End of Course US History Vocabulary (Roaring Twenties–Cold War)

Marcus Garvey
a political activist who emphasized racial pride and Black Nationalism. Formed the Universal Negro Improvement Association.
Immigration Acts
of 1921, 1924, and 1929 were designed to keep out immigrants from Eastern and Southern Europe.
Charles Lindbergh
became the first person to fly across the Atlantic Ocean in 1927
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Great Migration
about two million African-Americans move out of the south to the Northeast and Midwestern United States in search of better opportunities
Henry Ford
engineer, entrepreneur introduced the assembly line production of automobiles
18th Amendment
prohibits the sale, manufacture and distribution of alcohol
Warren G. Harding
elected President in 1920 enacted highest tariff in history, lowered taxes and restricted immigration
Glenn Curtis
early aviation pioneer known for his design of the first seaplane giving birth to the U.S. Naval Aviation
Clarence Darrow
famous defense attorney; defending John T. Scopes in the “Monkey Trial”
Frances Willard
in addition to fighting for women’s rights, prison reform, and an 8 hour workday she was the most outspoken voice in the temperance movement.
Teapot Dome Scandal
government officials convicted of accepting bribes for leasing federal land to oil companies
19th Amendment
granting women the right to vote
Speculation
the purchase of any item in the hope of selling it later at a higher price–in order to get rich quick
Eugenetics
pseudo-scientific belief that the human race could be improved by breeding
flapper
style many women adopted of shorter dresses and shorter hair rejecting the more traditional fashion and lifestyle
Return to Normalcy
campaign slogan placing emphasis on peacetime production and prosperity at home
Calvin Coolidge
pro-business President known for saying “the chief business of America is business”
Rugged Individualism
Hoover’s belief that America’s greatness was made possible by the ideas of equal opportunity, free education, and a will to succeed
Red scare
wave of panic and hysteria in America caused by a fear of Communism and anarchy
Scopes “Monkey Trial”
courtroom battle over the teaching of modern scientific theories and the traditional religious beliefs
Ku Klux Klan
hostile group that was anti-immigrant, anti-Catholic, anti-Jewish, anti-African-American
prohibition
was referred to as the “Grand Experiment” but led to the rise of organized crime
Tinpan Alley
an area in New York City where song writing and musical ideas mixed together to form popular American music
Roaring Twenties
post WWI time period known for isolationism and economic prosperity
Langston Hughes
famous African-American poet known for expressing pride in his heritage and attacking racism
Herbert Hoover
President seen as the villian at the start of the depression, blamed for continuing pro-business policies and not doing enough to remedy the economic down-turn
Harlem Renaissance
new optimism and growth of African-American culture
Palmer Raids
fear of radical takeover resulted in the arrests of 4,000 suspects and deportation of 600 others directed by the Attorney General
John Steinbeck
Wrote about the suffering of migrant families in the “Grapes of Wrath”
Hoovervilles
make-shift shanty towns that appeared on the outskirts of towns during the depression
Francis Perkins
first female member of the U.S. cabinet when she was appointed by FDR as Labor Secretary
Great Depression
caused by over-production, tariff barriers, speculation, shaky banking practices
Dust Bowl
series of droughts along with poor farming practices in the Great Plains area which created one of the worst natural disasters in U.S. history
Civilian Conservation Corps
gave jobs to young men, such as planting trees and cleaning up forests, lived in camps and sent money home to family
Franklin D. Roosevelt
elected president in 1932, increased government’s role in running the economy
Social Security
provided safety net for workers with unemployment insurance, old age pensions, and insurance
New Deal
FDR’s plan for lifting the nation out of the depression
Eleanor Roosevelt
famous first lady, political activist, served as eyes and ears for her husband
Dorothea Lange
recorded the misery of people in the depression through her photography
TVA
built 21 government dams along the Tennessee River to provide flood relief and electricity
Securities and Exchange Commission
created to watch over the stock market, prevent fraud and guard against another stock market crash
Francis Townsend
Doctor who wanted government to give all citizens 65 years and older a pension of $200 a month to help stimulate the economy
Fireside Chats
sign of leadership by President to speak directly to the American people on a weekly basis
3 R’s
goal of the New Deal; Relief, Recovery, Reform
court-packing plan
FDR proposed to appoint additional justices for every justice over the age of 70, heavily criticized for the plan
Mexican Repatriation
half a million Mexican-American workers were forcibly sent back to Mexico
FDIC
insured bank deposits to restore people’s confidence in the nation’s banks
Father Coughlin
used radio to criticize FDR policies as helping make rich richer and poor poorer, called for nationalizing banks and utilities
Federal Reserve Board
created to control the flow of currency in the market helping to reduce major swings in the inflation rate
Flat money
paper money
Huey Long
former Louisiana Governor and U.S. Senator critical of FDR for not doing enough to help the poor
Agriculture Adjustment Acts
paid farmers for surplus crops and stored them in warehouses until prices recovered
war bonds
helped the government raise needed funds for the war effort; also helped reduce inflation, allowed Americans to support the war effort
Flying Tigers
a group of American volunteer fighter pilots who helped keep supply lines open in China
Lend-Lease Act
Allowed for the U.S. to sell, lease or lend war materials to any country deemed vital to the defense of the U.S.
Appeasement
the policy of giving in to satisfy the demand of a potential enemy
rationing
regulated the amount of goods that consumers could obtain, therefore sharing in the sacrifices of war
Battle of Midway
considered a major turning point in the war in the Pacific, putting the Japanese on the defensive and the U.S. on the offensive
George Patton
commanded the Army invasion of Africa and Italy, led the Third Army unit through Europe
Executive Order 9066
require Japanese Americans to be relocated to internment camps
Tuskegee Airmen
an all-black fighter group in the Air Corps who provided escorts for pilots on bombing missions
D-Day
invasion of Normandy, France in 1944
Blitzkreig
German fighting strategy also known as “lightening war”
Holocaust
was the attempted genocide of the Jews during WWII which led to the killing of over 6 million Jews
George Marshall
Roosevelt’s Army Chief of Staff, helped build up and supply our 8 million man army and helped oversee the project to build an atomic weapon
Omar Bradley
led the first American army to advance through France
Adolf Hitler
leader of the Nazi party, took power in Germany and aimed to achieve German domination
Pearl Harbor
U.S. naval base in Hawaii attacked by the Japanese on December 7, 1941
Neutrality Acts
a series of laws passed by Congress to keep the country out of war
Office of War Information
produced pro-Allied, anti-Axis propaganda posters, movies, and radio programs to make citizens aware of how they could help the war effort
Dwight D. Eisenhower
supreme allied commander responsible for the D-Day invasion
Korematsu vs U.S.
Supreme Court case ruled that the internment of the Japanese Americans was constitutional
Hiroshima/Nagasaki
Japanese cities that were targeted for the dropping of the A-bomb
Island hopping
successful U.S. war strategy in the Pacific
Vernon Baker
black soldier awarded the Medal of Honor 40 years after his heroic service in WWII
Navajo Code Talkers
were used to send messages in the military because their language could not be deciphered
Douglas MacArthur
led U.S. ground forces in the Pacific theatre, promised to return to the Philippines
Bataan Death March
Filipino and U.S. prisoners forced to march 60 miles through jungles without food and water
Harry Truman
U.S. President who made the decision to use the new atomic weapon on Japan to prevent the loss of more American lives
Victory Gardens
Americans grow their own vegetables and fruits in order to conserve the food supply
Chester Nimitz
U.S. Navy Admiral defeated the Japanese in the Battle of Midway
Iron Curtain
imaginary wall separating Soviet satellite countries from the west
United Nations
based on the concept of collective security which each member pledged to defend each other if attacked. First peacetime military treaty U.S. ever joined
Mao Zedong
led a communist revolution in China in 1949
Marshall Plan
massive aid program for war torn European countries, helped reduce in influence of communism
HUAC
congressional committee questioned actors, directors, writers and others about their possible Communist sympathies
McCarthyism
Congressmen created fears of a communist conspiracy to overthrow the American government by infiltrating the U.S. State Department with spies
containment policy
U.S. would not attempt to overturn communism where it already existed, but they resolved not to allow it to spread
Truman Doctrine
U.S. President offered military aid to Greece and Turkey when communist rebels threatened these two countries
Warsaw Pact
Soviet Union reacted to creation of Western European alliances by unifying Eastern European satellite countries
Verona papers
released in 1997 which confirmed the identities of several Americans who had spied for the Soviet Union
Korean War
Communist North Korea invaded South Korea, Truman chose to aid the South to prevent the spread of communism; sometimes referred to as the “Forgotten War”
GI Bill
Servicemen’s Readjustment Act; helped veteran’s with low interest home loans and money for college education
Sputnik
1957 the soviets launched the first man-made satellite, marked the beginning of what becomes known as the space race
Berlin Airlift
Stalin ordered a blockade in 1947, the U.S. organized a massive humanitarian relief effort to supply and feed the city
Jonas Salk
discovered the polio vaccine
Rosenbergs
this married couple was charged with selling national secrets to the Soviet Union, were convicted and executed
Cold War
a confrontation between the free nations of the world (U. S.) and the communist nations of the world (Soviets)
Eisenhower Doctrine
continuing the policy of containment Eisenhower agreed to send aid to any Middle Eastern country that needed to stop the spread of communism
Interstate Highway Act
Eisehower’s plan to connect the nation through a system of roadways; sparked the middle-class move to the suburbs
38th parallel
agreed upon border between communist North Korea and democratic South Korea
NATO
international peace keeping organization designed to promote global justice and cooperation with member nations

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