formed in the high viscosity state …………….. …. 67 Silicone sealants ……………………………………………………. …….. …. 68 Silicone with Paillettes …………………………………….. …………….. …. 69 Heat treatment on sequin fabric …………………………………………. …. 70 Detached sequins from sequin fabric……………………………………. …. 71 The heat-treated sequins are re-attached again on the fabric swatches.. 72 Beam varies in different size, shape and hardness………………. ……. …. 73 Heat-treated metallic synthetic fabric …………………………….. ……. …. 4 The lace fabric before and after heat treatment……………………….. …. 75 Different texture of acrylic gel provides different effects…………….. …. 77 Mantegna Gloss Gel medium (old version with pink label) …….. ….. …. 78 The beetles which not yet coated………………………………. ……….. …. 78 The acrylic gel is not yet dried. ……………………………….. ……. …. …. 79 Effect of Glass Bead Texture Gel…………………………. …………. …. …. 80 Glass Bead Texture gel on a pieces of shell embellishment………. …. …. 80 Metallic blue Glass Bead Texture Gel with beading………………. …. …. 81 Metallic gold Glass Bead Texture Gel with beading and Bugles…… …. 81 Effect of Extra Coarse Acrylic Pumice v……………………. . …………. 82 (From left to right) Dark Bronze Metallic, Gold metallic, Verde Green Patina Fig. 4. 36 Fig. 4. 37 Fig. 4. 38 Fig. 4. 39 Fig. 4. 40 ………………………….. …. …. 83 Epoxy resin coated with metallic colour…………………………….. …. 84 Verde Green Patina coated on metallic accessories and trimming…. 85 Glue gun with different colour hot glue stick……………………….. …. 87 Hot glue formed in aqueous condition……………………….. …….. …. 88 Yellowish hot glue formed under room condition…………….. …… …. 89 Fig. 5. 15 Acrylic gel samples ………………………………………………. ………….. 103 Fig. 5. 16 Verde Green Patina samples ……………………………………. ……… …104 Fig. 5. 7 Organic form epoxy resin created under aqueous condition ……….. …104 Fig. 5. 18 Sphere shape epoxy resin ………………………………………………… …105 Fig. 5. 19 Hardening of fabric by epoxy resin ……………………………….. …… …106 Fig. 5. 20 Heat treated lace fabric …………………………………………………… …107 Fig. 5. 21 Epoxy resin under room temperatures ……………………. ……………… 108 Fig. 5. 22 Glue gun plastic ………………………………………………. …………….. 109 Fig. 5. 23 Silicone ……………………………………………………………………….. 110 Fig. 6. 1 Fig. 6. 2 Fig. 6. 3 Fig. 6. 4 Theme board…………………………………………………. …………… …. 113 Mood board……………………………………………………………….. …. 115 Collection board………………………………………………………….. . 117 Original appearance of ready-made necklaces……………………….. …. 119 Fig. 6. 5 Pieces necklace with bluish black acrylic gel ……………………. …. …………120 Fig. 6. 6 Close view of the acrylic gel ……………………. …. ……………………………. 120 Fig. 6. 7 Epoxy resin ring with beetle……………………. …. …………………………….. 121 Fig. 6. 8 Close view of the beetle……………………. …. ………………………………….. 121 Fig. 6. 9 Heat-set fabric rings with resin beads and beetle……………………. …. ……. 122 Fig. 6. 10 Close view of the heat-set fabric rings……………………. …. ……………….. 122 Fig. 6. 11 Acrylic gel bracelet……………………. …. ………………………………………123 Fig. 6. 12 Beetle on the bracelet……………………. …. ……………………………….. 123 Fig. 6. 13 The original appearance of the ready-made bracelet……………………. ….. 124 Fig. 6. 14 Treated bracelet……………………. …. …………………………………………. 124 Fig. 6. 15 Treated rings……………………. …. ………………………………………………125. Fig. 6. 16 Heels decoration using epoxy resin……………………. …. ……………………126 Fig. 6. 17 Close view of heels……………………. …. ………………………………………. 126 Fig. 6. 18 The sole is coated a layer of black acrylic gel……………………. …. ………126 Fig. 6. 19 Close view of the sole……………………. …. ……………………………………126 Fig. 8. 1 Reference photos of the samples ……………………. …. ……………………….. 142 Fig 8. 2. Reference photos of the samples ……………………. . ………………………. 143 TABLE OF CONTENT ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS AUTHORISATION ABSTRACT LIST OF TABLES LIST OF FIGURES CHAPTER I. PAGE INTRODUCTION …………. …………………………………. …………………. ….. 1 i. Background of Study……………………………………………………….. 1 ii. Aims and objectives. ………………………….. ………….. ………. …….. 4 iii. Scope of Study …………………….. ……………………………. ……….. 5 iv. Methodology …………………….. ………………. ……………. ……….. 6 II. LITERATURE REVIEW ………………….. …………. ………. …………………… 8 i. Embroidery ………………….. ……………….. ………………. ………… 8 1. 1 Definition of embroidery ……………. ……. …………. ….. ……… 8 1. 2 History of embroidery ………………. …….. …………. ….. ………8 TABLE OF CONTENT (cont) . 3 The purpose of embroidery ………………. ………………. ……. 9 1. 4 The technique of embroidery ………………. ……………….. …… 9 Quilting ……………………………. ………………. ……. …. …… 9 Applique ……………………………. …………………. …. …. …… 12 1. 5 Machine embroidery …………. …………………… ……. ………. 13 1. 6 History of machine embroidery …………. …. ………. ……. …… 13 ii. Heat Treatment …………. …………………. ……………………… …… 15 2. 1 Definition of heat treatment …………. ……………………. ……. 15 2. 2 Tools used in heat treatment …………. ……………………. ……. 15 Heat gun ……………………………………………………………. 15 Iron ………………………………. ……………………. ……. …… 16 Clover iron …………. …………………. ……….. …….. …. …… 6 Soldering iron …………. ……………………. ….. …. ……. …… 17 2. 3 Materials used in heat treatment …………. ……. …. ……. …… 18 Tyvek …………. …………………………. ……………. ……. …… 18 TABLE OF CONTENT (cont) Cello foil …………. ……………………….. …………. ……. ……. 18 Lutradur …………. ……………………………………. ……. …… 19 Fusible film …………. …………………. ………………………… 19 Plastic shopping bags …………. ……………………. ……. …… 19 Polyester organza …………. ……………………. ……. ………. 19 iii. Tambour beading …………. …………….. ………………… ……. …… 20 3. 1 Definition of Tambour beading …………. ………….. ………….. 20 3. 2 Tools for tambour beading …………. ……………….. …. ………. 20 Frame …………. …………………. ……………….. …….. …… 20 Thimble …………. …………………. ……………….. …………… 22 Beading pad …………. …………………. ……. …….. …………. 23 Tambour hook …………. …………………. ……. ….. ………….. 23 3. 3 Materials used in tambour beading …………. …….. …. …. …… 23 Beads and sequins …………. …………………. ……… ……….. 23 Bugles …………. …………………. ………………….. …….. …… 24 Flat sequins …………. ……………………………….. ……. …… 24 TABLE OF CONTENT (cont) Paillettes …………. …………………. ……. …….. ……………… 25 Miscellaneous beads …………. ……………………… ……. …… 25 Jewels …………. …………………. …………………………. …… 25 Shisha …………. …………………. ……. ………………………… 26 Fabric …………. ……………………………………. ………. …… 6 Backing …………. ………………………………….. ………. …… 26 Sewing thread …………. …………………. ……. ………. ………. 26 3. 4 Techniques in tambour beading …………. ………. ………. ……. 27 iv. Plastic formation, resin …………. ……………………….. ………….. 28 4. 1 Introduction of Plastic…………. ……………….. ……….. ………. 28 4. 2 Application of resin ……………. ……………….. ……….. ………. 28 4. 3 Mould making ………. …………. ……………….. ……….. ………. 31 Introduction of mould making ….. ……………….. …… ………. 31 Masters making ……………………. ……………….. …… ……… 32 Types of moulds …………………………………….. …… …. …… 33 4. 4 Finishing ….. ………. …………. ……………….. ……. ….. ……. …. 34 TABLE OF CONTENT (cont) v.

Significance of creating treatment and materials ….. ……. ………… 36 5. 1History of creating craft ……. …….. ………….. ………. …………. 36 5. 2 Present significance of creating crafts ………. …….. ………. ….. 37 III. CASE STUDIES ON INNOVATIVE TEXTILE DESIGNER ……………….. ….. 39 i. Introduction …………………………….. ………………. ……. ………. 39 ii. Case study of designers …………. …………………………….. ……. 40 2. 1 Emily Crane …………. …………………. …………………. …. …… 40 2. 2 Bio lace by Emily Crane …………. …………………. ….. …. …… 41 2. 3 Suzanne Lee …………. ……………………………….. ………. …… 43 2. 4 Bio Couture by Suzanne Lee …………. ……………….. …. ……. . 44 2. 5 Manel Torres …………. ……………………….. ………. …. …… 47 2. 6 Spray on Textile by Manel Torres …………. …………. …. …….. 48 IV. EXPERIMENT ON INNOVATION TREATMENT ………….. …. ……. ……….. 51 i. Introduction …………………………….. ………. ………. ……….. ……. 51 ii. Experiment of Epoxy resin …………. …………. ……….. ………….. 53 TABLE OF CONTENT (cont) 2. 1 Colouring of epoxy resin …………. …………. ……………………. 55 2. 2 Reaction under aqueous condition ………………………………… 58 2. 3 Wax moulding …………. …………………. …………….. …………. 60 2. 4 Body moulding …………. ………………. ………………. …………. 62 2. 5 Fabric solidification ………….. ………………………….. ……….. 64 2. 6 Random Drying …………. …………………. ……………. ……….. 5 iii. Experiment of Silicone ….. …………. ………………….. …………… 68 iv. Experiment of heat treatment ….. …………. ………………….. ……. 70 v. Experiment of Acrylic gel ….. ….. …………. ………………….. ……. 76 5. 1 ‘Mantegna Gloss Gel medium’ ………….. …. ……………………. 77 5. 2 ‘Mantegna Glass Bead Texture Gel’ ……………………………… 79 5. 3 ‘Extra Coarse Acrylic Pumice’ ………. ……………….. …………. 82 5. 4 Metallic solution with Verde green patina ……………………….. 82 vi. Experiment of glue gun plastic … ….. ….. …………………. …. ……. 87 V. ANALYSIS OF EXPERIMENTS ………………………………………………………90 i. Background of questionnaire …………………………. …………………90 TABLE OF CONTENT (cont) i.

Data Analysis………………………………………………………………92 ii. Success and failure of experiments ……………. ……….. …………. 103 VI. APPLICATIONS ON THE COLLECTION…………………….. …. ….. ……. …. 112 i. Introduction of the collection …………………….. …. ….. ………. …. 112 1. 1 Theme …………………….. …. ….. ……. ………………………. ….. 112 1. 2 Mood and Colour …………………….. …. ….. ……. …………….. 114 1. 3 Designs of the collection …………………….. …. ….. ……. …….. 116 ii. Designing accessories for the collection ………………………. ….. 118 iii. Application and products …………………….. …. ….. ……. ………. 119 3. 1 Necklace adding acrylics gel …………….. …. ….. ……. ……….. 119 3. 2 Epoxy resin ring …………….. …. ….. …………….. …. ………. 121 3. 3 Heat-set fabrics rings with resin beads …………………. ………. 122 3. 4 Acrylic gel bracelet …………….. …. ….. ……. …………….. ……123 3. 5 Oxidized broad bracelet and rings …………….. …. ……. ………124 3. 6 Heels decoration using epoxy resin and acrylic gel . …. ….. …. 125 TABLE OF CONTENT (cont) VII. LIMITATIONS, RECOMMENDATIONS & CONCLUSIONS ……….. ……….. 127 i. Limitations …………………….. ………. …………………….. ……….. 127 1. 1 Literature part ……….. ……………………………….. …… 127 1. 2 Experimental part ……….. …………………………….. …… 127 1. 3 Data part ……….. ……………………………….. …………… 128 ii. Recommendations …………………….. ……………………….. ……… 130 iii.

Conclusions …………………….. …. ……………………………. ……. 132 VIII. REFERENCES …………. …………………. ……………………. ………. …. ………. 133 i. Books sources …………. …….. ………………………. ………. …. ………. 133 ii. Website sources …………. ………………………………………. …. ….. 135 iii. Journal sources …………. ……………………………. …. …….. ……… 136 IX. APPENDIX …………. …………………. ………………………………. …… …. …… 137 i. Questionnaire …………………………………………. ………………….. 137 CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION i. Background of Study Embellishment accessories play a significant role in fashion, as well as our daily life. Nowadays, they are a must-have for both men and ladies. Embellishment accessories come in a wide variety.

They can act as decorative items to supplement the collection or single outfit and match an overall look to create your distinctive style. Apparel and accessories are worn together, so one should not be considered independent of the other. As one changes, the other must also change to complement it. Without accessories, the outfit will be boring with only the garments. It can also serve as a function to help carry and keep your personal belongings privately, or keep warm, or protect yourself from the natural elements. Many high-end brands established embellishment accessory to the market – for example, Swarovski and Cartier.

There is a wide variety of branded and non-branded embellishment accessories available in the market today. Most of them are mass-produced. Without the aid of professional tools and equipments, some of the embellishment accessories are difficult to make, for example, metallic accessories made from gold, silver or metal. To further explore the creativity and design process behind the creation of fashion embellishment accessories, this project aims to create embellishment accessories using non-traditional and innovative methods and treatments.

Hand-made accessories can be created with some basic tools and materials at home. For example, textured acrylic, epoxy resin, heat-setting of synthetic materials, hot glue, etc. Furthermore, the designer can apply some traditional decorative treatments, such as embroidery and tambour beading to supplement the above treatment. The integration of the traditional decorative arts with innovative material treatment can create luxurious embellishment accessories which are highly aesthetical. The processes to design innovative accessories in this project are as follows:

Experiment and development of samples from new materials Application of experiment into accessories Literature review Decide to design which types of accessories Study of traditional decorative techniques e. g. embroidery and beading Accessories design based on new materials and treatment , traditional one acts as a supplement to strength the design Table. 1. 1 Project flow ii. Aims and Objectives The aim of this project is to explore the utilization of creative materials and techniques in designing embellishment accessories.

The objectives are as follows, To study the background and history of traditional decorative techniques To experiment with different thermal technologies and techniques on textiles To experiment with thermal methods to create textured textiles for the purpose of embellishment accessories To explore the use of resin in textile accessories design To explore the use of acrylic gel To explore designer’s creative process by creating embellishment accessories for a fashion collection iii. Scope of the study The scope of study includes a study of materials, for example, epoxy resin, synthetic fabric or materials, acrylic gel, etc.

The background, ingredients, and property of the materials will be studied at the same time, so as to familiarize with the experiments of the materials. Another is the study of scope of experimental methods. Different conditions and different materials can lead to different effects during the experiment. For example, epoxy resin performs differently in an aqueous condition and under room temperature. Synthetic fabric will change differently under different temperatures, for example, it can soften, melt or burn depending on temperature of treatment.

Some traditional decorative techniques, for example, beading and embroidery can be used to enhance the new treatment. Both traditional techniques and new treatments can be incorporated together to achieve a positive effect. iv. Methodology Literature review The literature review explores the background and history of the research topic. As one of the objectives of this project is to study the background and history of traditional decorative techniques, reviewing literature provides some basic knowledge about creating textiles. Moreover, to create new methods requires some basic knowledge about heat treatment.

Reviewing literature notes can help me familiarize myself with the treatment. Experiments A variety of experiments will be conducted to produce samples for the application of the accessories. Synthetic materials or heat-sensitive materials will be used to carry out heat treatment experiments. Materials like resin and silicone will be moulded and dried through different methods, such as the method of using aqueous condition. The final experiment samples are then analyzed and applied into the design. Based on the result of the questionnaire, aesthetic and feasible samples are then pplied, modified and integrated into the design. Application After carrying out the experiment, feasible samples and treatments will then be selected to apply onto the design. This project aims at creating embellishment accessories for the collection using innovative materials and methods. Moreover, integrating traditional treatments will also act as a supplement to help the innovative treatment produce a final, aesthetically pleasing product. CHAPTER II LITERATURE REVIEW i. Embroidery 1. 1 Definition of embroidery Embroidery is the art of embellishing existing fabric with threads and other materials.

Men and women have used embroidery to decorate clothing. Embroidery is a laborious process requiring many hours of skilled labour. In the past, embroidered items were expensive and affordable only to the nobility, the upper class and the church. It denoted rank and status and as such was desired and highly prized. (Stanley, 1996). 1. 2 History of embroidery Embroidery was an activity for the upper classes. During the Renaissance, embroidery was increasingly used for secular purposes. Royalty and nobility wore elaborate clothing, richly encrusted with silk embroidery, jewels and spangles.

In the sixteenth-century, in Spain and England, the fashionable type of embroidery was blackwork, a counted-thread technique using a variety of complex patterns. It is a type of embroidery done in black thread on white cloth. Blackwork was very popular in England during the Tudor period as well (Barton, 1989). During the 19th century, upper- and middle-class ladies were kept idle as a mark of their wealth. Embroidery demonstrated their delicacy, dexterity and patience. Pattern books of popular motifs such as flowers, hearts and animals were produced especially for this market. (Stanley, 1996). 1. Purpose of embroidery Embroidery has been used in countless ways and for many different purposes: to embellish elaborate trousseaux and funerary wrappings, to proclaim the glory of God and the majesty of kings, to add a little colour to the simple homes of peasants and to display great wealth (Barton, 1989). 1. 4 The technique of embroidery Quilting Quilting is an ancient embroidery technique which is believed to have been developed as a means of keeping warm . Quilting can be divided into different types. English quilting is padded throughout and consists of three layers. The fabric for the top layer needs to be soft and closely woven.

The middle layer is the wadding, which is now usually made of polyester. This comes in various thicknesses. The backing fabric should be lightweight, but firm enough to be stretched on a frame and to support the work so that the quilted texture will stand up prominently on the right side. Fig. 2. 1 English quilting Italian quilting is formed with double, parallel lines of stitching, worked through two layers of fabric to form a channel, which is then filled with yarn or cord to produce a relief effect. Suitable fabrics for the top and backing are the same as those used for English quilting. Fig. 2. Italian quilting Trapunto quilting is composed of two layers of fabrics, with only certain areas padded. The difference is that in trapunto the padded areas are shapes rather than lines. The two methods are often combined in one piece of work. (Barton, 1989). Fig. 2. 3 Trapunto quilting Applique Applique is a flat pattern design method which sews or applies small pieces of fabric on a fabric to design pictures or patterns. The cut paper shapes will give a fairly realistic impression of the finished effect, especially if they are cut from paper of the same colour or tonal value as the applique fabric.

It is a relatively quick and effective way of placing a contrasting shape or image on a background and can easily be worked large scale if required. There are many ways of creating applique. The method chosen depends on the types of fabric being used, the use of the finished article and the overall effect required. If the object needs to be functional, and thus needs to be hard-wearing, flat machine applique using a zigzag stitch to hold the motifs in place will be the most suitable. Fig. 2. 4 Applique For a less hard-wearing item the applique can be done by hand, but it will not be so strong.

If the item is to be washable, the fabrics must all be chosen with this in mind. There are several fabrics which are not washable but are excellent for decorative work (Barton, 1989). 1. 5 Machine embroidery Machine embroidery is a craft for people with limited patience whose priority is creativity over occupation. The great appeal of machine embroidery is its speed. Designs can be realized in a matter of hours, while fleeting ideas can be captured. Working with such immediacy is a distinct advantage in the creative process. Machine embroidery has much to do with the process of drawing and painting.

The embroiderer learns to use the needle with dexterity and fluidity, much as an artist uses a pencil. Stitches can be used to create different textures and densities. (Stanley, 1996) 1. 6 History of machine embroidery During the 19th century, industrial embroidery machines such as the Cornelly machine created decorative chain stitches, but these machines were only used in factories. Domestic machines did not appear on the market until much later in the century. In the 1880s, technicians at the Singer sewing machine company were employed to produce pictures with satin and zigzag stitches on domestic treadle machines.

In 1911, Singer published a book with a machine for lace making and embroidery (Stanley, 1996). Fig. 2. 5 Cornelly machine ii. Heat Treatment 2. 1 Definition of heat treatment Heat treatment is defined as an application of any thermal methods on a temperature sensitive fabric with the aid of heat tools. Synthetic fabrics are usually heat sensitive as synthetic fabrics melt while natural fabrics burn under heat treatment. As synthetic fibre is thermoplastic in nature, their structure will break and re-bond under heat. However, the structure in natural fibre will break and release energy under heat.

This thermoplastic property of synthetic fibre provides a great advantage for synthetic fabric to create new textures. 2. 2 Tools used in heat treatment Heat gun Heat guns or hot-air tools have been used for heat embossing on cards and for scrapbooking for many years. There are two basic wattages, 300 and 350. The 300-watt gun is the most suitable for melting embossing powders, plastic bags and ‘Tyvek’. The 350-watt gun can melt synthetic fabrics as well. Bead-making from synthetic fabric (when synthetic fabrics are under a higher temperature, they will shrink and form a bead shape) s much faster with a 350-watt gun. (Thittichai, 2007) Fig. 2. 6 Heat gun varies in different wattages. Iron Irons come in many shapes and sizes. It is not necessary to use steam for any of the techniques in heat treatment. Clover iron The clover iron is a very small iron with a handle. It can be very useful for getting into awkward places that a normal iron can’t reach and can also be used on its side for foiling (Thittichai, 2007) Soldering iron The soldering iron is a tool for making marks and fusing fabrics together. There are various soldering irons to choose from.

For heat treatments on fabric, it tends to use 18 and 20 watts as the fabric will immediately melt if the watts are too high. Also, there are soldering irons with single fine ends and others with a selection of ends, such as the fabric master. There are tools with different brands for pyrography, such as the puromaster, which can be used to great effect on textile projects. (Thittichai, 2007) Fig2. 7. c. clover iron d. e. Soldering iron 2. 3 Materials used in heat treatment Tyvek Tyvek is a type of fabric which made from100 percent spun polyester, and will not give off fumes when heated.

Heavyweight tyvek is stiff and paper-like while lightweight is soft and fabric-like. (Thittichai, 2007) Fig. 2. 8 Tyvek Cello-foil Cello-foil is a cross between cellophane and foil, and has similar properties to cellophane. Its appearance is very metallic and shiny, with a choice of colours on one side and silver on the other. It responds to heat very quickly. (Thittichai, 2007) Lutradur Lutradur is a non-woven polyester fabric that is great for three-dimensional work. It is intended for industrial use, with a wide variety of weights for different purposes, from the purely decorative to the seriously heavyweight. Thittichai, 2007) Fusible film Fusible film is a thin synthetic iridescent film that comes in a range of colours and can be ironed and heat-gunned to great effect. It makes great beads. (Thittichai, 2007) Plastic shopping bags Plastic shopping bags are also a good material to use. Most plastics will stick together, after combining two or three layers they will become quite stiff after cooling down. (Thittichai, 2007) Polyester organza Polyester organza can be heat-gunned and soldered to great effect. It is very useful as an overlay and makes splendid beads. (Thittichai, 2007) iii. Tambour beading . 1 Definition of Tambour beading The word bead means”a prayer”, and originated from little balls strung together for counting prayers such as the present-day Rosary. The word now covers beads of all sizes and shapes which are used for jewellery, embroidery and fashion and for religious and ceremonial occasions. Tambour beading is a quick method of attaching beads to fabric using a tambour frame and hook. These are generally employed by professional workshops where there is a lot of beading to be done on garments. 3. 2 Tools for Tambour beading There are several tools for tambour beading.

Frame The frame is a tool to hold the fabric in place. All beadwork should be carried out on a frame, thus keeping the fabric at the correct tension to support the work and, at the same time, leaving both hands free. A standing ring frame or a table clamp tambour frame would be ideal for a small piece of hand work or machine embroidery. Larger pieces should be mounted on a slate frame. The tambour frame is shaped like a drum, and consists of two wooden rings fitting closely together between which the fabric is stretched, in much the same way as a ring frame is used for embroidery.

Tambour frames always have a stand, or are clamped to a table. The rectangular frames consist of four strips of wood joined to form a rectangle. The simplest type can be made from four strips of fairly soft wood, such as pine, measuring about 2. 5 by 1. 5cm in section. These are joined with wood glue and held rigid by four flat right-angle brackets. (Barton, 1989) Slate frames, also called scroll frames, are adjustable wooden frames. They vary slightly in their construction, but a common type consists of two rollers with webbing attached and two strips or laths which hold the rollers at the chosen distance.

Some slate frames can be attached to a table or floor stand. The method of mounting the fabric allows it to be re-tightened if necessary. (Barton, 1989) Fig. 2. 9 ( From left to right) tambour frame, Slate frame, ring frames at the corner Thimble A thimble is essential for the accurate placing of the needle, and protects the middle finger during the fine beading process (Pyman, 1987). Beading pad The beading pad is a small piece of stout cardboard , sometimes lightly padded and covered in felt or velvet , which is used to hold a selection of beads whilst working ( Pyman, 1987).

Tambour hook The tambour hook resembles a very fine metal crochet hook. Fig. 2. 10 Structure of Tambour hook 3. 3 Materials used in tambour beading Beads and sequins Beads and sequins are always used in traditional beading. The smallest beads are a little larger than a pinhead. A variety of colours and textures can be obtained: matte, metallic, mother-of-pearl, clear, iridescent, and silver-lined. Here are brief introductions of several kinds of beads and sequins below. Bugles Long beads are called bugles, and vary in length from fractions of an inch to 6 inches.

Fig. 2. 11 Bugles are made of glass or metal with smooth or ridged surfaces. Flat sequins Flat sequins are circles of plastic with a central hole, and are available in matte, mother-of-pearl, iris and metallic form. In the past, sequins were made of metal and known as spangles. Home-made sequins can be made with a leather punch. Paillettes Paillettes are sequins in oval, flower, feather and leaf shapes with one or more holes. Fig. 2. 12 Sequins are available in a number of sizes and both types reflect light.

Miscellaneous beads Miscellaneous beads include droppers, faceted and metallic beads, those in cut-glass and wood as well as jewellery stones, the range carrying according to the stockiest. Jewels Jewels in embroidery, generally are cut faceted pieces of coloured glass, with one or more holes pierced near the edge to secure them to the fabric. Jewels are often attached in decorative ways, with surrounding stitchery to conceal the stitches through the holes (Pyman, 1987). Shisha Shisha, or mirror glass, is mica of a silvery grey colour with some imperfections on the surface.

There are no holes to sew through, but the pieces can be held under net or transparent fabric, or can have stitching over the top. Pieces of shisha come in small, irregular shapes, and add shine to embroidery (Pyman, 1987). Backing Backing is essential when the fabric is not suitable for beading. The fabric must be capable of supporting the weight of the beads, hence light and fine fabrics will usually require backing. Sewing thread As beeswaxed thread is much stronger than non-beeswaxed thread, using a strong sewing thread which can be beeswaxed if necessary can provide upport for heavy beads or embellishments. Nylon invisible thread may be found to be unwieldy. Machine embroidery threads are too thin. For the thread, the colour used should match tones with either the background or the overall colour of bead. 3. 4 Techniques in tambour beading Designs for tambouring are based on a continuous line. The beads or sequins are supplied strung on a thread, which is secured to the right side of the framed fabric. The design is marked on the wrong side, which is uppermost in the frame.

The hook pierces the fabric, picks up a loop of thread between two beads and brings it back up to the top side, goes down again a bead-length ahead on the line and picks up another loop, leaving the previous loop lying on the wrong side, and the result is a row of beads on the wrong side. This method relies on perfect tension for the loops and accurate matching of the length of the loops on the wrong side to the length of the beads on the right side. iv. Plastic formation , resin 4. 1 Introduction of Plastic Plastic is a material that can be moulded into useful shapes through heat and sometimes pressure.

There are many different types of plastic ranging from the natural to the man made. All are made from organic polymers. A polymer is a long chain of many thousands of large molecules or monomers. A monomer is made up of smaller molecules, carbon atoms, with the ability to form links with other molecules. These monomers then join up to form a long chain. The process by which they link up to form long chains is called polymerization. (Murphy, 2002) Plastics fall into two categories, thermoplastics and thermosetting plastics. The epoxy resin that this project used is thermosetting plastics but it is till temperature-sensitive. It can be softened under heat and are solid when cold but it will not melt under heat (Murphy, 2002). 4. 2 Application of resin Working in resin require little machinery, and material costs are relatively inexpensive. There are many different types of resin available in the market today. Each has their own properties and specific applications. Epoxy resin is a general purpose resin and is useful for jewellery making. When pouring resin, it is important not to get air into the resin. Creating bubbles may result in a poor surface once the resin is poured into the mould.

To minimize the amount of air in the resin, it should be poured and mixed carefully. Fig. 2. 13 Pour and mix the solutions carefully and evenly For the epoxy resin, raw resin (Liquid A) is usually combined with hardener (liquid B) in a 3:1 ratio. Resin changes through polymerization from a liquid to a gel in around 25 minutes, and after 2-3 hours it sets to a solid and becomes flexibly hard. It then becomes completely hard and solid after 10-12 hours. An activator or accelerator is added to non pre-activated resin; it can also be added to PA resin where fast cures are required.

It must never be directly mixed with a catalyst as it is explosive. Thixotropic paste is added to resin as a thickening agent. It should be placed in the cup rather than poured. When mixing the thixotropic resin with a thinner resin, place the paste in the cup first, adding a little of the thinner resin and amalgamating them thoroughly before slowly adding the rest of the thinner resin until it is completely mixed. Some come pre-accelerated and others do not, so check first. Wax in solution is added to resins and gel coats at the rate of 2% in order to ensure a totally tack free surface.

Thinners are added to resins where a lower viscosity is required. The resin can then be poured into moulds. The resin will set after 2 hours and be fully cured in 1-7 days. The rate depends on the types (Murphy, 2002). 4. 3 Mould making Introduction of mould making The types of materials used for making the mould will depend on the shape and material of the master and whether it has many undercuts, in which case it may require more flexible mould materials. Where no filling or other finishing technique is to be applied to the surface of the casting, this will dictate the type of resin used in the mould as well as the mould materials.

Most plastics will reproduce the surface finish of the mould into which they have been cast. Polyester resin tends to become glossy on the surface after it has been removed from the mould, where the mould material has inhibited the full cure of the resin. Polyester resins with high wax content come out looking quite matte rather than glossy as the wax helps it to cure. Polyurethane and epoxy resin will reproduce the surface finish in most cases but results will vary depending on the types used. Other factors affecting the choice of mould material will be the number of times casting needs to be reproduced and where a resin has a high exotherm it may be necessary to cool the mould and draw the heat away (Murphy, 2002). Masters making Master is the prototype of the product you want to mould. What your master is made of is not necessarily of paramount importance. Where a perfect result is required the master must be made in a material that can be polished and used in conjunction with a mould material such as silicone rubber that picks up very good surface detailing. The better the master, the less cleaning up on the cast resin piece afterwards.

The master needs to be slightly larger than the required size of the final piece, as firstly the resin shrinks around 10 to 20% and then filing and finishing will remove more material. In most cases the master can be used repeatedly to make several moulds of the same shape. Some materials will be more long-lasting than others. The shape of your master will determine what mould material you can use. A master shape with deep undercuts and recess will require a flexible mould material. It is worth including any recesses which are part of design in the master so that a hole need not be drilled in later on.

This avoids having to remove material or drill an awkward area (Murphy, 2002). Types of moulds An open mould is easy to make and use. It can be made from silicone rubber, gel flex, vacuum formed plastic, plaster or wood. Where the resin is exposed to the air it may inhibit curing, resulting in a sticky surface. This could be removed afterwards or can be prevented by using wax in the resin or a special polyester film lay onto the open resin surface. Fig. 2. 14 Various type of open mould The other one is closed mould.

The shape of the master may prevent a closed mould from being made from it. Once the shape is enclosed in the rubber it has to be cut out of there with a minimal number of cuts. Fig. 2. 15 Closed mould Where the rubber closes back on itself it will leave a joint line if there has been an uneven cutting line. The pouring hole must not be lower than any part of the master. As the liquid resin is poured in through the hole, it will settle out under gravity and any bubbles in the resin will rise to the highest point. A pouring hole is created by adding a sprue to the master using a rod.

It may be necessary to add a second sprue in the mould; this hole will act as a vent allowing air to escape. A master set at the wrong angle on the sprue may result in the mould producing incomplete castings where the air cannot escape easily or the liquid settles out at too low a level (Murphy, 2002). 4. 4 Finishing Surface tackiness can be removed by either soaking the polyester resin piece in warm water and detergent. This causes the outer resin to turn a milky white that can be scraped off. If the resin has been designed to have a texture from the mould, little treatment to the surface may be required.

In order to bring a quality to the resin it is necessary to work on the finish and start by filing off the surface and then working through the grades of wet and dry papers before polishing the surface. In some jewellery designs findings are needed, such as earring posts, brooch fittings, ring shanks, jump rings or chains, in order to be able to attach the piece to the body or clothing. As it is not possible to solder on or near resin, another method of fixing findings to the resin is necessary. The most obvious methods are by either using some kinds of adhesive or by drilling a hole.

Resin can be drilled and burred quite easily as it is a soft material. Care must be taken with drill bits to avoid the cutting edge chipping the area (Murphy, 2002). v. Significance of creating treatment and materials 5. 1History of creating craft Looking back into the history of embroidery around the world, there are well-established traditions for artifacts. Centuries ago, in all regions of the world, function and need were usually the purpose for the existence of artifacts (Edmonds, 2009). People modified the garments or articles by their craft and skill, so as to achieve a certain purpose in their daily life.

But as cultures became more complex, so too did the garments, bags, boxes and all the other items required for both secular and religious life. Religion and the noble got the highest social status. Creating artifacts or crafts has been used for many different purposes: to proclaim the glory of God and the majesty of king or to add a little colour to the simple homes of peasants and to display great wealth. During the 19th century, upper- and middle-class ladies were kept idle as a mark of their wealth. One of the activities that they did in their leisure time was embroidery.

Embroidery demonstrated their delicacy, dexterity and patience. For this reason, the significance of embroidery was its main purpose to show off the wealth of the noble ladies (Diamond, 1993). Several excellent examples of beautiful embroidery work are still surviving to date. Samples can be found from Ancient Egypt, China, Persia, India and England. Each country has its own distinctive style of embroidery, which incorporates the culture and imagery from their history and tradition (Edmonds, 2009). These were the significance of the existence of the crafts in the past. 5. Present significance of creating crafts However, the significance of creating crafts has been changed nowadays. The past reasons and significance to create crafts and embroidery have became less important. In the past, the main reason of embroidery is because of delicacy, social status, and beauty. However, nowadays, the significance of creating crafts has been changed. Because of the environmental resources and political debates, the fast depleting energy and materials arouse the inspiration and creativity of the designers to find new resources and create new materials for design and fashion.

The reason of creating crafts no longer only focus on the beauty, but the actual use and demand of the textiles, materials and creativity. Creative designers are eager to find and create new materials for design and fashion. On the other hand, the increasing cost of materials, like cotton, boosts the cost of production of garments. Markets require new materials to replace the limited old resources in order to decrease the use of limited materials. Moreover, finding new materials which are sustainable and green is more important in today’s world.

Moreover, the new, interesting and creative materials and products can arouse the interest of the customers and market. This supports the designers and the materialogists to further develop more and create more sustainable and interesting materials to support the market’s needs (Edmonds, 2009). CHAPTER III CASE STUDIES ON INNOVATIVE DESIGNERS i. Introduction Designers who design with new materials are studied for the case studies section. With environmental issues at the foremost of political debate whilst at the same time, the world’s energy reserves are rapidly depleting, designers are finding new fashion.

Moreover, creative designers are eager to find and create new materials for design and fashion. These “materiologists” are growing, spraying and cultivating new materials, pushing the boundaries between science, design and art to give way to a materials revolution and new design narrative. ii. Case study of designers 2. 1 Emily Crane Emily Crane is a fashion designer living and working in London. She has recently graduated with an MA from Kingston University, following from a BA (Hons) at Bath Spa University. Fig. 3. 1 Emily Crane

This new designer is pushing the boundaries of design through materials and process; growing, cultivating and forming new hybrid materials for fashion futures. Borrowing skills from molecular cooking, Emily is envisioning a future where fast fashion has to respond to a more sustainable future. Having set up a lab in her kitchen, she is growing and freezing bubbles to create a form of bio lace that is both wearable and edible (Crane, 2010). 2. 2 Bio lace by Emily Crane Fashion designer Emily Crane borrows skills from molecular gastronomy – she grows her own Bio-Lace from food and has named the products as Micro-Nutrient Couture.

Micro-Nutrient Couture aims to create a fashion experience in a world exploring ‘the constant new’, offering a fresh alternative to the compulsive shopper obsessed with fast fashion, high street consumption and throw-away prices. The project focuses on creating fashion using boundary-less techniques from the everyday life, such as cooking, blending and creating ice cubes to form silhouettes (Stylesight, 2010). Fig. 3. 2 Bio lace. Crane experiments with growing and freezing bubbles and foodstuffs.

She experiments with materials that occur naturally when cooked up from edible ingredients including gelatins, kappa carrageenan, agar-agar sea vegetable, water, natural flavour extracts, glycerin, food colouring and lusters. Her process involves capturing bubbles in organic fluids that are then frozen into delicate bio lace structures and finished using a variety of lusters, which is high-tech kitchen couture. Fig. 3. 3 Glycerin with silvery food dyes Crane also touches on issues of sustainability and cradle-to-cradle design through her materials research.

What is interesting about Crane’s work is that it was born of a desire for a more sustainable future, taking into consideration issues of food shortages. Using foodstuffs and working with the gastro-molecular chefs at Heston Blumenthalth’s, her materials create the future of fast fashion and even fast food fashion. 2. 3 Suzanne Lee Suzanne Lee is a senior research fellow in the school of fashion & textiles, Central Saint Martin’s College of Art & Design, London. She is also fashion innovator and creative director of Biocouture which investigates the growth of clothing through the use of bacterial cellulose.

During the investigation, she wrote “Fashioning the future: tomorrow’s wardrobe” to share her experience in the experiment. Fig. 3. 4 ‘biocouture jacket’by Suzanne Lee She aims to address ecological issues associated with the fashion industry through her material research. A pioneer in the area of new materiology, Lee has been making waves in both the fashion and science arena with her bio couture (Stylesight, 2010). 2. 4 Bio Couture by Suzanne Lee Lee has been investigating the use of bacterial cellulose, which is a derivative of green tea, grown in a liquid “growth bath”.

A new material will be created from the mother culture floating in the tea solution. Layers of nano-fibrils of bacterial-cellulose will deposit randomly on the solution surface. Matte is formed on the surface of the liquid when the materials are grown after ten days. This matte formed is the non-woven material to create bio couture. Depending on her recipe, she can adjust the flexibility of the material, which has similarities to leather in its handle and appearance. Fig. 3. 5 Material growth after 10 days showing formation of mat on surface of liquid bubble is the result of trapped oxygen produced during fermentation process

The sheet grown can be sewn together or molded into3-D forms. Lee has also experimented with natural dyes from vegetables to color her fabrics. By adding color to the ingredients in the laboratory fabrics, growth is not inhibited. It allows the substances to grow fully colored fabrics and garments in the future. Not only can the experiment create a 2-D form materials, it creates as well as 3-D form. 3-D form materials can be directly manufactured from a body form or sculpture form which immersed in the cultural liquid. A 3-D form of the new materials can be formed on the surface of stencils.

Coloring and tattooing can also be achieved by the oxidation of metal wire. It can create a decorative black patina. Laser cutting of greybeard stencil can cover the materials and print with natural dyes to create the pattern of the garment. For the colouring, Suzanne extracts the natural colour dyes from the fruit; the best stains they found are turmeric, port, curry powder, cherries, blueberries and beetroot. Fig. 3. 6 ‘Fruity’ Bomber jacket – September 2007 2. 5 Manel Torres Manel Torres studied his MA in Fashion Women’s Wear, Royal College of Art, London. During his time there, he conceived the idea for Spray-on Fabric.

He investigated innovative methods to speed up the process of constructing garments. Manel Torres then obtained his PhD for Spray-on Fabric at the Royal College of Art and has had a patent filed for this technology. Fig. 3. 7 Manel Torres Foresight and vision led him to think of developing a material that would almost magically fit the body like a second skin and at the same time have the appearance of clothing. Being the managing director of Fabrican Ltd. , which was established in February 2003, fabrican is focused on the research and development of Spray-on Fabric which can then be used across a number of market sectors.

Fabrican’s mission is to develop prototype products, in collaboration with leading industrial partners, leading to commercial exploitation by the partner (“Torres”, 2010). 2. 6 Spray on Textile by Manel Torres Manel Torres is one of the fashion designers to embrace both fashion and technology. He pushed the boundaries between technology and fashion resulting in his spray-on fabrics in a can. It is a kind of new and innovative non-woven fabric formed by the materials evolved from a can of spray-on fabric ( Stylesight, 2010). Fig. 3. © Fabrican Ltd 2007 Photographer Gene Kiegel. Creating a seamless garment limits the wastage of fabric during garment manufacturing, Manel has created ‘fabric in a can’. It is a new and innovative way of speeding up the process. He created a more spontaneous application, one that would somehow magically fit around the body but still maintain the appearance of cloth. Fabrican is just an instant spray-on fabric straight out of a can. It is a pressurized liquid , which forms as a fabric on the surface of the skin as it is sprayed , creating a disposable garment (Gundry, 2008).

This garment consisting of a cloud of nonwoven cloth, is made by spraying a chemical directly onto the skin – thousands of fibers splatter against your skin, and the fibers bind together to create disposable apparel. Fabrican can use a variety of natural and synthetic fibres, individually or combined, and the colours are limitless. Fabrican spray-on fabric will liberate designers to create new and unique garments, offer a carrier technology for delivery of fragrance or even medical active substances, and allow the wearer to personalize their wardrobe in infinite combinations. Torres, 2010). The spray-on textiles can spray washable, dryable and colored fabrics that have either a fleece or paper-like effect. Moreover, Torres has produced lace and rubber-like fabrics for outfits that can last up to nine hours (Stylesight, 2010). Fig. 3. 9 The fabric is formed by the cross-linking of fibres, which adhere to one another, to create an instant non-woven fabric that can be easily sprayed on to any surface. Its properties can be tailored to meet the needs of each user. Dressing your body as Torres does is just like embellishing th

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