English review

John Bunyan
Pilgrim’s Progress
Robert Browning
“My Last Duchess”
Charles Dickens (2)
Great Expectations, Oliver Twist
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Geoffrey Chaucer (4)
Canterbury Tales, hous of fame, troilus and criseyde, chaucer’s book of the duchesse
John Milton
Paradise Lost
Gerald Manley Hopkins
“God’s Grandeur”
George Gordon, Lord Byron
Don Juan
Samuel Coleridge (3)
Kubla Khan, christabel, the rime of the ancient mariner
John Keats
“When I have fears”
William Wordsworth
“Tintern Abbey”
Samuel Johnson
Rasselas
William Shakespeare
Hamlet
Alfred, Lord Tennyson
“Crossing the Bar”
Jonathan Swift
Gulliver’s Travels
pun
a play on words that sound alike but have different meanings
personification
giving human qualities to something not human
allusion
reference to something well known
soliloquy
an actor’s speech while he is alone on stage
imagery
an appeal to the reader’s physical senses
alliteration
repetition of initial consonant sounds
metaphor
an indirect comparison
first step in the development of english drama
church plays
considered a transition between morality plays and Elizabethan plays
interludes
performed on a pageant
mystery plays
performed in innyards
morality plays
performed in a theater
Elizabethan plays
purpose was to dramatize salvation history
mystery plays
a dramatized allegory
morality plays
impetuous and showy
Laertes
emotionally balanced
Horatio
character speaks to himself while alone
soliloquy
builds suspense as hero gains control
rising action
portrays stages in hero’s downfall
falling action
reveals background information
exposition
provides relaxation and heightens the plot’s seriousness
comic relief
early theories of language origins
“bow wow,” “pooh-pooh,” “yo-he-ho”
framework of a short story
plot
main idea of a paragraph
topic sentence
connectors between sentences
transitional devices
sentence completers
complements
repetition of vowel sounds that are followed by different consonants
assonance
time, place, culture in a story
setting
conversation between characters in a story
dialogue
relating of actions and incidents in a story
narration
two or more unrelated thoughts
run-on sentence
Describe the “Bow wow” theory
first words were imitations of animal cries and other natural sounds
Describe the “Pooh-Pooh” theory
first words were exclamations of emotion and later became connected with the object or situation that caused for exclamation of emotion
Describe the “Yo-he-ho” theory
Began with the rhythmic chants of people working together or with the gestures and songs of children at play
Two legends about the origin of language
God and Veracocha
precent participles end in…
ing
past participles end in…
d, ed, or t
gerund is a…
verb ending in ing
infinitive is…
the word to followed by a verb
a fragment sentence is a…
group of words lacking a subject or verb
a dangling modifier is a…
has no logical word to modify
vague words…
have unclear meanings
trite expressions…
uncreative and overly used
slang words are…
too informal
stilted words are…
too scholarly
description in a story is probably more economical if
interspersed with ideas that advance the plot
technique is the way in which the writer (2)
describes character and moves the plot forward
four kinds of point-of-view in a story are
omniscient, personal, dramatic, and limited omniscient
omniscient point of view…
allows you to see the thoughts of all the characters
limited omniscient point of view…
allows you to see the thoughts of only one character
dramatic point of view…
does not allow you any thoughts of any characters
personal point of view…
tells the story from first person, as the character
a poem is a series of images that create a
word picture
a poet uses the common sound patterns of meter and
rhyme
a form of poetry that neither rhyme nor meter is
free verse
meter and rhyme must be suited to the to the poem’s
content, theme, and tone
T/F: structural grammer was developed because people believed traditional grammar did not accurately describe English grammar.
true
T/F: traditional grammar is based on the french language.
false
T/F: structural grammer defines a sentence and parts of speech.
false
T/F: transformational grammar attempts to find rules that, if applied, would create all possible grammatical sentences.
true
T/F: exceptions to the rules of traditional grammar seldom occur.
false
T/F: Latin is the basis of all languages.
false
T/F: according to the Bible, God spoke to the beings He created.
true
T/F: in fiction the reactions of people to other people and events are more important than than the events themselves.
true
T/F: english developed from a germanic language.
true
T/F: an outline is not essential to good writing.
false
T/F: traditional grammar is based on the latin language.
true
T/F: semantics is the scientific study of creative grammars.
false
T/F: poetry and short stories are examples of expository writing.
false
T/F: the purpose and the audience are important considerations for the writer of an expository essay.
true
T/F: a topic sentence helps supports the main idea of a paragraph.
false
a well-written paragraph should be both
unified and coherent
every sentence must contain a (2)
subject and predicate
to alleviate choppiness in sentences, a writer will use (2)
phrases and clauses
a person will read faster and with better comprehension of he _____ instead of reading word for word.
sees
Three kinds of grammar that are studied today are
traditional, structural, and transformational
Three examples of figurative language are
simile, metaphor, personification
the most common sound patterns in poetry are (2)
rhyme and meter
T/F: the topic sentence of a paragraph is a general statement that summarizes the contents of a paragraph.
true
T/F: Shelley’s life was contrary to the ideas he explored in his poetry.
false
T/F: the pearly is a fifteenth-century elegy containing a dream vision.
falsed
T/F: the climax of hamlet is ophelia’s death.
false
T/F: all sonnets have fourteen lines.
true
T/F: shakespeare was born in London in 1564.
false
T/F: the main support for a critics opinion should be detailed evidence from the text.
true
T/F: the first step in writing a critical essay is to be very familiar with the text.
true
T/F: the philosophy of romanticism was a concern for the rights and dignity of the individual.
true
the mysterious early period of English history has been revealed primarily through recently discovered (3)
manuscripts, drawings, and artifacts
by the year 700 B.C. England was held by
Celts
England was invaded in 52 B.C. by the ______, who were followed after A.D. 450 by the three German tribes…
Romans…Angles, Saxons, and Jutes
missionaries were sent by Pope Gregory in the year
A.D. 597
The Ecclesiastical History of the English Nation was written by the ______________, who is considered the father of english history.
venerable bede
an english king and scholar, ______________, established the anglo-saxon chronicle.
alfred the great
anglo-saxon england came to an end in the year _____ with the _______.
1066, normans
pertaining to a formal poem; a meditation upon a serious subject
elegiac
a relationship between a leader and his retainers
comitatus
the repetition of the initial sounds in two or more words of a line of poetry
alliteration
the basic unit of meter in anglo-saxon poetry
half-line
scop
poet
hlaford
lord
wyrd
fate
a long narrative poem; national in scope, heroic in character and action
epic
double comparison or metaphors
kennings
What is “Widsith”?
an elegy about a traveling stop or minstrel, probably on of the oldest poems in english
what is the message of “Wanderer”?
life is short, seek God for forgiveness
What is the theme of the “Seafarer”?
man lives only for things of this world
What does “The Ruin” describe?
poet fragment describing the remains of a roman city built in England
What is a Gnome?
short saying, a proverb
Wiglaf of Beowulf
the only loyal soldier that remained with Beowulf
Wealtheow of beowulf
queen of denmark
grendel of beowulf
monster
hrothgar of beowulf
king of denmark
heorot of beowulf
the meadhall
T/F: the domesday book recorded the names of traitors to be executed.
false
T/F: the normans took over most of the english land and set up their own forms of language and government.
true
T/F: edward the confessor was the “holy blissful martyr.”
false
T/F: feudalism is a social and economic system of the high middle ages.
false
T/F: richard the lion-hearted is remembered for signing the magna carta.
false
T/F: a demesne is the best land of the manor, tended by peasants for their lord.
true
T/F: stability and meaning was provided to the common man by the church.
true
T/F: by the beginning of the middle ages, the middle class had become the dominant force.
false
describe the language of the medieval England.
it was a blend of french, german, latin, and old english which all blended together into regional languages that also led to more dominant language
what is meant by ballad stanza?
usually four lines of iambic pentameter, first and third have four accented syllables, second and fourth have three but rhyme
six types of subjects about which ballads may be written
romantic, supernatural, tragic, humorous, adventurous, historical
an outgrowth of the feudal system, provided by knights with a code of honor, loyalty, bravery, and courtesy
chivalry
elaborate love tradition
courtly love
teaches lessons by sermons, poems, and rules
didactic
fourteenth-century works (3)
sir gawain and the green knight, the pearl, the vision of william concerning piers the plowman
the greatest of the early english writers was
chaucer
the canterbury tales is actually a collection of _____ within an external ________
tales, framework
five groups of pilgrims included by chaucer are….
chivalric or military, clergy, middle class, humble christians, rascals
what is chanticleer’s weakness?
his pride
wrote about the poet’s power to immortalize beauty and love
william shakespeare
Sir philip sidney
astrophel and stella
wrote in archaic language
edmund spencer
edmund spencer
amoretti
wrote religious sonnets
john donne
three types of sonnets are the
petrarchan, shakespearean, and spenserian
all sonnets have ________ lines; the rhythm pattern of all sonnets is called _____________.
14, iambic pentameter
The rhyme scheme of the octave of a petrarchan (Italian) sonnet is…
abba/abba
The rhyme scheme of a spenserian sonnet is…
abab/bcbc/cdcd
three prose forms written during the reigns of elizabeth and james II
translations, essays, novellas
dramatized the history of salvation
mystery plays
instructed people in the liturgy
church plays
dramatized the lives of saints
miracle plays
performed in cycles on pageants
mystery plays
intended to emphasize amusement rather than instruction
interludes
personified abstract virtues
morality plays
Put these plays in chronological order… mystery, elizabethan, church, morality, and interludes
church plays, mystery plays, interludes, morality plays, elizabethan plays
T/F: the elizabethan stage is famous for its elaborate scenery.
false
T/F: most elizabethan drama productions begin at sunset.
false
T/F: elizabethan drama had no actresses.
true
T/F: elizabethan costuming was frequently inconsistent with the historical setting of a play.
true
T/F: an elizabethan theater is almost identical to a modern-day american theater.
false
T/F: the globe was the first english playhouse.
false
T/F: elizabethan actors did not enjoy favorable reputations.
true
T/F: shakespeare was born in London.
false
T/F: shakespeare was both an actor and a playwright.
true
T/F: shakespeare’s english in closer to medieval english than modern english.
false
provides background information and introduces setting and characters
exposition
builds suspense as the hero encounters conflicts and gains control over his opponent
rising action
the turning point of the play; the hero loses his control to the opposing force
climax
portrays various stages in the hero’s downfall
falling action
the conclusion that presents the final disaster
catastrophe
another word for catastrophe
denouement
the incident that starts the conflict, or struggle, between two opposing interests.
exciting force
the event that closely follows the climax and starts the falling action
tragic force
the final disaster of a tragedy is
inevitable
the purposed of tragedy is to _____ the audience
calm
T/F: analysis is determining what the writer says
false
T/F: the greatest support for a critic’s opinion depends on evidence from text
true
T/F: evaluation is determining the worth of the literary work
true
T/F: the first step in writing a critical essay is to select the topic
false
T/F: the main support for a critic’s opinion should be detailed evidence from the text.
true
T/F: all elizabethan sonneteers used the same rhyme schemes.
false
T/F: poetry and short stories are examples of creative writing.
true
T/F: tragedy is intended to be depressing.
false
T/F: the crusades stimulated trade, banking, the growth of cities, and the rise of the middle class.
true
T/F: the pearl is a fourteenth-centruy elegy containing a dream vision.
true
the least like poetry in form, sound, and purpose, is the
parable
letters of the alphabet are used to indicate
the rhyme scheme of a sonnet
the approach to criticism that determines what the writer said is
interpretation
the character hamlet who is best characterized as shrewd and concerned about outward appearances is…
polonius
hamlet’s tragic flaw is…
his inability to make and act on decisions
sir frances bacon was an elizabethan…
essayist
the elizabethan stage was characterized by the presence of…
costumes
chancre’s holy blissful martyr was…
thomas a becket
the monster slain by beowulf was…
grendel
all sonnets have the same number of lines; that number is…
14
the rhythm pattern of a sonnet is called…
iambic pentameter
an elizabethan sonneteer, other than shakespeare, who wrote love sonnets is…
sidney
the name of the theater with which shakespeare is usually associated with is…
the globe
the father of english history is…
bede
middle english dialect used by chaucer was the _________ dialect used in London.
southeast midland
five different groups of people who have influenced anglo-saxon england are…
normans, romans, danes, celts, germans
the telling of actions and incidents in a story is called…
narration
what event resulted in great and economical changes?
the beginning of the industrial revolution
what event indicates that a different type of reading public was emerging?
when periodicals started coming out
in 1660 when john milton was arrested, fined, and imprisoned for his role in cromwell’s government, who was king?
charles II
when the puritan john bunyan was jailed in 1660, what was happening to many puritans?
laws were acting against them
why did the tory jonathan swift lose his political position at court in 1714?
all tories were dismissed as the whigs became more powerful
when oliver goldsmith complained join his poem the deserted village that greedy traders and landowners were destroying the rural poor, what had happened to the british empire?
it had expanded and gotten stronger to include canada and india
the poet of the victorian era was
elizabeth barrett browning
the victorian era contrasted (2)
prosperity and poverty
the first serious work of the romantic movement was a collection of poems called…
rime of the ancient mariner by samuel coleridge
poetry that has no rhyme or definite rhythm is…
blank verse
the rhyme scheme used by shelley in which first and third lines rhyme and the final sound of the second line establishes the rhyme for the first and third lines of the following stanza is called…
terza rime
what two events sparked the romantic revolution?
french revolution, industrial revolution
the five characteristics of romantic poetry…
nature, supernatural, simplicity, personal experience, individual dignity
what prompted the philosophical revolution as a basis for romanticism?
political and economical changes in england
what was the first serious publication as a result of the romantic revolution?
the lyrical ballads by william wordsworth and samuel taylor coleridge
T/F: before 1807 wordsworth wrote most of the romantic poetry for which he is famous.
true
T/F: the five “Lucy” poems are about wordsworth’s sister.
false
T/F: “My heart leaps up” is written in the educated language of the English aristocracy.
false
T/F: “tintern abbey” tells of wordsworth’s thoughts when he returns to the wye valley in wales.
true
in addition to his career as a poet, coleridge was also a noted… (3)
critic, essayist, playwright
coleridge presented his theories of poetry in a book called
biographia literia
the subject matter in coleridge’s best known works is
supernatural
three byronic poems
don juan, childe harold’s pilgrimage, the destruction of sennacherib
T/F: keats tried to achieve emotional restraint and imaginative discipline in his poetry.
true
T/F: keat’s poetry reflects his dogomatic views on society’s ills
false
T/F: “when i have fears” is quite personal because it speaks of death, and keats suspected his own death was near.
true
T/F: “ode on a grecian urn” talks of society’s preoccupation with trivial things.
false
T/F: keats poetry is often a celebration of beauty.
true
scientific theories of the victorian era caused confusion for the people and they came to believe (3)…
to live in doubt, to reject science completely, or to abandon their faith completely
the poor had little power because…
they were not allowed to vote
four women writers of the victorian era were…
elizabeth barrett, mary ann evans, emily bronte, and charlotte bronte
william make peace thackeray differed from charles dickens in the subjects of his novel because thackeray wrote…
about the advantage of the middle class, he tried to expose the inequalities and hypocrisies of society
T/F: tennyson’s poetry is best characterized by his ambivalence.
true
T/F: tennyson wrote “break, break, break” in anticipation of his own death.
false
T/F: tennyson’s works reflect a concern with the function of art.
true
T/F: In “crossing the bar,” tennyson compares he soul’s journey toward god to a ship’s voyage.
true
T/F: the bar in “crossing the bar” refers to a violent storm that might stop the ship’s journey to open waters
false
browning was criticized for self-worship by a critic names…
john stuart mill
the criticism occurred because browning had modeled his poetry after…
shelley
browning abandoned his former poetic style in favor of a new style called the…
dramatic monologue
browning’s poetry and character development reveal his brilliant insights into human (2)…
character and motivation
“Pippa Passes” is an unusual poetic form known as the…
poetic drama
T/F: elizabeth barrett’s poetry often advocated changes in child labor, slavery, and the unequal status of women.
true
T/F: “sonnets from the portuguese” is a collection of forty-four sonnets about italy’s social ills.
false
T/F: robert browning shared his wife’s poems with the world.
true
T/F: elizabeth barrett suffered from an unknown disease.
false
T/F: elizabeth barrett’s fame did not depend on her husband, robbert browning.
true
hopkins was to always considered a victorian poet because
his poems were not published during the victorian period
hopkins poetry id primarily _________ in theme.
religious
the rhythm hopkins uses in “God’s Grandeur” is called…
sprung rhythm
hopkins believed that the rhythm more closely resembled…
actual speech
the theme of “God’s Grandeur” is…
his concern for the glory of God contrasted by the failure of people to a knowledge it
T/F: the philosophy of romanticism was a concern for the rights and dignity of the individual
true
T/F: wordsworth and coleridge were similar in their personalities and poetic styles
false
T/F: bunion’s writing was formed by his experience in reading the Bible.
true
T/F: jonathan swift wrote for the causes of england
false
T/F: the english language is based on greek
false
T/F: “don juan” comments upon the hypocrisies and pretensions of the world.
true
the exciting force of hamlet is…
the ghost’s first appearance to hamlet
the climax of hamlet is…
hamlets passing up his best opportunity to kill claudius
in his poetry, kets attempted to …
achieve emotional restraint and imaginative discipline
the victorian era presented a contrast between…
prosperity and poverty
the personal error or character weakness that causes the hero’s downfall in a tragedy is called…
tragic flaw
john milton’s paradise lost…
explores the mysteries of heaven and hell
gulliver’s travels is a satirein which the houyhnhnms…
cause gulliver to hate himself and other humans
english drama had its origins in _____ plays.
church
poetry differs from prose in its (2)…
form and rhythm
robert browning’s poeti style is called…
dramatic monologue
the scientific study of words used to determine meaning is called…
semantics
why is pilgrim’s progress considered a christian work?
a person’s journey through life to heaven
what was a frequent theme in anglo-saxon literature, such as the “wanderer” or the “seafarer”?
life is transitory, passing. things of the world are not as important as things of God
why is an outline essential to any type of writing?
it is an organizing structure that helps the writer to see his material, his organization. serves as a guide to logical, concise writing.
beginning
advent
a story in which people, things, and events, represent abstract ideas or moral values
allegory
out of proper historical time
anachronistic
belonging to an earlier period; antiquated
archaic
a mockery of exaggerated literary imitation
burlesque
in the germanic system, the relationship between a leader and his retainer or a king and his lord
comitatus
helpful; tending to
conducive
pertaining to a formal poem; a meditation on a serious subject, usually on death
elegiac
to heighten; to intensify
enhance
a long narrative poem, national in scope, heroic in action and character
epic
an anonymous song passed on through the oral tradition; several four-line stanzas written in iambic pentameter
folk ballad
to give lasting fame to something or someone, especially through art forms
immortalize
to force; to inflict
impose
a conflict in which the opposing force is character himself; opposite of “external conflict” in which the opposing force exists outside the character
internal conflict
a double metaphor, usually hyphenated. example “swan-road” for sea
kenning
forms of ritual or public worship
liturgy
type of religious order that taught and ministered to the poor
mendicant
a forerunner of the novel; short prose story
novella
concisely full of meaning
pithy
shrewd; doing what is best for oneself
politic
to put forth; to assert
pose
to be victorious; to triumph
prevail
continuous series
sequence
subtle
artful
theorize
to speculate
using the language of one’s native country
vernacular

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