English Conjunctions

Conjunctions A conjunction is a word which joins two sentences to complete their meaning. There are two kinds of conjunctions: 1. Co-ordinating Conjunctions: When the conjunction is used to join two statements of equal importance, the conjunction is said to be a co-ordinating conjunction. Examples : and, but, or, not, for, either, neither 2. Subordinating Conjunctions: When the conjunction joins two statements, one of which depends on the other for its full meaning, the conjunction is said to be a subordinating conjunction.

Examples : before, after, since, because, if, though, which, who A conjunction is a joiner, a word that connects (conjoins) parts of a sentence. There seem to be three basic types of conjunctions. They are: coordinating conjunctions used to connect two independent clauses, subordinating conjunctions used to establish the relationship between the dependent clause and the rest of the sentence, and correlative conjunctions which always travel in pairs, joining various sentence elements that should be treated as grammatically equal. COORDINATING CONJUNCTIONS

Coordinating conjunctions may join single words, or they may join groups of words, but they must always join similar elements: e. g. subject+subject, verb phrase+verb phrase, sentence+sentence. The seven coordinating conjunctions in English are: FOR – is to introduce the reason for the preceding clause AND – joins two similar ideas together NOR – The conjunction nor is not extinct, but it is not used nearly as often as the other conjunctions. Its most common use is as the little brother in the correlative pair, neither-nor BUT – joins two contrasting ideas together

OR – joins two alternative ideas YET – is very similar to ‘but’ as it also joins two contrasting ideas together SO – shows that the second idea is the result of the first An easy way to remember these six conjunctions is to think of the word FANBOYS. Each of the letters in this somewhat unlikely word is the first letter of one of the coordinating conjunctions. Among the coordinating conjunctions, the most common, of course, are AND, BUT and OR. SUBORDINATING CONJUNCTIONS A subordinating conjunction is a word which joins together a dependent clause and an independent clause.

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There are numerous subordinating conjunctions. The more commonly used ones are listed below. For a more comprehensive list see http://webster. commnet. edu/grammar/conjunctions. htm#nor BECAUSE, AS, SINCE – are used to introduce the cause in a cause effect relationship between two ideas SO – introduces an effect in a cause effect relationship between two ideas ALTHOUGH, (even) THOUGH, WHEREAS, WHILE – are used to express contrast between ideas AFTER – is used to show time

Although documentation of the developmental order of the remaining subordinate conjunctions is missing, the best guess scenario would be: BECAUSE and SINCE, as they also introduce the cause in a cause-effect relationship SO would likely seem to follow as it introduces the effect in a cause-effect relationship ALTHOUGH, (even) THOUGH, WHEREAS, WHILE may follow next as they express the contrast between ideas AFTER which expresses time concepts COrrelative CONJUNCTIONS Some conjunctions combine with other words to form what are called correlative conjunctions.

They always travel in pairs, joining various sentence elements that should be treated as grammatically equal. Here is a brief list of common correlative conjunctions. both . . . andnot only . . . but alsonot . . . buteither . . . orneither . . . norwhether . . . oras . . . as| Types of Conjunctions A conjunction is a word that links words, phrases, or clauses. There are three types of conjunctions: coordinating conjunctions, correlative conjunctions, and subordinating conjunctions.

Coordinating Conjunctions may join single words, or they may join groups of words, but they must always join similar elements such as subject+subject, verb phrase+verb phrase, or sentence+sentence. When a coordinating conjunction is used to join elements, the element becomes a compound element. Examples: and, but, or, yet, for, nor, so Correlative Conjunctions also connect sentence elements of the same kind, however, unlike coordinating conjunctions, correlative conjunctions are always used in pairs. Examples: both – and not only – but also not – but ither – or neither – nor whether – or as – as Subordinating Conjunctions: These are the largest class of conjunctions. They connect subordinate clauses to a main clause. They are adverbs used as conjunctions. Examples: Time: after, before, since, when, while, until Reason: because, since, so that, why Place: where, wherever Condition: if, unless, until, in case Manner: as if, as though, how When we write, we use conjunctions to “connect words, phrases, and clauses, showing the relationship between and among them,”  as Scharton  and Neuleib describe (2001, p. 96). There are four types of conjunctions that writers can use. Let’s review each type as a way to reflect on the different kinds of relationships that conjunctions can be used to reveal. Coordinating Conjunctions Coordinating conjunctions should used when the elements have an equal relationship. Examples of coordinating conjunctions include for, and, nor, but, or, yet, and so. Ex. Hall does not deny that the early colonists were overwhelmingly Christian, but he does recognize that not everyone practiced his or her eligion with the same zeal and fervor that is generally assumed in Puritan communities. Note that with this type of conjunction, you are connecting two sentences (making a compound sentence). In order to prevent this compound sentence from being a run-on sentence, a comma must precede the coordinating conjunction. Correlative Conjunctions Correlative conjunctions are used in pairs and also connect equal elements. Examples of correlative conjunctions include either…or, whether…or, not only…but also, both…and, andneither…nor. Ex.

It is another interesting phenomenon of history that any conflict within post-World War II Germany, whether between the two Germanys or between two sets of Germans, often resulted in one side’s claiming that the other used had fascist tactics. Subordinating Conjunctions Subordinating conjunctions are used to show the relationship of the subordinate clause (a group of related words that contains a subject and predicate but cannot stand alone) to the rest of the sentence. Examples of subordinating conjunctions include while, after, until, when, where, before, if, that, unless, because, although, though, and whether.

Ex. Sherry walked to school this morning because her car battery was dead. Conjunctive Adverbs While they are not true conjunctions, conjunctive adverbs often function as conjunctions. They don’t show relationships within a sentence, but rather show the relationship between two independent clauses (a complete sentence, or a group of related words that contain a subject, a predicate, and can stand alone). Examples of conjunctive adverbs include also, consequently, furthermore, however, indeed, instead, meanwhile, moreover, nonetheless, similarly, therefore, thus, besides, next, specifically, and subsequently.

Ex. A first glance at his bibliography gives the appearance that the work may rely somewhat heavily on secondary source material; however, a number of primary sources are also used, and it should be noted that the publication dates of the secondary source material range throughout the span of the study. Note that two complete sentences are connected. Therefore, a semicolon is needed. The semicolon shows that the two sentences are closely related and that the writer wants the two sentences to stay linked in the writer’s mind, while showing where one sentence ends and the next one begins.

Notice also that a comma follows the conjunctive adverb. Test Your Knowledge| | Check your understanding by correcting the following sentences. Hint: Use the structure of the sentence as a guide to the relationship. Choose a conjunction or conjunctive adverb accordingly. 1. ___________ most of the work is a quantitative study proving the educational lag of Mexican American children, Carter’s work also pays significant attention to educational history. 2.

Changes in party emphasis allowed for increasing segments of workers to join; however, dissent with Stalin’s policies was less tolerated; ___________ , many of these policies, particularly those of Stalin, were ambiguous due to the secretiveness and suspicion within the inner ranks. 3. At this time the existence of the relationship between science and religion produced a group of thinkers called Deists who believed that no knowledge could be held of a creator except his existence as necessary for natural law, _________ as in any group of theological thinkers, there were differences in perspectives on what this meant. . One provision allowed for the sale of public lands belonging to the perpetual school fund, the proceeds of which would _________ go directly to the public school fund ________ be distributed among the counties. Answers: 1. While most of the work is a quantitative study proving the educational lag of Mexican American children, Carter’s work also pays significant attention to educational history. The first part of this sentence is subordinate to the second part. Therefore, a subordinating conjunction would be used.

Others that could work in this context would be though and although. 2. Changes in party emphasis allowed for increasing segments of workers to join; however, dissent with Stalin’s policies was less tolerated; furthermore, many of these policies, particularly those of Stalin, were ambiguous due to the secretiveness and suspicion within the inner ranks. Here the second sentence serves as an addition to another sentence, so a conjunctive adverb is needed. Because it is an addition, further and furthermore are the best options. . At this time the existence of the relationship between science and religion produced a group of thinkers called Deists who believed that no knowledge could be held of a creator except his existence as necessary for natural law, but like any group of theological thinkers, there were differences in perspectives on what this meant. This sentence calls for a coordinating conjunction. Either of these sentences could work independent of each other. The word but works best here because it shows contrast. 4.

One provision allowed for the sale of public lands belonging to the perpetual school fund, the proceeds of which would either go directly to the public school fund or be distributed among the counties. Here the two blanks should have been the clue that a correlative conjunctions was required. They are the only ones used in pairs. | | What are conjunctions? Sure, they’re joining words, but they’re much more than that. Conjunctions are the words that decide the importance of the various other words in the sentence. Coordinating conjunctions, subordinating conjunctions, and correlative conjunctions each have their own purpose. * Definition

Conjunctions are words that link other words, phrases, or clauses. There are three types of conjunctions: coordinating conjunctions, subordinating conjunctions, and correlative conjunctions. * Coordinating Conjunctions Coordinating conjunctions connect two words or groups of words with similar values. In other words, coordinating conjunctions may connect two words, two phrases, two independent clauses, or two dependent clauses. For example, in each of the following sentences, the coordinating conjunction “and” connects equal words or groups of words: Connects two words: John and Reggie stayed up all night practicing their guitars.

Connects two phrases: The squirrel scurried up the tree trunk and onto a low branch. Connects two clauses: Several managers sat with their backs to us, and I could almost hear them snickering at us lowly workers. Connect with Classrooms www. ePals. com/Join Easily Connect with classrooms all over the world, Join ePals today! Ads by Google There are only seven coordinating conjunctions in the English language, and they are often remembered by using the acronym “FANBOYS”: for, and, nor, but, or, yet, and so. * Subordinating Conjunctions Subordinating conjunctions connect two groups of words by making one into a subordinating clause.

The subordinating clause acts as one huge adverb, answering the questions “when” or “why” about the main clause, or imposing conditions or opposition on it. Here are some examples of subordinating conjunctions changing a clause into adverbial subordinating clauses in different ways: * I can go shopping after I finish studying for my exam. (when) * Because the night was young, Gertrude decided to take a walk. (why) * I’ll give you a dime if you give me a dollar. (condition) * Although he never figured out why, Hanna winked on her way out the door. (opposition) Note: The subordinating conjunction does not lways come between the two clauses it connects. Often, it comes at the beginning of the first clause. * Correlative Conjunctions Correlative conjunctions are always used in pairs. They are similar to coordinating conjunctions because they join sentence elements that are similar in importance. The following are some examples of coordinating conjunctions: Both, and: Both Rodney and Xing made the varsity team this year. Neither, nor: Neither Rodney nor Xing made the varsity team this year. Not only, but also: Not only did Rodney make the varsity team, but he also become one of the strongest players.

Remember these three types of conjunctions – coordinate conjunctions, subordinate conjunctions, and correlative conjunctions – and you’ve got one part of speech down pat. A conjunction connects two or more sentences, clauses, or parts of clauses. Some of the most common conjunctions in English are and,because, but, for, nor, so, until, when, and yet. The two main types of conjunctions are coordinating conjunctions and subordinating conjunctions. There are also correlative conjunctions, copulative conjunctions, adversative conjunctions, disjunctive conjunctions, and final conjunctions. ————————————————-

Coordinating conjunctions A coordinating conjunction is a conjunction that links two words, phrases, clauses, or sentences that are grammatically equivalent. The six words most commonly used as coordinating conjunctions can be remembered with the mnemonic device FANBOYS—for, and, nor, but, or, yet, so. Let’s look at a few examples: We have a porcupine and a kangaroo. [And links two listed elements that are grammatically equivalent. ] You see yet do not hear. [Yet links two grammatically equivalent actions (see anddo not hear) performed by you. ] We bathed the dog, but we couldn’t get him clean. But links two independent clauses. ] Coordinating correlative conjunctions Some correlative conjunctions (see below for full definition) can function as joint coordinating conjunctions. For example, neither and nor in this sentence introduce grammatically equal elements, so they work together as coordinating conjunctions: Neither Joe nor John has any idea what he’s talking about. Coordinating conjunctions and commas For coordinating conjunctions, comma use depends on the nature of the linked elements. If a coordinating conjunction joins two independent clauses, it usually should be preceded by a comma (e. g. We bathed the dog, but we couldn’t get him clean). If a coordinating conjunction links two listed elements, it doesn’t need a comma (e. g. , We have a porcupine and a kangaroo). ————————————————- Subordinating conjunctions A subordinating conjunction is a conjunction that links a dependent clause (also known as a subordinate clause) to an independent clause—for example: The city recommends everyone stay inside because the winds could be dangerous. In this sentence, because links a dependent clause (because the winds could be dangerous) to the main clause (The city recommends everyone stay inside).

We know this is subordinating because because the winds could be dangerous could not normally stand alone as a sentence. Here are some of the most common subordinating conjunctions: after albeit although as because before except if once since| that though unless until when whenever where whether while| Some phrases also function as subordinating conjunctions. Here are some of the most common ones: as if as far as as long as as well as even if even though| that inasmuch as in order to in order that so that such that| ————————————————- Other types Adversative conjunctions

Adversative conjunctions (sometimes known as contrasting conjunctions) are coordinating conjunctions used to express comparisons or contrasts. The element introduced by the adversative conjunction usually qualifies or expresses a caveat with regard to the main clause of the sentence. The most common adversative clauses are but and yet, but still, however, albeit, although, and others are also sometimes adversative. Let’s look at a few examples of adversative conjunctions: He’s a shy but loving little boy. [Naples News] Here, the phrase but loving creates a contrast to what is expected from the adjective shy.

It is a living part of my spiritual life, yet I don’t know if one would call me a religious artist. [Houston Chronicle] In this sentence, the independent clause introduced by yet adds information to qualify what was expressed in the main clause. This technology, although not a foolproof way to monitor abusers, might give victims advance warning that danger is approaching. [Hartford Courant] And in this sentence, the conjunction although introduces information in contrast to the main clause. Correlative conjunctions Correlative conjunctions are two or more conjunctions used to link structurally identical parts of a sentence.

Here are the most common pairs of correlative conjunctions: either–or| both–and| neither–nor| not only–but also| if–then| whether–or| Elements linked by correlative conjunctions must have parallel grammatical construction. For example, this is technically incorrect (the conjunctions are underlined): You’re either going to love his work or hate it. [Thousand Oaks Acorn] For such a construction to be correct, what follows either and what follows or must be syntactically equivalent. A diagram of this example sentence would look like, [Subject] either [auxiliary verb phrase] [verb] [object] or [verb] [object]. ”?

The segment following either has an element (the auxiliary verb phrase going to) that the segment following or doesn’t have, so the two segments are not parallel. There are two possibilities for correcting this sentence: You’re going to either love his work or hate it. Either you’re going to love his work, or you’re going to hate it. With sentences this short, correlative conjunctions are usually easy to use correctly. But using more complicated constructions involving correlatives such as not only–but also and if –thencan be tricker. Here’s another technically flawed use of correlative conjunctions: TTL Inc. s a socially responsible company that is not only known for innovations in engineering but also for its widespread support of education. [UA News] Here, the verb known should precede not only, as the phrase following but also has no parallel verb. From the same article, here’s an example of correct correlative conjunction use: TTL’s passion for advanced education is seen not only in the hours dedicated to volunteering and guest lecturing, but also through endowed scholarships for prospective engineers at The University of Alabama. Commas and correlative conjunctions . Use no comma when the parallel segments are in the same clause—for example: It was either really stupid or really brave. Our diversity is not only a challenge but also a gift. b. Use a comma when the two parallel phrases are in separate clauses—for example: If there’s a truly monumental disaster, then appoint the two last presidents to lend a hand. [WSJ] c. But even when two correlative conjunctions are in the same clause, it’s often acceptable to insert a comma before the second conjunction either to create a natural-sounding pause, or to prevent confusion.

Copulative conjunctions Copulative conjunctions (also known as additive conjunctions) are coordinating conjunctions used to denote addition. The conjunction indicates that the second word, phrase, clause, or sentence contains an additional fact that is related to the earlier word, phrase, clause, or sentence. Some of the most common copulative conjunctions are and, also, as well as, moreover, no less, and plus. Some copulative conjunctions may be used to start sentences—for example: My kangaroo can sing. And she’s not too bad. Moreover, she won a Grammy last year.

Plus, she’s a pretty good dancer. In the last two sentences, moreover and plus come close to becoming adverbs modifying the main verbs of their sentences (won and the contracted is). Such adverbial copulative conjunctions should be set off by commas. And does not need to be set apart. And is the only copulative conjunction that can be used to introduce a second independent clause within a sentence—for example: We ate lunch, and we took a nap. Using any other copulative conjunction in place of and would turn this into a run-on sentence. Disjunctive conjunctions

Disjunctive conjunctions are conjunctions used to separate two or more mutually exclusive options presented in a sentence. When a disjunctive conjunction is used, it usually indicates either that only one of the elements joined by the conjunctions is true, or that none of the elements are true. The conjunctions most commonly used disjunctively are but, either, else, neither, nor, or, other, and otherwise. Some disjunctive conjunctions are coordinating conjunctions—for example, the either and the or in this sentence: Poetry is usually either cheap or free.

Here, either and or indicate that poetry is usually one or the other (cheap or free) but not both. Disjunctive pronouns separate these options. Other disjunctive conjunctions don’t need to be coordinated. For example, the or in this sentence functions on its own: I might use papier-ma? che, or I might use some kind of wood. The or separates two options, only one of which can be true. And in this sentence, the neither and the nor are used to indicate that neither option is true: Neither he nor his lawyer could be reached for comment. Final conjunctions

Final conjunctions (also known as illative conjunctions) are coordinating conjunctions used to introduce clauses or phrases that draw inferences or conclusions from earlier ones. Some of the most common final conjunctions (some of which are phrases) are as a consequence, consequently, for, hence, so, so that, so then, thus, and therefore. Some final conjunctions introduce phrases within sentences. For example, this sentence has two: In turn, this causes other asset prices to fall in those nations, thus worsening their banking systems, and hence leading to credit contraction and capital flight. NY Times] The phrase introduced by hence draws an inference from the phrase introduced by thus, which in turn draws an inference from the main clause. Some final conjunctions introduce clauses within sentences—for example: Equalize the tax laws so that employer-provided health insurance and individually owned health insurance have the same tax benefits. [Wall Street Journal] Here, the clause introduced by so that infers what will occur should the action proposed in the imperative-mood main clause come to pass.

A final conjunction may also be used to start a sentence that draws a conclusion from the preceding sentence—for example: Good writing is always about clarity and insight, precision and accuracy. Therefore, this confusing name calls into question the very quality of the writing instruction that will be given in the new department. [Inside Higher Ed] The second sentence, introduced by the final conjunction therefore, draws a conclusion from the first sentence. And here’s one more example: Our current system provides individuals with little market power in the urchase of health insurance. As a result, they typically pay exorbitant premiums. [The New Republic] Here, the sentence beginning with as a result shows what the conditions described in the first sentence lead to. OUTLINE 1. Introduction (neu d? nh nghia, vai tro c? a conjunction trong cau, trong l? i noi hang ngay. Cho vi d? ) 2. Types of conjunction 3. 1. Coordinating conjunction a. Definition b. List of coordinating conjunction c. Exercise 3. 2. Subordinating conjunction a. Definition b. List of subordinating conjunction . Exercise 3. 3. Correlative conjunction a. Definition b. List of correlative conjunction c. Exercise Note: * ph? n Definiton neu d? nh nghia, function c? a cac lo? i conjunction nay trong cau * Ph? n List of… neu cac lo? i conjunction, cho vi d? , phan tich vi d? , trinh bay v? luu y khi s? d? ng d? u ph? y trong cau khi dung lo? i conjunction nay) * Ph? n exercise neu it nh? t la 10 cau, phan tich vi sao lai dung conjunction do, phan tich function c? a conjunction trong cau) 3. Conclusion (

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