End of Course US History Industrialization Vocabulary

End of Course US History Industrialization Vocabulary

Free Enterprise System (Industrialization)
Individuals are free to produce and sell whatever products they wish
Interstate Commerce Act
Prohibited unfair practices by railroads such as charging higher rates for shorter routes
Laissez-Faire
Theory that the government should not interfere in the operation of the free market
Thomas Edison
Inventor best kown for his invention of the electric light bulb
Bessemer Process
Process which made steel stronger, more affordable and profitable
John D Rockefeller
Made his fortune refining oil; founded Standard Oil
Corporation
A company chartered by a state and recognized in law as a separate person
National Market
Linked goods and services through technology and transportation making commerce more affordable
Transcontinental Railroad
Completed in 1869 at Promontory Point, Utah making it possible to travel by land to California
Union
Organized workers act as a group, not as an individual, to leverage for better working conditions
Knights of Labor
Hoped to create a single national union of skilled and unskilled workers, demanding an 8 hour work day, safety codes, better pay, and organized strikes to get companies to grant demands
Child Labor
Often used to move, clean, or fix large machines since they were small enough to fit between parts
Gospel of Wealth
Theory that rich were obligated to help communities by giving back in the form of libraries, school, and universities, but not giving directly to individuals
Andrew Carnegie
Scottish immigrant who made his fortune in steel making, known for “Gospel of Wealth”
Alexander Bell
Inventor known for the telephone and the company that later became AT&T
Philanthropy
Act of “Charitable giving”
Monopoly
Complete control of a product or service; the elimination of fair competition
Sherman Anti-Trust Act
Designed to prevent companies from engaging in unfair practices that eliminated fair competition
Social Darwinism
Economic philosophy based on the “Survival of the Fittest”–Justified millionares
Jacob Riis
Wrote “How The Other Half Lives” describing the deplorable conditions of the cities
Klondike Gold Rush
In 1896, miners were attracted to this area by the discovery of precious metals
American Indian Citizenship Act (1924)
Made all Indians citizen of the United States
Tenement
Single room apartments often without heating, lighting, or sewage
Political Machine
Corrupt city government officials promising to provide services and jobs in exchange for votes
Immigration
Primary reason for the growth in US cities by the early 1900s, doubling the number of US cities with population in excess of 500,000
Ellis Island
Vast government center in New York City where most immigrants were processed into the US
Cattle Drive
Movement by cowboys of cattle to rail stations in the north to connect to markets in the east
Ghettos
Neighborhoods made up of people of similar nationality, language, and cultural characteristics
New Immigrants
Mostly from Southern and Eastern Europe; mostly Catholic and Jewish
Chinese Exclusion Act
First federal law restricting Asian immigration to the US
Push/Pull Factors
War, Famine, Drought, Economic Opportunity, Education, etc
Wounded Knee
Closing event of the plains Indians; destruction of a way of life
Homestead Act
1862 law divided reservation into individual plots, each family received 160 acres to farm hoping to establish pride in ownership; given to citizens who met certain requirements and paid a small fee
Assimilation
Process by which people of one culture merge into and become part of another culture
Urbanization
Growth of large cities
Americanization
Learning to dress, speak, and act like other Americans
Nativists
Favoring native born Americans over immigrants
16th Amendment
Required Americans to pay an income tax
Square Deal
Aimed at correcting the political and social injustices resulting from industrialization
Tariff
Tax on imported goods
Settlement House
An all-purpose community center for poor people living in crowded cities
Muckrakers
Reporters, writers, and social scientists exposed the abuses of industrial society and government corruption
Populist Party
A new national political party representing the “common man”–farmers, industrial workers, and miners, proposing an 8 hour work day, progressive income tax, government ownership of railroads, and free silver
Free Silver
Unlimited coinage of silver to increase money supply
18th Amendment
Prohibition of the sale, manufacture, or transport of alcohol
Jane Addams
Progressive reformer known for establishing the Hull House
Ida B Wells
Social reformer that organized a national anti-lynching crusade
Social Gospel Movement
Called for social reforms such as a duty of Christians to enhance the lives of the less fortunate
William Jennings Bryant
Democratic candidate in the election of 1896; gained support of the populist party for his “Cross of Gold” speech
Pure Food and Drug Act
Protected consumer’s health and welfare by insuring quality products
Upton Sinclair
Muckraker that wrote of the abuses in the meat packing industry in “The Jungle”
Recall Election
Elected officials could be removed from office by special election
17th Amendment
Allows for the direct election of Senators
Progressive Movement
Teddy Roosevelt’s progressive legislative program aimed at protecting the public health and preventing false claims by business owners
19th Amendment
Government cannot deny the right to vote based on gender
Meat Inspection Act
Direct result of the book “The Jungle”
Federal Reserve Act
Created government agency that controls monetary policy
Referendum
Process that allows citizens to approve or reject a law passed by their legislature; allows voters to introduce bills directly to the legislature
WEB DeBois
African-American reformer that co-founded the NAACP
Theodore Roosevelt
Progressive president known as the trust buster, identifying compaies as good trusts and bad trusts
Temperance Movement Initiative
Movement led mostly by women like Francis Willard to eliminate alcohol
Booker T Washington
Proposed that Africa-Americans achieve equality gradually through job training and education and founded the Tuskegee Institute
Woodrow Wilson
Democrat elected President in 1912 as a result of a split in the Republican Party (Bull Moose Party)
William H Taft
Succeeded Roosevelt as President, followed many of his trust-busting policies
Monroe Doctorine
Policy that prevented Europeans from establishing colonies in the Western Hemisphere
Rough Riders
Group of volunteers led by Teddy Roosevelt; gained fame in the Spanish-American War
Sanford Dole
First governor of Hawaii, led group of plantation owers to overthrow the queen
Foreign Policy
Consists of a country’s policies toward other nations
Yellow Journalism
Sensationalized events in Cuba by American newspapers eager for war with Spain
DeLome Letter
Letter written by Spaish official claiming President McKinley was weak
San Juan Hill
Famous turing point American victory in Spanish-American War
Spanish-American War
Fought on two fronts, in the Carribean and the Pacific against the Spanish Empire
Alfred T Mahan
Argued that to achieve world power, a country needed a powerful Navy
Yellow Fever
Mosquito borne illness responsible for thousands of deaths in Panama Canal Zone
Dollar Diplomacy
Presidet Taft’s foreign policy toward Latin America advocating investment
USS Maine
Mysteriously exploded in Havana Harbor
Queen Liliuokalai
Said Hawaii should be led and controlled by Hawaiians, later to surrender to America
Protectorate
Annexed territory under control of the United States
Dr. William Gorgas
Responsible for eliminating breeding areas for mosquitos, thus helping to control the spread of Yellow Fever
Panama Canal
Completed in 1914, connecting the Atlantic and the Pacific Oceans
Platt Amendment
Asserted the US’s right to intervene in Cuban affairs at any time
Open Door Policy
Gave equal trading rights to all countries in China
Big Stick Diplomacy
Roosevelt boasted he would “speak softly and carry a big stick”
John J Pershing
Leader of the American Expeditionary Force sent to Mexico to hunt down the famous Mexican revolutionary, Pancho Villa
John Hay
US Secretary of State responsible for opening trade with China in the Open Door Policy
Roosevelt Corollary
Addtion to the Monroe Doctorine stating the US would intervene in the affiars of Caribbean nations as a police presence if necessary
Imperialism
The policy or practice of extending a nation’s rule over other less powerful territories
Henry Cabot Lodge
Leading opponent of the US becoming involved in the League of Nations
Archduke Franz Ferdinand
Assassinated by a Serb national in Sarajevo
Selective Service Act
Allowed national government to draft men to serve in war
Neutrality
Policy of not taking sides in the conflict in Europe
League of Nations
International peace-keeping organization
U-Boat
German Submarines
Alvin York
Medal of Honor recipient for heroism in WWI
Trench Warfare
New and strange method of fighting, using poison gas and machine guns
Sussex Pledge
Germany promised not to sink any more ocean liners without prior warning or providing help to passengers
Versailles Treaty
Ended WWI with provisions that were considered very harsh on Germany and other defeated countries
Battle of Argonne Forest
Considered a major turning point in WWI, Germany was defeated
American Expeditionary Force
American fighting force in WWI led by John J Pershing
Reparations
Provision of the Versailles Treaty which made Germany pay for damages caused during the war
Zimmerman Telegram
Secret message from German foreign Minister to Mexico, promising to return lost territories to Mexico in exchange for an alliance
Sedition and Espionage Acts
Made it a crime to criticize American involvement in European conflict
Woodrow Wilson
Attempted to remain neutral, but eventually he was forced to ask Congress for a declaration of war on Europe
Schenck vs US
Supreme Court ruling limiting free speech when it poses a “clear and present danger”
Lusitania
British passenger ship was sunk by German submarine killing over 1000 people, including 128 Americans
Fourteen Points
Proposed by Wilson before the end of WWI as the basis for the peace in Europe which included a plan for the League of Nations
Isolationism
Policy after WWI of separating from affairs of other countries and turning their backs to Europe