Enhance Jobseekers Level Of Employability Education Essay

Enhance Jobseekers Level Of Employability Education Essay

The intent of this survey is to find the extent to which the Employment and Training Corporations preparation programmes enhance jobseekers degree of employability. The thesis is divided into chapters to supply: a reappraisal of related academic literature, an overview of the methodological analysis, a presentation of the findings, and a decision drawn from the survey. The appendices contains paperss used during the research procedure such as the inquiries used for treatment, the questionnaire, the superior lists and rating sheet, the moralss blessing signifier, the engagement letters and consent signifiers and a list of ETC preparation programmes for mention.

In this thesis, there were two cardinal countries which needed to be tackled ; the acquisition procedure and employability. Therefore each nucleus subdivision is structured to give consideration to these issues. The first chapter provides an overview of the Maltese labor market and of the services offered by Malta ‘s public employment and preparation corporation, the ETC. The purpose and intent for this survey will besides have in this chapter.

1.1 The Maltese Labour Force

Malta is a little island with a little population. Though “ aˆ¦ the population of Malta has about doubled, from 211,564 in 1911 to 416,055 in 2011aˆ¦ ” ( NSO,2012a ) . Harmonizing to the ETC ( 2011: 12 ) , at the terminal of August 2011 there were 149,751 gainfully employed persons on full-time footing with an addition of 2,551 when compared to August 2010. Therefore despite the unfavorable economic alterations, Malta registered an addition in the figure of individuals in employment ( ETC, 2011:12 ) . Last July, the Times of Malta ( 2012 ) announced an addition of 180 in the figure of registered unemployed in Malta and a lessening by 26 in Gozo.

Besides it is interesting to observe that every bit presented by the NSO ( 2012b ) , this twelvemonth in Malta the rate of employment among females increased by 3 per centum points whilst there was a little lessening of 1 per centum point among males. This activity rate indicates that there was a strong betterment in the labour market public presentation amongst females. Whereas the chief part of males was in the 55 and older age brackets bespeaking an ageing labour force and the consequence of the addition in the retirement the ETC ( 2011: 7 ) . In add-on there was a lessening in the employment rate for young persons ( ETC, 2011: 7 ) . The ETC claims that this may be attributed to occupation hunt and economic alterations which may be making some troubles for immature jobseekers ( 2011: 7 ) .

Furthermore the ETC besides keeps records of the little and average sized endeavors that make up the Maltese industry. The private sector is the major sector in fact “ The private sector represented 72.6 % of entire full-time employment, which increased by 1.8 % between August 2010 and August 2011 ” ( ETC, 2011: 12 ) . Tourism and related services are considered as cardinal employers in Malta. Harmonizing to the Institute of Tourism Studies ( 2012: 7 ) ; “ Tourism is inseparable from the Maltese economic model ” and it is portion of the Maltese civilization.

1.1.1 European Targets

The undermentioned two sub-sections will exemplify the European and National marks with respects to instruction and employment. As stated by the European Commission ( EC ) ( 2012 ) , a figure of employment schemes were implemented by the EU such as the ‘Europe 2020 ‘ for economic growing and increasing employment across the Union. Harmonizing to the EC ( 2012 ) , by 2020 the EU must make the undermentioned marks with respects to instruction and employment ;

75 % of the population between the ages 20 and 64 must be employed ;

early school departers must be reduced to be under 10 % and ;

at least 40 % of those between ages 30 and 34 must hold pursued higher instruction.

1.1.2 National Targets

The local authorities enterprises can be found in Malta ‘s first National Reform Programme which contains 27 different steps aimed at guaranting that Malta reaches the Europe 2020 marks ( MFIN, 2012 ) . The marks were developed on Malta ‘s demands to advance growing and occupations and as:

“ Government believes that a timely and effectual bringing of the proclaimed policy steps in the first NRP under the Europe 2020 Strategy is a requirement for driving frontward economic reclamation every bit good as beef uping Malta ‘s fight ” ( MFIN, 2012: 19 ) .

Furthermore the marks set for the European Union ( EU ) , related to employment and preparation in Malta are outlined below:

Puting the employment mark rate at 62.9 % by 2020.

Reducing the rate of early school departers to 29 % by 2020 and ;

Escalating the figure of those that completed third instruction from 30 boulder clay 34 old ages old to 33 % by 2020 ( MFIN, 2012: 75 ) .

Despite the addition in the rate of employment in Malta from 58.2 per cent in 2000 to 62.0 per cent, it is still below the EU-27 norm, 71.4 per cent ( MFIN, 2012: 4 ) .

1.2 The Employment and Training Corporation

In Malta, the employment information is gathered by the ETC which maintains a national computerised database of employees and jobseekers to place and react to labor and skill deficits ( ETC, 2011 ) . In add-on the ETC ( 2010e ) offers general and specific preparation to registered unemployed jobseekers and to individuals in employment who wish to heighten their cognition, competences and accomplishments. More specifically, ETC aspires in:

“ Enhancing employability by urging policies and implementing enterprises aimed at authorising, helping and developing jobseekers to ease their entry or re-entry into the active employment market, advancing work force development through accomplishments and competence development, and by helping employers in their enlisting and preparation demands ” ( ETC, 2010a ) .

1.2.1 ETC Employability Programmes

The corporation is besides actively involved in the development of a figure of employment steps such as:

The ‘Occupational Guidance ‘ where occupation searchers are assisted by ETC employment advisers to place their occupational penchants and are referred to allow preparation programmes organised by ETC or by other administrations ( ETC, 2010b: 6 ) .

The ‘Personal Action Plan ‘ which takes topographic point when a individual goes to the ETC to register on portion 1[ 1 ]of the unemployment registry for the first clip and is allocated an employment adviser ( ETC, 2010b: 6 ) .

The ‘Supported Service for Persons with Disability ‘ and ‘Bridging the Gap ‘ which mark registered handicapped individuals and individuals in deprived state of affairss by offering them all the support needed for them to happen employment ( ETC, 2010c ) .

The ‘Community Work Scheme ‘ which aids the long-run unemployed[ 2 ]addition work experience and to heighten their accomplishments ( ETC, 2011: 17 ) .

The ‘Work Trial Scheme ‘ ( WTS ) which was launched in 2009 and is good as it provides a 13 hebdomad on-the-job preparation for the disadva ntaged groups ( ETC, 2010b: 19 ) .

The ‘Employment Aid Programme ‘ ( EAP ) which besides helps disadvantaged groups by aiming those with no work experience, or who have been unemployed for a long period ( ETC, 2011: 21 )[ 3 ].

The ‘Employment in the Social Economy ‘ which AIDSs disadvantaged and handicapped individuals in happening employment with non-commercial administrations ( ETC, 2010d ) .

1.2.2 ETC Training Programmes

In add-on to its services, the Corporation operates a figure of developing programmes and strategies to ease the integrating of jobseekers in the labour market:

The ‘Training Aid Framework ‘ ( TAF ) which offers direct subsidies of the cost of developing to heighten cognition and accomplishments of the employees in the private sector ( ETC, 2010b: 22 ) .

The ‘Apprenticeship schemes ‘ to develop childs to get the accomplishments needed in the labor market and to fix them for employment ( ETC, 2010b: 19 ) .

The ETC ( 2010 ) besides offers preparation classs which range from direction and development classs to basic accomplishments and trade classs ( Appendix I ) .

1.2.3 Political and Legislative Aspects

Furthermore the ETC is affected by a figure of political and legislative issues modulating employment in Malta and its authorization derives from the Employment and Training Services Act ( 1990 ) ( PricewaterhouseCoopers, 2010: 1 ) . The Social Security Act besides affects ETC ‘s enrollment services, because a jobseeker must be seeking work to be entitled to societal benefits ( PricewaterhouseCoopers, 2010: 20 ) . Whereas the ETC ‘s employment licenses subdivision is governed in portion by the Immigration Act ( PricewaterhouseCoopers, 2010: 2 ) . The ETC is besides indirectly affected by the Employment and Industrial Relations Act and the Conditions of Employment ( Regulation Act ) which regulate employment ( PricewaterhouseCoopers, 2010: 1 ) .

1.3 Research Purpose

Additionally this survey will concentrate on Malta ‘s public employment bureau, the ETC in order to pull up a series of recommendations towards its preparation methods. This job was chosen as a scheme towards the type of acquisition and preparation needed to turn to the development of jobseekers that are willing to get new accomplishments. Therefore this survey seeks to lend to academic thought by foregrounding the importance of larning and development and by advancing employability.

The extent to which the ETC preparation programmes enhance employability will be examined through a post-positivist attack and a mixed-methodology. In fact through the usage of focal point groups and semi-structured interviews, the research worker will derive the positions of both jobseekers and employers towards the ETC preparation programmes. The supply side will besides be taken into consideration through a concluding semi-structured interview with the Chief Executive Officer ( CEO ) of ETC.

Furthermore the research worker chose to research this cardinal research job after detecting jobseekers ‘ behavior during assorted developing programmes at ETC, which is the research worker ‘s workplace. Besides the ETC has presently conducted a telephone study among persons ( registrants and non-registrants ) to happen out the ground why many of the appliers did non turn up for the preparation programmes recommended to them in the last twelvemonth therefore the survey is seasonably with the current events.

Subsequently the thesis will seek to reply the research job by trying three research inquiries:

What are the features of jobseekers seeking clerical businesss?

What are the employers ‘ outlooks when seeking prospective recruits for vacant clerical stations?

What are perceptual experiences of registering jobseekers and employers towards ETC developing programmes?

These research inquiries will help the research worker in placing the employability degree of jobseekers and if there is a spread between jobseekers ‘ accomplishments and capablenesss and employers ‘ demands and outlooks. Furthermore the survey ‘s purpose and aims will help the ETC better its preparation programmes.

Chapter 2

2.0 Literature Review

While carry oning the reappraisal, there was a important sum of literature which was relevant to the cardinal countries explored in this survey. The challenge was to place the writers that contributed in the most important manner to the survey. The organic structure of the literature is classified into two countries: acquisition and employability.

2.1 Learning, Education, Training and Development

Hodkinson ( 2005: 110 ) argues that larning can be understood from different theoretical places such as acquisition by take parting in activities and acquisition by building one ‘s ain apprehension. Hodkinson ( 2005: 116 ) portrays larning as being loosely similar in different contexts and it can be general or specific. While Jarvis ( 2010: 17 ) explicates that as society is altering so is the context in which we learn. Fragroso et Al. ( 2011 ) contribute to this argument by exemplifying development and grownup acquisition in Europe. The writers claim that the current economic alterations should be considered as an chance to larn at a local and planetary degree ( Fragroso et al. , 2011: 42 ) .

While transporting out the literature reappraisal, the research worker noticed that many writers differentiate formal acquisition from informal larning. Indeed Van Dam ( 2012: 49 ) provinces that formal acquisition is curriculum based and can develop an person ‘s competencies. Whereas Engestrom ( 2004 ) considers informal direction ideal in a workplace to guarantee that ends and marks are met. The work of Engestrom is supported by Boud and Middleton as it describes informal acquisition as another acquisition option. Boud and Middleton ( 2003: 195 ) portray informal acquisition as “ portion of the occupation ” or a mechanism for “ making the occupation decently ” .

“ Although acquisition is by and large perceived as a manner to better employees ‘ current occupation public presentation, so far no research has been conducted to research the possible relationships between formal and informal acquisition, on the one manus, and employability, on the other ” ( Van der Heijden et al. , 2009: 19 ) .

Van der Heijden et Al. ( 2009: 19 ) chose to research the consequence of larning on employability by administering an e-questionnaire amongst 215 Dutch non-academic university pupils. The work of Van der Heijden et Al. ( 2009 ) , demonstrates the demand of supplying more formal preparation chances to employees as practical acquisition is non plenty to heighten their degree of employability. Additionally the relevancy of Van der Heijden ‘s work will be discussed in the findings of the survey.

Education and preparation are besides important in the acquisition and development procedure. In fact “ Education is the longer-term procedure that is to make with the rounded formation of the whole person ” ( Harrison, 2002: 4 ) . Durkehim ( 2004 ) defines instruction as the cognition gained officially from experiences. While preparation has been defined by Armstrong ( 2006: 535 ) as “ The systematic development of the cognition, accomplishments and attitudes required by an single to execute adequately a given undertaking or occupation ” .

Additionally a societal experiment was conducted by Rosholm and Skipper ( 2009 ) , to find whether schoolroom preparation is good to the unemployed. In this experiment, the findings indicate that preparation may increase the clip spent in unemployment for an person who has merely completed the preparation programme ( Rosholm and Skipper, 2009: 361 ) . However this hazard is for a short term as in the long tally, preparation does heighten an person ‘s employability ( Rosholm and Skipper 2009 ) . Rosholm and Skipper ( 2009 ) insist that farther research should be done to verify if higher rewards are so offered to the trained individual.

Apart from analyzing developing demands, this survey will besides mensurate the effectivity of the ETC preparation programmes in developing jobseekers ‘ potencies. Harmonizing to Baum ( 1995 ) ‘development ‘ can take topographic point at any clip and there is non a definite manner of how it occurs. Additionally Garavan ( 2007: 27 ) argues that larning and development are cardinal to ease the development of a learning civilization. The work of Garavan ( 2007 ) is of import for this survey as it demonstrates that development focuses less on larning outcome as possibly preparation does and is more on heightening employability.

Antonacopoulou ( 2000: 260 ) argue that in order to understand the relationships between acquisition, instruction, preparation and development there is a demand to understand these procedures at different degrees of the hierarchy ; at an person and organizational degree. Antonacopoulou ( 2000: 260 ) claim that the holographic position can assist heighten the apprehension of the nature of acquisition, instruction, preparation and development in society ( Illustration 2-1 ) .

Illustration 2-1: The relationships between acquisition, instruction, preparation and development

Beginning: Antonacopoulou ( 2000: 260 )

2.1.1 The Learning Process

In this thesis, the acquisition procedure is considered cardinal for heightening persons ‘ potencies. The acquisition procedure and the different acquisition manners adopted by jobseekers will be observed through the research methods adopted. David Kolb claims that “ acquisition is the procedure whereby cognition is created through the transmutation of experience ” ( Kolb, 1984: 38 ) . Harmonizing to Kolb ( 1984 ) the learning rhythm starts from experience, the development phase and so the decision-making portion ( Illustration 2-2 ) .

Illustration 2- 2: The Experiential Cycle of Learning ( based on Kolb, Rubin and McIntyre, 1974 )

Concrete experience

( Planned or accidental )

Brooding observation

( Actively believing about the experience, its basic issues, and their significance )

Active experimentation

( Trying out the acquisition in other similar state of affairss: creativeness, decision-making )

Abstract Conceptualisation

( Generalizing from contemplations, analyzing, in order to develop a organic structure of thoughts, a theory or principlesaˆ¦ )

Beginning: Harrison, R. ( 2002: 8 )

In add-on Chan ( 2012: 406 ) tested Kolb ‘s theory by carry oning an experiential undertaking to detect pupils ‘ larning procedure. Through the findings, Chan ( 2012: 405 ) affirms that Kolb ‘s larning procedure produces a assortment of larning results. Chan ( 2012 ) supports Kolb ‘s theory as it allows the scholar to reflect, pattern and act in a cyclic procedure.

“ Experiential acquisition can be defined as the development of personal apprehension and accomplishments through the analysis of, and contemplation on, activity ”

( Moody, 2012: 16 ) .

In a survey conducted by Moody ( 2012 ) , even employers are confident that experiential larning delivers consequences.

Furthermore Kolb ( 1976 ) identifies four acquisition manners which can be adopted by different sorts of scholars:

The Activists- Learning through practise

The Reflectors- Learning through observation and judgment

The Theorists- Learning through enterprises affecting new thoughts, constructs and constructions

Experimenters- Learning by proving theories.

A learning manner is the ability of an single to obtain information in a peculiar manner or combination of ways ( Zapalska and Brozik, 2006 ) . Research on larning manner started in the late 19th century and it was documented that there were different manners adopted amongst scholars ( Zapalska and Brozik, 2006: 326 ) . Harmonizing to Rogers ( 2002: 111 ) we tend to utilize all acquisition manners but we prefer to utilize one or two more than the others.

Illustration 2- 3: Learning manners based on larning rhythm





Beginning: ( Rogers, 2002:110 )

2.1.2 Diversity of Ways of Learning

Furthermore Rogers ( 2002: 88 ) explores four types of larning theories: those that focus on the scholar, on the context, on the undertaking undertaken and on the procedure involved. Learner-based theories include the behavioristic theories and the cognitive theories ( Rogers, 2002 ) . Harman and Brelade ( 2000: 14 ) , posit that the behaviorist theories enhance an person ‘s motive to larn by acknowledgment or honoring the person when marks and ends are met, by making activities to look frontward to and by offering all the support needed. Additionally Burns ( 2002: 114 ) describes behaviorism as the “ comparatively lasting alteration in behavior ” .

Skinner ‘s work is besides of import within the context of this survey as it contributes to the apprehension of the acquisition procedure by external influences. Indeed Skinner illustrates the importance of positive and negative supports during acquisition ( 1978 ) . Skinner ( 1978 ) encourages uninterrupted support on behalf of the trainer as it increases the rate of larning whilst intermittent support retains what is being learned in an appropriate context.

Furthermore in a survey conducted by Fuller and Unwin ( 2005 ) , the workers are seen keener to larn if the preparation concerned is relevant to their day-to-day undertakings and if it helps them better and work more efficaciously. Harmonizing to Fuller and Unwin ( 2005: 22 ) , there are two types of larning that new entrants experience when in a work environment ‘learning as attainment ‘ and ‘learning as engagement ‘ . ‘Learning as attainment ‘ involves all the preparation chances offered by the administration to heighten the new recruits ‘ accomplishments and cognition whereas ‘learning as engagement ‘ is the apprehension of larning to work in a societal environment ( Fuller and Unwin, 2005 ) .

Harmonizing to Rogers ( 2002 ) other larning theories are built on the analysis of one ‘s personality and on the scholar ‘s actions. Besides Rogers ( 2002 ) argues that there is diverseness of ways of acquisition and there is no consensus about larning. In this thesis, acquisition is considered cardinal in heightening jobseekers ‘ potencies and employability.

2.1.3 Analyzing preparation demands

In add-on acquisition and public presentation happen during the transportation of preparation ( Vermeulen and Admiraal, 2009: 65 ) . Harmonizing to Vermeulen and Admiraal ( 2009: 52 ) , developing refers to the planned and organised learning while transportation is the application of what is learnt in different contexts. The analysis of developing transportation will assist place jobseekers ‘ specific larning manner.

Zapalska and Brozik ( 2006: 237 ) argue that there are many techniques the trainer can utilize to place a learning manner and the first measure is to execute a preparation demand analysis. A preparation demand analysis provides a benchmark of the accomplishments trainees possess prior being submitted to a preparation programme and will increase the effectivity of preparation ( Blanchard and Thacker, 2003: 116 ) . Blanchard and Thacker ( 2003:116 ) imply that “ A preparation demand analysis is of import because it helps to find whether a lack can be corrected through preparation ” .

2.1.4 Design, Development and Delivery of Training Programmes

Subsequently in order to implement an effectual preparation programme, Vincent and Ross ( 2001: 37 ) suggest the undermentioned stairss:

Planing including choice of trainers ;

Planing and developing the preparation programme ;

Implementing with the usage of presentations and interactions and ;

Measuring and following-up productiveness and betterments.

Similarly Ghosh et Al. ( 2012 ) imply that the choice of the trainer is the first and first of import component when be aftering a preparation programme. The trainer must possess cognition on the topic of the programme:

“ However, mere ownership of cognition is non sufficient ; the trainer must be articulate plenty to make out to the participants with the constructs being covered in a programme ” ( Ghosh et al. , 2012: 198 ) .

In order to implement an effectual preparation programme, the trainer should see the acquisition theories prior the design of the preparation programme ( Vincent and Ross, 2001: 37 ) .

Additionally Werquin ( 2012 ) argues that cognition of larning results is cardinal during the class ‘s design and it is indispensable for the labor market and for employers. “ The construct of larning results is at the bosom of many research programmes and policy responses ” ( Werquin, 2012: 159 ) . Learning results focus non merely on the content of the preparation programme but besides on the aims and what the scholar is expected to accomplish at the terminal of the class ( Werquin, 2012: 159 ) .

“ Training research has typically found inconsistent relationships between trainees reactions to the existent preparation event ( besides normally referred to as developing satisfaction ) and larning results ” ( Orvis et al. , 2009: 960 ) .

A related issue is present in the findings of an experimental survey conducted by Orvis et Al. ( 2009 ) which investigates the acquisition procedure in an e-learning environment. The consequences suggest that farther research is needed on how to prosecute scholars for case by including learner control tools in the preparation programmes ( Orvis et al. , 2009: 969 ) . In fact Long et al. ( 2011 ) claim that games are an extra effectual method which trainers can utilize to excite acquisition and buttocks.

Besides Dwyer ( 2004: 82 ) suggests that the ambiance and environment in which larning takes topographic point affects the sum of acquisition and the perceptual experience of scholar. This can be illustrated in a instance survey conducted by Hodkinson and Hodkinson ( 2004 ) , where the trainers ‘ temperaments and relationships with workers are seen holding an of import consequence on the acquisition procedure. Besides harmonizing to Arends ( 2009 ) trainers can change their lessons through formal or informal activities.

It is interesting to observe that the development phase is the most clip consuming as “ All elements of a peculiar preparation programme are determined during the development stage ” ( Blanchard and Thacker, 2003: 23 ) . Harmonizing to Blanchard and Thacker ( 2003 ) once the preparation stuff is ready, pilot-testing can be performed during the execution stage and some minor alterations can be made in the developed content.

2.1.5 Evaluation of Training Programmes

Following execution there is the rating stage which involves informal and formal observation, and the usage of treatments or questionnaires to roll up feedback from the scholar ( Dwyer, 2004 ) . Likewise Scruggs and Mastropieri ( 2010: 222 ) argue that rating can take topographic point in a assortment of signifiers such as on a one-to-one footing, whole-class activity or written.

The rating stage is critical to the success of a preparation programme ( Wang and Wilcox, 2006: 532 ) . In an article by Wang and Wilcox ( 2006: 529 ) , the rating procedure is classified into two classs:

formative rating which provides information for the design of the preparation programme and ;

summational rating which is more focussed on larning results and benefits.

Tennant et Al. ( 2002: 234 ) claim that there are a figure of theoretical accounts for mensurating the effectivity of a preparation programme such as the Kirkpatrick theoretical account which measures the alteration in accomplishments as a consequence of preparation and the CIRO theoretical account which measures the alteration in accomplishments prior and after preparation.

Furthermore when developing an evaluating methodological analysis, one must take into consideration the group concerned and in obtaining consensus from participants prior the rating procedure ( Dwyer, 2004 ) . Lee and Pershing ( 2002: 176 ) besides emphasise on the demand of analyzing the participants ‘ reactions to the preparation programme. In a survey conducted by Lee and Pershing ( 2002 ) , it was concluded that a well-designed preparation programmes occurs when there is a proper design standards.

2.1.6 The ETC Training Programmes

The primary aim of this survey is to mensurate the effectivity of the ETC preparation programmes. Article 16 of the Employment and Training Services Act ( 1990 ) , states that the Corporation shall supply developing programmes to help persons in happening employment or to better or update their cognition and accomplishments to increase occupation chances and calling aspirations. Furthermore the ETC ( 2010b ) purposes to expect future labour market needs to prolong or construct persons ‘ employability.

The ETC ( 2011: 14 ) declares that the current preparation programmes are funded by the Employability Programme which is a constituent of the European Social Fund 2.4 and are unfastened to both unemployed registrants and to use or inactive individuals ( Appendix I ) . Besides the ETC ( 2010g ) procures and provides the preparation equipment, the installations, and the clerical and administrative support to trainers. An of import constituent which was losing by the ETC is the Training Programmes Design and Quality Assurance Unit. This unit has been set to re-design and develop new ETC preparation programmes and is working for the acknowledgment of the preparation programmes sought from the Malta Qualification Council ( ETC, 2010f ) .

It is interesting to observe that in 2011, “ The entire figure of participants in ETC preparation classs was of 15,072 hence there was a 10 % addition on the old twelvemonth ” ( ETC, 2011: 9 ) . In 2011 there was besides an addition of 27 % in female engagement in ETC preparation classs ( ETC, 2011:9 ) . However this twelvemonth a telephone study was conducted by the Research and Development Unit at the ETC, to analyze why about two tierces of persons using for Office Skills, IT, Trade, Technical and Care Worker developing programmes did non turn up on the day of the month scheduled ( R & A ; D, 2012: 2 ) .

Consequently one inquires “ Why do so many preparation Sessionss seem to blow everyone ‘s clip? ” ( Dwyer, 2004: 79 ) . Harmonizing to the findings, the grounds why many of the respondents did non take part in the ETC class were the long waiting lists and others claimed that they were ne’er contacted to get down the class ( R & A ; D, 2012: 11 ) . A smaller per centum did non go to due to occupation committednesss whilst for the remaining, the clip indicated for the class was non suited ( R & A ; D, 2012: 11 ) . This survey will detect in more depth the jobseekers ‘ positive and negative positions towards the ETC preparation programmes.

2.1.7 Developing a jobseeker ‘s possible

A similar research was carried out by Larson and Milana ( 2006 ) which establishes that the deficiency of engagement in grownup instruction and preparation is due to:

deficiency of clip and/or energy

deficiency of motive in re-entering instruction

deficiency of courses/equipment

deficiency of support and ;

deficiency of assurance in ain competences.

Harmonizing to Larson and Milana ( 2006 ) , deficiency of clip and/or energy is more likely to be a barrier to adult females than work forces, whereas deficiency of assurance can be more of a barrier to young person and seniors.

Similarly when grownup instruction and developing engagement surveies were analysed in Canada, it was observed that the chief grounds for many non go toing classs were fiscal issues, developing conflicted with work agenda, deficiency of family-friendly steps and preparation offered at an inconvenient clip ( Peters, 2004 ) . This is farther supported by Cullen ( 2011 ) whose findings indicate that jobseekers express a negative attitude towards preparation and employment due to several societal barriers. Furthermore Martin and Grubb ( 2001: 32 ) argue that when labour market programmes are mandatory to jobseekers they are less effectual.

Blanchard and Thacker ( 2003 ) widen this farther when saying that a individual ‘s public presentation depends on a figure of factors such as motive, cognition accomplishments and attitudes and the environment ( Illustration 2-4 ) . In this survey, the research worker will analyze the jobseekers ‘ motive to larn, their features and the environment in which larning takes topographic point.

Illustration 2- 4 Factors Determining Human Performance


Motivation ( M )

Knowledge, Skills, and Attitude ( KSA )


P= M x KSA x E

Beginning: Blanchard and Thacker ( 2003: 75 )

Carr et Al. ( 2009: 16 ) imply that people must foremost recognize the ground they should use their accomplishments. Therefore in order to heighten 1s ‘ potencies, it is necessary that an person is made cognizant of possessing the cognition, accomplishments and competences needed for a peculiar occupation ( Carr, 2009 ) .

“ Most job-seekers wish they could unlock the secret expression to winning the Black Marias and heads of employers. What they wonder, is that alone combination of accomplishments and values that make employers salivate with exhilaration? ” ( Hansen and Hansen, 2009 ) .

2.2 Employability-Towards a Definition

Employability is another cardinal subject of the thesis. While transporting out the literature reappraisal, the research worker found many societal factors that can be of an employment barrier to jobseekers. In this thesis there will be a brief overview of these societal factors and an analysis of the employers ‘ demands and outlooks when enrolling. Furthermore the extent to which the ETC preparation programmes run into current labor market demands will besides be examined in this subdivision.

The International Labour Organisation ( 2004: 9 ) provinces that ;

“ aˆ¦the term employability relates to portable competences and makings that enhance an person ‘s capacity to do usage of instruction and preparation chances available in order to procure and retain nice work, advancement within the endeavor and between occupations and header with alterations in engineering and labour market conditions ” .

Brown et Al. ( 2002: 10 ) extend the definition of the term employability by imputing it on the supply and demand within the labour market, viz. on the employability degree of others. Furthermore Glastra et Al. ( 2004: 291 ) argue that in order to last in this competitory universe it is necessary for the work force to prosecute in womb-to-tomb acquisition. The current economic alterations altered the working life hence the demand of womb-to-tomb larning to heighten employability ( Glastra et al. , 2004: 305 ) .

2.2.1 The Jobseeker ‘s Positions

The jobseekers ‘ degree of employability is a affair of concern in this thesis. The chief factors which contribute to the passage from instruction to employment will be taken into consideration. These factors vary from unstable occupations, labour market conditions, population ‘s employability degrees and the instruction system ( CEDEFOP, 2010:30 ) .

Indeed Mifsud et Al. ( 2006: 16 ) finds the passage from school to work, peculiarly disputing as without farther instruction and developing the jobseekers will miss the accomplishments and competencies needed in the labor market. Harmonizing to Muller and Gangl ( 2003 ) , the passage procedure is the period between the terminal of the primary instruction and the subsiding into the work environment. Likewise Braun et Al. ( 2001 ) distinguish between two phases in the passage period:

the initial occupation hunt after go forthing instruction and ;

the beginning of the employment experience.

During this passage there are two types of hazards for new entrants, these being the inability to happen employment and instability of the first employment ( Braun et al. , 2001 ) .

Besides harmonizing to ILO, due to this passage from instruction to working life, young persons need more encouragement towards happening a suited employment ( ILO, 2006: 20 ) .

Additionally Yorke ( 2006: 2 ) provinces that many times “ The transferability of accomplishments is frequently excessively easy assumed ” . When look intoing the employability spread between the long-run and short-run unemployed, Thomsen ( 2009: 451 ) finds that there exist major differences for case in accomplishments and wellness position. These employment barriers make it harder for the long-run unemployed to happen work ( Thomsen, 2009: 451 ) . The deprived groups are besides happening it hard to acquire employed ; these groups include the aged, people with particular demands and former substance maltreaters who need farther support during occupation seeking ( ILO, 2006: 21 ) .

Another factor that affects employability is the altering life style with more adult females take parting in the labor market ( NSO, 2012b ) . Despite the addition in employment rate, it still remains hard for adult females to keep a full-time occupation without shared duties ( Zerafa, 2007: 39 ) . Thus the demand of more family-friendly steps ( Zerafa, 2007 ) . Furthermore Ostrouch and Ollagnier ( 2008 ) show how hard it is for adult females to progress in professions considered untypical for adult females. Womans may besides be discouraged to analyze in their country of penchant due to gender stereotyping ( Ostrouch and Ollagnier, 2008 ) .

“ Previous surveies indicated that racial and cultural favoritism at work bound occupation chances and contribute to cut down calling aspirations and outlooks ” ( Forstenlechner and Al-Waqfi, 2010: 768 ) .

Forstenlechner and Al-Waqfi ( 2010 ) make up one’s mind to analyze workplace favoritism in the context of immigrants and jobseekers. The findings of the survey indicate that prejudiced actions can take topographic point during the pre-employment phase ; or after the enlisting procedure ( Forstenlechner and Al-Waqfi, 2010 ) . Ultimately these prejudiced state of affairss influence jobseekers in their pursuit of happening a occupation.

2.2.2 The Employer ‘s Position

This survey will besides look into the employers ‘ positions towards larning and employability. The employers ‘ point of position is needed in this survey to analyze the extent to which the ETC preparation programmes are run intoing their demands and outlooks. Furthermore this survey will besides travel through the features employers seek in prospective employees and the troubles encountered during enlisting.

Vera and Crossan ( 2004 ) indicate that a acquisition clime that adapts rapidly to alter will finally prolong an administration. Besides the survey conducted by Carrim and Basson ( 2012 ) revealed that a learning clime can be used in different types of administrations and should be aligned with the administrations ‘ profiles. On the other manus Warhurst ( 2012 ) implies that employers are more concerned with the current economic alterations so staff development.

“ In an age of asceticism with many administrations confronting cuts and imposed alterations, it might be assumed that larning within administrations would fall victim to force per unit area for the competitively efficient bringing of merchandises or service ” ( Warhurst, 2012: 1 )

A related hypothesis investigated by Joyce ( 2008: 376 ) is that “ Today many companies are engaging less and/or return longer to happen merely the right individual with the right accomplishments for the right occupation ” . Employers, apart from using the general face-to-face interviews are returning to situational behavioral interviews and the usage of other trials including psychometric trials, written tests and a 2nd interview ( Joyce, 2008: 379 ) .

This happens as “ In today ‘s competitory universe, one can non disregard the fact that employers look for people who are good trained in the country of their employment ” ( ETC, 2010e ) . Indeed the informations given by the NSO shows that frequently employers seek to enroll skilled persons instead than partly or non-skilled appliers to avoid the clip taken to develop ( 2001 ) . Consequently these long enlisting procedures are taking to more costs and are going stressful for employers ( Joyce, 2008: 379 ) .

2.2.3 Labour Deficits

The long enlisting procedures may besides be attributed to labor deficits though Cohen and Mahmood ( 2002 ) argue that occupation vacancies can be even at low employment rates. If one takes a expression from a local point of view, one finds that in recent old ages, a figure of low-skill fabrication companies in Malta have closed down like Denim and VF, ensuing in redundancies every bit good as decreased soaking up of lower-skilled school departers ( The Malta Independent, 2007 ) . This happens as “ aˆ¦Malta has non managed to pull adequate activity in growing sectors to replace worsening activities ” ( MFIN, 2012: 10 ) . In order to change by reversal this, the ETC is join forcesing with assorted employers to avoid labour deficits and to implement its preparation programmes consequently ( ETC, 2010b ) .

Additionally a survey by Fsadni illustrates the local labor and accomplishments deficits which employers predict for the period of July to December 2012. It is interesting to observe that harmonizing to the survey conducted by Fsadni: “ In all sectors, the bulk of the employers are confident they will happen the right people for the occupations ” ( 2012: 6 ) . Therefore Fsadni suggests employers are confident that supply will be run intoing labour market demands. The findings by Fsadni will be compared and contrasted with the concluding consequences of this survey.

2.2.4 Skill Shortages

In this subdivision, importance is given to skill deficits as frequently a low unemployment rate suggests a skill deficit. Although Cohen and Mahmood ( 2002:12 ) intimation that a high degree of employment does non needfully connote that there are no skill deficits. When analyzing the accomplishment shortages, one must take into consideration the economic activity as

“ The pupils population is going more diverse and instruction and preparation systems are holding to set to the demand of globalization and internationalization, increased in-migration, and quickly altering occupational profiles ensuing from technological and economic developments ” ( Cedefop, 2010: 12 )

The ESF 3.75 Unlocking the Female Potential, considers accomplishments deficits in Malta and the chief mark group are females ( NCPE, 2012 ) . The employers, who besides had their say in this research, mentioned some of the preparation needed for inactive females which included computing machine accomplishments, specific proficient accomplishments, societal accomplishments like teamwork, and client attention ( NCPE, 2012 ) . The NCPE ( 2012 ) besides recommends that the ETC should supply more on-the-job preparation to adult females returning to employment. There is besides the demand to better the place of counsel particularly when it comes to young persons to do a smooth passage into work ( CEDEFOP, 2010: 16 )


While carry oning the literature reappraisal, it was felt that the cardinal subjects of the thesis contribute in more important ways to academic thought, through the development and apprehension of the acquisition procedure and the employability construct. As seen from the literature reappraisal, the three chief factors to take into history when sing a successful preparation programme are: the jobseekers ‘ positions, the employers ‘ positions and the local economic system.

Furthermore the attack chosen will help the research worker in measuring three hypotheses:

The first hypothesis is that jobseekers do non admit their accomplishments and abilities in forepart of employers.

The 2nd hypothesis is that the higher the degree of mismatch between the standards listed for clerical businesss by employers and those features possessed by clerical jobseekers, the lower are the employability chances of such jobseekers.

The 3rd hypothesis is that during the enlisting procedure, employers seek for already trained campaigners.

Finally these hypotheses will besides lend to the aim of the chief research inquiry in that to what extent do the ETC preparation programmes enhance jobseekers ‘ employability in Malta.