English 4 From the middle ages

In the Middle Ages, Christians were expected to visit a priest yearly to offer
confessions
Read the excerpt from The Canterbury Tales.

“God’s arms!” exclaimed one of these debauchees,
“Is the fellow then so dangerous to meet?
In highways and in byways, street by street,
I’ll seek him out, I vow it on God’s bones.
Now listen, fellows: let us three be one,
Each of us hold his hand up to the other,
And each of us become the other’s brother,
And we will kill this black betrayer, Death,
And kill the killer, by God’s holy breath,
And that before the sun goes down on us!”

Which statement best describes how the speaker in the excerpt is characterized?

He is impassioned and persuasive.
Read the excerpt from The Canterbury Tales.

In Flanders there was once a company
Of youngsters wedded to such sin and folly
As gaming, dicing, brothels, and taverns,
Where, night and day, with harps, lutes, and citherns,
They spend their time in dicing and in dancing,
Eating and drinking more than they can carry;
And with these abominable excesses
They offer up the vilest sacrifices . . .

Which word best characterizes the young people in this passage?

immoral
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Read the excerpt from The Canterbury Tales.

Thus I know how to preach against the vice
Which masters me—and that is avarice.
Though I myself am guilty of the sin,
I know how to make other people turn
From avarice, and bitterly repent.

Which word best characterizes the Pardoner in this passage?

hypocritical
Which statements are examples of characterization? Check all that apply.
“I don’t think your joke is funny,” she huffed, glowering at her friend.
The tardy bell rang, but he sauntered to class unconcerned.
She waited patiently as she carefully adjusted the telescope.
Read the excerpt from The Pardoner’s Tale in The Canterbury Tales.

And it fell to the youngest of them all,
And he set off at once towards the town.
And thereupon, so soon as he was gone,
One of the two who stayed said to the other:
“You know, of course, that you are my sworn brother.
I’ll tell you something that you won’t lose by.
As you can see, our friend has gone away,
And here is gold, and that in greatest plenty,
All waiting to be split between us three.
How would it be, if I can work it so
That it is only shared between us two,
Wouldn’t I be doing you a friendly turn?”

How does Chaucer characterize the young man speaking in this passage?

as deceitful
Read the excerpt from The Canterbury Tales.

I only preach of avarice and the like,
And in this way induce them to be free
In giving cash—especially to me.
Because my only interest is in gain;
I’ve none whatever in rebuking sin.

How does the excerpt satirize the Church?

by exaggerating the greedy nature of the clergy
Which descriptions portray a chivalric hero? Check all that apply.
one who risks his life to protect his lord
one who fulfills a promise to the queen
one who upholds strict moral values
Read the excerpt from Sir Gawain and the Green Knight.

They went on staring at the knight for some time,

Everyone wondering what it might mean

For a man and a horse to acquire such a color,

As green as the grass grows, and greener still, it seemed,

The green enamel glowing brighter on the gold.

All of them standing there stared and crept closer to him

With all the wonder in the world, to see what he would do.

For they had seen many marvels but never any like this,

So they all thought it might be a phantom or trick of magic,

So that many of the noble knights were afraid to answer,

And all were struck by his voice and stayed stone still,

And there was a silence like death through the great hall.

Not a sound rose out of them, as though they had

all fallen asleep.

Which textual evidence best supports the conclusion that the knights are intimidated by the visitor?

So that many of the noble knights were afraid to answer,
And all were struck by his voice and stayed stone still
Read the excerpt from Sir Gawain and the Green Knight.

“By God,” the Green Knight said, “I am glad

That I shall have from your hand what I asked for here,

And that you have repeated fully, in your own words,

The whole of the covenant I asked of the King:

Only now you must swear to me, upon your word,

That you will expect, for yourself, wherever you manage

To find me on earth, to be repaid in kind

For what you accord me today before this high company.”

Which statement best describes th

The Green Knight insists on Gawain’s moral obligation in their agreement.
Read the excerpt from Sir Gawain and the Green Knight.

When they had washed well, they went to sit at the table,

The most famous knights nearest the top, as was proper,

And Guenever, in high spirits, was seated in the middle of them,

In the arrangement of the famous table, with them arrayed around her,

Fine silk, furthermore, in a canopy over her,

Of Toulouse red, and many Tharsian tapestries

Embroidered and set with the finest of jewels

That would have cost a great deal if someone had tried

to buy them.

The most beautiful there was the Queen,

Flashing her gray eye.

No one had ever seen

Anyone lovelier in his day.

Based on the excerpt, what conclusion can readers draw about Guenever?

She is held in high esteem.
Read the passage.

Though the community center buzzed with excitement, Jose moved his queen forward on the chess board with a steady hand. He eyed the row of his opponent’s captured pieces, and recognized his advantage. He said, “Check.”

Across the table, his opponent wiped his brow, his eyes darting around the board. When he spotted an escape route, he exhaled in relief as he moved his king. Seconds ticked by as Jose assessed the board. His eyebrows raised almost imperceptibly, and a sly smile tugged at the corners of his mouth. Then Jose selected his move.

What conclusion can readers draw about Jose?

He expects to win his chess match.
Which of the following is the best definition of chivalry?
the behavior and conduct expected of medieval knights
Read the excerpt from Sir Gawain and the Green Knight.

“No, I tell you in good faith, it is not a fight I have come for.

These are nothing but beardless boys around this bench.

If I were buckled in armor on a big horse,

There is no man here strong enough to be worth riding against.

And so in this court I call for a Christmas game . . .”

What chivalric value does the Green Knight display in the excerpt?

the morality of fair play
Which characteristics were part of the medieval code of chivalry? Check all that apply.
loyalty
morality
faithfulness
Which statement best describes knights in the Middle Ages?
Knights were professional warriors who helped nobles protect their land.
Read the excerpt from Utopia.

In their great council at Amaurot, to which there are three sent from every town once a year, they examine what towns abound in provisions and what are under any scarcity, that so the one may be furnished from the other; and this is done freely, without any sort of exchange; for, according to their plenty or scarcity, they supply or are supplied from one another, so that indeed the whole island is, as it were, one family.

The central idea of this excerpt is that Utopians make a regular effort to care for those in need.

Which detail best supports this central idea?

Towns with an abundance provide for those with less.
A text’s central ideas are always
supported by key details.
When writing a critique, a reader first finds the central idea and supporting details, then
states a position on the central idea.
Read the excerpt from Utopia.

But after the ambassadors had stayed a day among them, and saw so vast a quantity of gold in their houses (which was as much despised by them as it was esteemed in other nations), and beheld more gold and silver in the chains and fetters of one slave than all their ornaments amounted to, their plumes fell, and they were ashamed of all that glory for which they had formed valued themselves, and accordingly laid it aside . . .

This detail supports the central idea that riches are not important to Utopians. It is best described as a(n)

anecdote.
Read the excerpt from Utopia.

The Utopians wonder how any man should be so much taken with the glaring doubtful lustre of a jewel or a stone, that can look up to a star or to the sun himself; or how any should value himself because his cloth is made of a finer thread; for, how fine soever that thread may be, it was once no better than the fleece of a sheep, and that sheep, was a sheep still, for all its wearing it. They wonder much to hear that gold, which in itself is so useless a thing, should be everywhere so much esteemed that even man, for whom it was made, and by whom it has its value, should yet be thought of less value than this metal . . .

What is the central idea of this excerpt?

Utopians are surprised by the great value placed on jewels, cloth, and gold.
Read the excerpt from Utopia.

They find pearls on their coasts, and diamonds and carbuncles on their rocks; they do not look after them, but, if they find them by chance, they polish them, and with them they adorn their children, who are delighted with them . . .

This excerpt is most likely More’s reaction to his society’s

greed.
Which line from Utopia is an example of an analogy?
They supply or are supplied from one another, so that indeed the whole island is, as it were, one family.
Read the excerpt from Utopia.

The folly of men has enhanced the value of gold and silver because of their scarcity; whereas, on the contrary, it is their opinion that Nature, as an indulgent parent, has freely given us all the best things in great abundance, such as water and earth, but has laid up and hid from us the things that are vain and useless.

Which historical fact will best help readers understand this excerpt?

Explorers during this period went to the New World in search of scarce resources.
Which topics would be helpful to consider when generating ideas for an essay on sixteenth-century journeys to the New World? Check all that apply.
shipbuilding
early discoveries
famous explorers
Caring for the environment will be one of the most important features of my perfect society. Citizens will be encouraged to reduce waste in many ways. ________, restaurants will offer cloth napkins and reusable utensils instead of paper and plastic.

Which transition creates the most cohesion between the sentences?

For example
A student is using this table to generate ideas for an essay on a perfect world.

Which pair of words are most likely to be included in the values column?

Generosity, Fairness
When this diagram is used to plan an essay, the blue box represents the
introduction.
In a perfect society, educators would be highly valued.

Which detail best supports this idea?

Teachers would be admired and well paid.
A thesis statement states the topic of discussion and is found in an essay’s
opening paragraph.
Which list shows the correct way to structure a body paragraph in an essay?
topic sentence, supporting details, concluding statement
Wouldn’t it be nice to live in a place with no crime, no pollution, and no health problems?

This sentence

hooks readers in the introduction paragraph of an essay.
Historical context helps readers understand a text by providing
background information.
To generate an idea means
to produce an idea
Read the excerpt from Sir Gawain and the Green Knight.

“But as you are my uncle whom I live to praise

And your blood is the sole virtue in my body,

And since this affair is so foolish, it does not befit you.

I have asked this of you first, and beg you to grant it,

And if my request is improper, I ask this great court

not to blame me.”

All the court began whispering

And all thought the same:

Relieve the crowned King

And let Gawain have the game.

Which chivalric values does Gawain display in the excerpt? Check all that apply.

loyalty to his king
bravery despite danger
moral integrity
Which statements describe the Middle Ages? Check all that apply.
The Christian Church was a powerful institution.
A feudal system of government ruled the land.
Men of nobility, such as dukes and barons, controlled areas of land.
Knights helped nobles protect their land and their subjects.
Central idea: People in Utopia care about the common good.

Which statement provides a critique of the central idea?

Slavery shows that not everyone in Utopia is treated equally.
Characterization is the way an author
develops personalities through thoughts, words, and actions.
The purpose of an essay’s introduction is to
hook readers and state thesis
Read the excerpt from Sir Gawain and the Green Knight.

When the King and his knights came into the hall,

The chanting in the chapel had come to an end

And a loud cry went up from the clerics and the others

Proclaiming Noel once more, calling out the word again,

And then the nobles ran and got the gifts ready . . .

What element of medieval court culture is evident in the excerpt?

the importance of Christian practices
Read the excerpt from Sir Gawain and the Green Knight.

The men charged in tournaments again and again,

Noble knights jousting in high spirits;

Then they rode to the court and danced to carols,

And the feast went on like that a full fifteen days,

With all the food and entertainment anyone could imagine.

The laughter and merrymaking were a glory to hear . . .

Based on the excerpt, what conclusion can readers draw about the knights?

They celebrate festively.
Read the excerpt from The Canterbury Tales.

“But, sirs, it is not courteous of you
To speak so roughly to an old man, who
Has not offended you by word or deed.
It’s there in Holy Writ for you to read:
“Thou shalt rise up before the hoary head
Of an old man”—and therefore do no harm,
I warn you, to an old man while you’re young,
Any more than you’d like to have it done
To you in old age, should you live so long.
Now God be with you! I go where I must go.”

How is the old man is characterized in this excerpt?

as a sage counselor reproving the youth
Read the excerpt from The Canterbury Tales.

Dear brethren, God forgive you your trespass,
And keep you from the sin of avarice;
My holy pardon here can save you all,
And will, so long as you make offerings
Of gold and silver coin, spoons, brooches, rings—
Bow down your heads before this holy bull!
Come, ladies, make an offering of your wool!
I’ll put your name down on my prayer-roll,
And you shall enter to the bliss of heaven

Which statement best describes the satire in the excerpt?

Chaucer criticizes the notion that divine forgiveness depends on giving money.
Which terms are transition words that are used to introduce an example?
specifically, such as
Topic sentence: In my personal utopia, society would place great importance on nutrition and healthy habits.

Which details would help develop the topic sentence? Check all that apply.

Fresh fruits and vegetables would be sold at affordable prices.
Time would be set aside each morning for an hour of exercise.
I have found that getting plenty of sleep helps me in my schoolwork.
Which statements describe the Middle Ages? Check all that apply.
It was a period of time between 500 and 1500 CE.
The Pope was the leader of the church.
The majority of people participated in church activities.
A rising middle class was challenging class distinctions.
Read the excerpt from Utopia.

If these metals were laid up in any tower in the kingdom it would raise a jealousy of the Prince and Senate, and give birth to that foolish mistrust into which the people are apt to fall—a jealousy of their intending to sacrifice the interest of the public to their own private advantage. If they should work it into vessels, or any sort of plate, they fear that the people might grow too fond of it, and so be unwilling to let the plate be run down, if a war made it necessary, to employ it in paying their soldiers. To prevent all these inconveniences they have fallen upon an expedient which, as it agrees with their other policy, so is it very different from ours, and will scarce gain belief among us who value gold so much, and lay it up so carefully. They eat and drink out of vessels of earth or glass, which make an agreeable appearance, though formed of brittle materials; while they make their chamber-pots and close-stools of gold and silver, and that not only in their public halls but in their private houses. Of the same metals they likewise make chains and fetters for their slaves, to some of which, as a badge of infamy, they hang an earring of gold, and make others wear a chain or a coronet of the same metal . . .

What is the central idea of this excerpt?

Gold and silver are not valued in Utopia.
Read the excerpt from The Canterbury Tales.

“To start with, I declare where I’ve come from,
And then produce my certificates, one by one;
My licence with the seal of our lord bishop
Which I show first—that’s to protect myself
So that nobody, whether priest or cleric,
Dares interdict me from Christ’s holy work.”

What feature of medieval life is reflected in the excerpt?

the acceptance of the church’s authority
What is a relic?
a holy object associated with a saint
Read the excerpt from The Canterbury Tales.

For I’ll have money, wool, and cheese, and wheat,
Though given by the poorest serving-lad,
Or by the poorest widow in the place,
Were all her children dying of famine,
No, no! I’ll drink the ichor of the vine,
And have a pretty girl in every town.
But hear me out now, gentlemen . . .

Which statement best describes the satire in the excerpt?

NOT The Pardoner’s excessive drinking underscores the need for moderation.
NOT The Pardoner’s poverty suggests that the Church is too stingy.
Read the excerpt from The Canterbury Tales.

“God’s arms!” exclaimed one of these debauchees,
“Is the fellow then so dangerous to meet?
In highways and in byways, street by street,
I’ll seek him out, I vow it on God’s bones.
Now listen, fellows: let us three be one,
Each of us hold his hand up to the other,
And each of us become the other’s brother,
And we will kill this black betrayer, Death,
And kill the killer, by God’s holy breath,
And that before the sun goes down on us!”

Which statement best describes how the speaker in the excerpt is characterized?

He is impassioned and persuasive.
Satire is an author’s use of
humor to criticize human folly.
Read the excerpt from The Canterbury Tales.

“Think what a safeguard it must be for you
That I, who can absolve both high and low
When soul from body is about to go,
Should chance to fall in with your company!
Let me suggest that our host here begin,
Since he’s the one who’s most wrapped up in sin.
Step forward, Mister Host—your offering first,
And you can kiss the relics, every one!
All for a penny! Out now with your purse!”

Which statement best describes the satire in the excerpt?

NOT Chaucer highlights the need for confession before death.
NOT Chaucer highlights the sinful indulgences of the church leaders.
Read the excerpt from The Pardoner’s Tale in The Canterbury Tales.

And it fell to the youngest of them all,
And he set off at once towards the town.
And thereupon, so soon as he was gone,
One of the two who stayed said to the other:
“You know, of course, that you are my sworn brother.
I’ll tell you something that you won’t lose by.
As you can see, our friend has gone away,
And here is gold, and that in greatest plenty,
All waiting to be split between us three.
How would it be, if I can work it so
That it is only shared between us two,
Wouldn’t I be doing you a friendly turn?”

How does Chauc

as deceitful

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