Environmental Science Mid-term exam review

1. Which one of the following is not a major factor determining the natural distribution of giant pandas on Earth?
a. The evolutionary history of giant pandas
b. The distribution and abundance of bamboo in China
c. The type and abundance of giant panda parasites
d. The success rates of giant panda captive breeding programs
d. The success rates of giant panda captive breeding programs
2. Which of the following represents an abiotic component of a forest community?
a. The oak and hickory trees
b. The mushrooms growing on and around rotting logs
c. Water trickling in a small stream
d. Bacteria in the soil
c. Water trickling in a small stream
3. Most organisms native to a desert community are
a. Well adapted to the heat and dry environment
b. Well adapted to the heat but probably not the dry environment
c. Well adapted to the heat but probably not the heat
d. Not well adapted to the heat or dry environment
a. Well adapted to the heat and dry environment
We will write a custom essay sample on
Environmental Science Mid-term exam review
or any similar topic only for you
Order now
4. Most ecosystems
a. Are sharply divided from other ecosystems
b. Consist of two or more distinct landscapes
c. Grade into other ecosystems in regions called ecotones
d. Are clustered with other ecosystems to form communities
c. Grade into other ecosystems in regions called ecotones
5. A single ecosystem will include
a. An interactive complex of communities but not the abiotic environment
b. The abiotic environment but not an interactive complex of communities
c. Many species of living organisms and may include humans
d. Either a plant community or an animal community, but not both
c. Many species of living organisms and may include humans
6. Which one of the following best illustrates an ecological landscape?
a. A pond and all of the living organisms within it
b. The animals, plants, and bacteria living in the Mississippi River
c. A large open prairie with bison grazing on grasses and insects visiting the flowers
d. A river flowing past fields and forests in Yellowstone National Park
d. A river flowing past fields and forests in Yellowstone National Park
7. A form of a biome is largely predicted by its
a. Diversity of plant and animal species
b. Diversity of soil microorganisms
c. Temperature and rainfall
d. Distance from the ocean
c. Temperature and rainfall
8. Organisms with a very broad range of temperature tolerance would most likely occur in
a. The oceans
b. Tropical environments
c. The mid-western United States
d. Hawaii
c. The mid-western United States
9. Driving along a highway, you start noticing plants with tiny blue flowers. Several miles later, these flowers are very abundant. Then even further, the flowers become less abundant, until finally, you do not see them at all. The regions with just a few of these plants represented the plant’s
a. Optimal range
b. Zone of stress
c. Resource reservoirs
d. Optimal habitats
b. Zone of stress
10. During sublimation
a. Water molecules change their basic structure
b. Water molecules condense to form a liquid
c. Additional oxygen is added to water
d. Water changes from a solid directly to a gaseous form
d. Water changes from a solid directly to a gaseous form
11. Watering and fertilizing plants in your home provides them with components of the
a. Atmosphere and lithosphere
b. Hydrosphere and biosphere
c. Lithosphere and hydrosphere
d. Biosphere and atmosphere
c. Lithosphere and hydrosphere
12. Which of the following is NOT a trace element in living organisms?
a. Iron
b. Copper
c. Zinc
d. Carbon
d. Carbon
13. Natural organic compounds typically consist of a combination of carbon, hydrogen, and
a. Oxygen, nitrogen, phosphorus, and/or sulfur
b. Nitrogen, lead, mercury, and/or sulfur
c. Sulfur, oxygen, zinc, and/or chloride
d. Oxygen, nitrogen, sodium, and/or potassium
a. Oxygen, nitrogen, phosphorus, and/or sulfur
14. After a winter storm, bright sunlight returns and the snow and ice on the road melts into liquid water. This is an example of
a. Light energy converted to heat energy changing the state of water
b. Movement changing the position of snow and ice
c. Matter changing the heat of the atmosphere
d. Movement generating heat that changes the position of ice and snow
a. Light energy converted to heat energy changing the state of water
15. Which of the following best represents potential energy converted to kinetic energy?
a. A windmill pumping water up into a water storage tank.
b. Plants capturing sunlight to produce sugars using photosynthesis
c. Turning on a flashlight
d. Pulling a boat up on a shoreline
c. Turning on a flashlight
16. Cell respiration and photosynthesis are both complex processes that
a. Result in the production of glucose
b. Release carbon dioxide
c. Generate oxygen from soil minerals
d. Require enzymes which promote either synthesis or breaking of chemical bonds
d. Require enzymes which promote either synthesis or breaking of chemical bonds
17. The oxygen released from photosynthesis came from
a. The water used in photosynthesis
b. The carbon dioxide used in photosynthesis
c. Oxygen in the air
d. Glucose
a. The water used in photosynthesis
18. The continuing addition of large amounts of nitrogen and phosphorus to aquatic ecosystems may exceed planetary boundaries and create a “tipping point” in which
a. Nitrogen and phosphorus are depleted from soils
b. High nitrogen and phosphorus levels cause ecosystems to change in ways difficult to reverse and that are damaging to human food production.
c. These ecosystems produce far more human food than ever before
d. Water is lost from these systems and they become deserts
b. High nitrogen and phosphorus levels cause ecosystems to change in ways difficult to reverse and that are damaging to human food production.
19. Which one of the following is the broadest scope of ecological study?
a. Ecosystem ecology
b. Landscape ecology
c. Population ecology
d. Community ecology
b. Landscape ecology
20. Denitrification in sewage treatment systems requires
a. The bubbling of oxygen into waste sewage
b. The addition of water to waste sewage
c. An anerobic environment
d. An aerobic environment
c. An anerobic environment
21. Along the shoreline of a pond, Canadian geese, American toads, and grass frogs search for food while bluegill and bass prey on small fish in the shallow water. These species, living and feeding in this particular location, represent one
a. Species
b. Population
c. Community
d. Ecosystem
c. Community
22. Sustainable populations
a. Are often near their carrying capacity
b. Have exceeded their biotic potential
c. Have grown beyond all types of environmental resistance
d. Are characterized by high emigration and low recruitment
a. Are often near their carrying capacity
23. A population would be expected to grow if
a. Immigration increased and deaths and emigration decreased.
b. Immigration and emigration increased by the same number of organisms.
c. Emigration and death rates stayed the same and immigration decreased.
d. Births decreased by 1% and emigration decreased by 8%
a. Immigration increased and deaths and emigration decreased.
24. The population of game fish in a lake is under heavy fishing pressure. If too many fish are caught, the population will crash and future years of fishing will suffer. The game fish can exhibit logistic growth under certain circumstances. Assuming logistic growth, it would be best to manage this game fish population by permitting the harvesting of just enough fish to keep the game fish population
a. At 1/10 of its carrying capacity
b. At half its carrying capacity
c. At its full carrying capacity
d. Above its carrying capacity
b. At half its carrying capacity
25. In logistic growth (an S-shaped curve), how does population growth change as the population nears its carrying capacity?
a. Population growth increases
b. Population growth remains steady
c. Population growth decreases
d. Population growth typically crashes when a population nears its carrying capacity.
c. Population growth decreases
26. Which of the following organisms is most likely a K-strategist?
a. Oak trees
b. Bacteria
c. Puffball mushrooms
d. Fruit flies
a. Oak trees
27. Which one of the following is characteristic of a K-selected species?
a. Fast reproductive rate
b. Large body size
c. Short life span
d. Production of large numbers of offspring
b. Large body size
28. A population of catfish in a muddy pond reaches its maximum size as the food supplies start to run low. Without any new sources of food, the catfish population remains steady. This population represents
a. Density-dependent logistic growth
b. Density-independent logistic growth
c. Density-dependent exponential growth
d. Density-independent exponential growth
a. Density-dependent logistic growth
29. Density-independent factors such as earthquakes and hurricanes are
a. Abiotic factors that maintain a population near equilibrium
b. Biotic factors that maintain a population near equilibrium
c. Abiotic factors that are not involved in maintaining a population near its equilibrium
d. Biotic factors that are not involved in maintaining a population near its equilibrium
c. Abiotic factors that are not involved in maintaining a population near its equilibrium
30. Which of the following is analogous to a mutualistic growth?
a. A basketball player is paid by a company to wear its particular brand of shoes
b. A deer hunter stalks and kills a large buck
c. A thief breaks into a store and steals some precious jewels
d. Young lovers leave their initials carved into a tree, which then gets diseased and dies.
a. A basketball player is paid by a company to wear its particular brand of shoes
31. The relationship between the dung beetles and the disease carrying flies is a type of
a. Mutualism
b. Commensalism
c. Intraspecific competition
d. Interspecific competition
d. Interspecific competition
32. In general, it is rare for a parasite to
a. Feed on a host
b. Kill its host
c. Spread from one host to another
d. Compete with other parasites for access to a host
b. Kill its host
33. Parasites
a. Affect their hosts in a density-independent manner.
b. And their hosts represent a type of intraspecific competition
c. Occur in animals but not plants
d. May live inside or outside of their host
d. May live inside or outside of their host
34. Territoriality
a. Reduces intraspecific fighting and ensures adequate resources for some members of a species.
b. Encourages interspecific fighting and helps share density-independent resources
c. Encourages predation and reduces intraspecific competition
d. Is more likely in r-selected species with short life spans and many offspring.
a. Reduces intraspecific fighting and ensures adequate resources for some members of a species.
35. A keystone species
a. Has a disproportionately large impact on the stability of an ecosystem.
b. Typically reduces overall biodiversity of an ecosystem
c. Is typically an herbivore
d. Is an example of amensalism
a. Has a disproportionately large impact on the stability of an ecosystem.
36. Brown-headed Cowbirds lay their eggs in other birds’ nests, relying upon another species to raise their chicks. Although many species continue to raise the cowbird chicks, some species reject the eggs and offspring. Further, Brown-headed Cowbirds are rare inside large forests. Which of the following represents an adaptation in response to this Cowbird threat?
a. Breeding birds of other species raising cowbird chicks
b. Breeding birds of other species nesting in deep forests
c. Breeding birds of other species attracted cowbird adults to their region
d. Breeding birds of other species changing to a different type of bird song.
b. Breeding birds of other species nesting in deep forests
37. When a single species evolves into two species, the new species must
a. Be reproductively isolated
b. Evolve different diets
c. Be exposed to the same selective pressures
d. Live on a different continent
a. Be reproductively isolated
38. Which one of the following is a trait that increases the chances of survival for an endangered species?
a. Large size
b. A food source consisting of a single species
c. Widespread distribution
d. Small number of offspring
c. Widespread distribution
39. Which of the following would most likely causes the greatest harm to wild Giant Panda
populations in China?
a. The introduction of beetles that eat bamboo
b. Captive breeding of giant pandas already in zoos throughout the world.
c. Restricting logging in regions within the current Giant Panda range
d. Promoting the giant panda as a national symbol of China
a. The introduction of beetles that eat bamboo
40. Kudzu wine, chestnut blight, fire ants, and Japanese beetles are all examples of
a. Asexually reproducing species
b. Invasive species
c. Species that evolved because of recent geographic isolation
d. Species that evolved on the Galapagos Islands.
b. Invasive species
41. Volcanoes are triggered by
a. Changes in solar radiation
b. Movement of tectonic plates
c. Human mining activities
d. Major changes in climate
b. Movement of tectonic plates
42. Biomes characterize regions with smaller types of
a. Vegetation and climatic conditions
b. Animals and plants
c. Soil, water systems, and animals
d. Rocks, soil, minerals, and water
a. Vegetation and climatic conditions
43. Hydrothermal vent communities are unusual because
a. A primary producer synthesizes organic matter
b. A producer exists without sunlight
c. A consumer eats a producer
d. There are no producers in the ecosystem
b. A producer exists without sunlight
44. A raccoon spends its week eating raspberries, grain, eggs, and grasshoppers. Raccoons are therefore
a. Carnivores
b. Omnivores
c. Herbivores
d. Producers
b. Omnivores
45. To feed its young, an owl captures mice that eat grains. The owl also eats small snakes that feed on these mice. The diet of owls represents the roles of
a. A primary and a secondary consumer
b. A secondary and a tertiary consumer
c. An herbivore and a carnivore
d. A producer and a consumer
b. A secondary and a tertiary consumer
46. You are enjoying a salad with lettuce coated by mushrooms, tomatoes, carrots, and bits of bacon from grain-fed pigs. Your salad represents
a. Producers, consumers, and decomposers
b. Only producers and consumers
c. Only producers and carnivores
d. Only producers
a. Producers, consumers, and decomposers
47. In a forest, deer, raccoons, squirrels, and other animals eat and find shelter. A detrital food web occurs as their wastes accumulate on the forest floor. In this detrital web,
a. Deer and raccoons function as producers
b. Fungi and earthworms function as producers
c. Decomposers function as consumers
d. The deer and raccoons represent decomposers
c. Decomposers function as consumers
48. Anaerobic respiration
a. Occurs without oxygen and may produce methane gas
b. Is a type of photosynthesis that does not require carbon dioxide
c. Typically results in increased biomass
d. Requires oxygen to break down glucose and other plant sugars
Occurs without oxygen and may produce methane gas
49. Why are there so few ecosystems with more than four levels of consumers?
a. Because biomass decreases by about 90% at each trophic level moving up.
b. Because top consumers compete with and kill each other with increasing population size
c. Because consumers at these highest trophic levels typically form social groups that stop reproducing at high densities
d. Because predators at the highest trophic levels simply are not intelligent enough to hunt other top predators.
a. Because biomass decreases by about 90% at each trophic level moving up
50. Productivity of an ecosystem is best determined by the
a. Total amount of biomass in the system
b. Number of individuals of each species
c. Number of species present in an ecosystem
d. Total photosynthesis each year.
d. Total photosynthesis each year.
51. Environmental pollutants such as PCB’s contaminate oceans and other aquatic systems. Plankton in the ocean become contaminated by PCB’s and passes this along through the food chain. A pregnant woman has been cautioned to limit her consumption of food that may be high in PCBs. If she consumes food from a nearby contaminated ocean, we would expect that the most contaminated foods would be
a. Shrimp
b. Clams
c. Fish that eat shrimp
d. Kelp and other ocean plants
c. Fish that eat shrimp
52. A reverse biomass pyramid is typical of
a. Terrestrial ecosystems because of the high concentration of sunlight
b. Terrestrial ecosystems because land can support more animals than water
c. Aquatic ecosystems because top consumers live much longer than producers
d. Aquatic ecosystems because water contains much more oxygen than air.
c. Aquatic ecosystems because top consumers live much longer than producers
53. Energy transfer between trophic levels in aquatic systems is generally
a. Less efficient than terrestrial food pyramids
b. Less efficient than a detritus food web because aquatic systems lack fungi.
c. Inverted, in which more energy is transferred from one trophic level up to the next.
d. More efficient than terrestrial food pyramids.
d. More efficient than terrestrial food pyramids.
54. In general, biomes at higher latitudes are most like
a. Biomes at higher altitudes
b. Aquatic biomes
c. Biomes at lower altitudes
d. Biomes at lower latitudes
a. Biomes at higher altitudes
55. Biomes with less than 25 centimeters (10 inches) of rain a year are
a. High in primary productivity
b. Likely to have extremely cold winters
c. Covered with coniferous forests
d. Deserts
d. Deserts
56. Most warm desert biomes of the world are located
a. About 20-30 degrees latitude north or south
b. In Asia
c. Along a coastline
d. Along the equator
a. About 20-30 degrees latitude north or south
57. Which biome is characterized by permafrost?
a. Tundra
b. High latitude temperate forests
c. Cold deserts
d. High latitude coniferous forests
a. Tundra
58. As you paddle along in your canoe, you pass alligators, herons, turtles, and tall marsh grasses on your journey through Everglades National Park. This magnificent ecosystem is one of the most famous examples of
a. The saline portion of an estuary
b. A lake with some incoming tidal flow
c. A freshwater wetland
d. A freshwater stream
c. A freshwater wetland
59. Primary productivity of the open ocean is very limited because of
a. Shortage of water
b. Shortage of light
c. Shortage of nutrients
d. Low temperature
c. Shortage of nutrients
60. Compared to an ecosystem with just a single stage of succession, an ecosystem with a variety of successional stages
a. Is more likely to experience forest fires
b. Has greater biodiversity
c. Is less likely to experience erosion
d. Has a much lower rate of primary productivity
b. Has greater biodiversity
61. The value of programs such as the Reef Environmental Education Foundation (REEF) lies in
a. Their ability to raise funds for coral reef research
b. Their involvement of citizens in the collection of and the removal of invasive species from coral reefs
c. Their use of untrained volunteers to replace qualified scientists in marine biology
d. The increase in commercial fishing yields in the Caribbean
b. Their involvement of citizens in the collection of and the removal of invasive species from coral reefs
62. The lionfish is
a. An introduced invasive species that is causing declines in native Caribbean reef fish.
b. An invasive species in the Caribbean but is controlled by local predators
c. Threatened in many parts of its range but is recovering thanks to the REEF program
d. Valued by local Caribbean communities because of its value as food.
a. An introduced invasive species that is causing declines in native Caribbean reef fish.
63. The phrase “ecosystem capital” is better than the phrase “natural resources” because ecosystem capital
a. Includes both the ecological and economic value of natural ecosystems
b. Includes only the economic value of an ecosystem’s goods and services
c. Includes only the ecological value of natural ecosystems
d. Includes neither the economic nor the ecological value of an ecosystem’s goods and services.
a. Includes both the ecological and economic value of natural ecosystems
64. Regulating and cultural services provided by natural ecosystems
a. Typically have the highest economic value of any components of ecosystems
b. Are public goods usually provided by markets
c. Include goods such as fresh water, wild foods, and livestock
d. Are essential but difficult to value in monetary terms.
d. Are essential but difficult to value in monetary terms.
65. Maintaining sustainable human exploitation of ecosystem capital will be increasingly difficult because of
a. Overreliance on grains and other plants as a significant portion of the human diet.
b. Expanding number of viral and bacterial human diseases
c. Growing pressure from human population on Earth
d. Changing temperature and rainfall patterns
c. Growing pressure from human population on Earth
66. The ability of an ecosystem to replenish itself leads to
a. Sustainability
b. Decreasing consumptive use
c. The conversion of ecosystem capital from one form to another
d. Increasing natural resources but declining ecosystem capital.
a. Sustainability
67. Which one of the following best illustrates consumptive use of a resource?
a. A farmer raises 1000 acres of soybeans in Illinois
b. A fishing vessel hauls in 100 tons of tuna for sale on the open market
c. A farmer in Indiana shoots a wild turkey for his Thanksgiving dinner
d. A shrimp farm in Thailand raises shrimp to sell in China
c. A farmer in Indiana shoots a wild turkey for his Thanksgiving dinner
68. Efforts to limit global deforestation should be concentrated
a. In the northern hemisphere
b. In the developing regions of the world
c. Wherever there is the greatest concentration of people
d. In regions with the highest production of agricultural crops.
b. In the developing regions of the world
69. Which of the following types of forest management is closet to sustainable forestry principles?
a. Shelter-wood cutting and selective cutting
b. Selective cutting and clear-cutting
c. Clear-cutting and shelter-wood cutting
d. Clear-cutting followed by burning the cut areas
a. Shelter-wood cutting and selective cutting
70. What global event that happened about 35 years ago that helped some fishing areas recover?
a. All commercial fishing was limited to hand lines instead of nets
b. Nations extended their jurisdiction from 12 to 200 miles offshore
c. The size of the vessels used for commercial fishing was restricted to 200 tons
d. International agreements limited the size of the fish that could be kept and sold.
b. Nations extended their jurisdiction from 12 to 200 miles offshore
71. The last 50 years of declining productivity of the commercial fish populations off the northeast coast of North America reveal the impact of
a. Air pollution on fish populations
b. Water pollution on fish populations
c. Global climate change on fish population
d. Overfishing
d. Overfishing
72. The greatest human impacts on ocean ecosystems are concentrated
a. In the northern hemisphere
b. Around Australia
c. Around South America
d. In the Eastern Pacific
a. In the northern hemisphere
73. The reauthorization of the Magnuson Act now
a. Requires an ecosystem-based approach to fisheries management
b. Limits catches of all commercial species to below maximum sustainable yield.
c. Decreases the role of the scientific and statistical committee, shifting data collection to the local fisherman.
d. Encourages the collection of by catch as a new source of revenue.
b. Limits catches of all commercial species to below maximum sustainable yield.
74. The most promising solution to the global problem of depleted cod populations is to
a. Raise baby cod in commercial hatcheries and release them into the ocean
b. Encourage people across the world to eat other fish species
c. Apply the principles used in the management of Pacific halibut
d. Encourage better methods for catching cod that are otherwise not harvested.
c. Apply the principles used in the management of Pacific halibut
75. The International Whaling Commission moratorium on whale hunting has been in effect since 1986 primarily because
a. Enforcing and monitoring hunting in open oceans is very difficult.
b. Virtually all species of whales are classified as endangered species.
c. Of a worldwide recognition of the tourism value of whales.
d. Of viral infections that make all whale meat unsuitable for human consumption
a. Enforcing and monitoring hunting in open oceans is very difficult.
76. Despite a worldwide moratorium on whale hunting by the International Whaling Commission,
a. Norway, Japan, and Iceland have continued to hunt whales
b. Most nations of the world now permit the hunting of whales
c. Whale meat is now more popular than ever in Japan and China
d. The impact of whales on commercial wild fish populations requires whale hunting worldwide.
a. Norway, Japan, and Iceland have continued to hunt whales
77. Global climate change threatens coral reefs by
a. Decreasing the temperature and increasing the pH of the oceans
b. Decreasing both the temperature and the pH of the oceans
c. Increasing the temperature and decreasing the pH of the oceans
d. Increasing both temperature and pH of the oceans
c. Increasing the temperature and decreasing the pH of the oceans
78. Which of the following human activities is most negatively impacting biodiversity around the world?
a. The production of food: agriculture and fisheries
b. The harvesting of fossil fuels
c. The construction of roads in wilderness areas
d. Recreational activities
a. The production of food: agriculture and fisheries
79. Most of the national forests in the United States
a. Have been protected for more than a century from any lumbering activities
b. Occur in locations where logging is impractical
c. Have been destroyed by invasive species
d. Have been managed for commercial timber harvest.
d. Have been managed for commercial timber harvest.
80. The recent increase in forest fires in the United States is most related to
a. Increases in logging in the region
b. A decade of drought
c. Government policies that have dramatically increased the size of forests in the west
d. New management policies that no longer try to stop or control wildfires.
b. A decade of drought
81. Indonesia represents a nation in which
a. Women are now having smaller families because of economic and social constraints
b. There are excellent social services and employment opportunities for the middle income families.
c. There is a high level of affluence and women marry late and have large families.
d. Most people are subsistence farmers, poverty is widespread and both family size and child mortality are very high.
a. Women are now having smaller families because of economic and social constraints
Sweden represents a nation in which
a. Women tend to marry early and have large families
b. Women tend to marry late, enter the work force and have significant social and medical services.
c. Women are poorly educated and usually cannot find employment
d. The population is characterized mostly by large numbers of people under 25 and a much smaller elderly age group.
b. Women tend to marry late, enter the work force and have significant social and medical services.
About 30,000 years ago, humans survived most like which of the following organisms?
a. Roaming groups of omnivorous chimps
b. Herds of herbivorous bison and elk
c. Flocks of herbivorous geese migrating broadly across continents
d. Isolated carnivorous cougars hunting for their own meals.
a. Roaming groups of omnivorous chimps
The Neolithic revolution is most clearly seen in human culture today in our use of
a. Natural wood products from national forests
b. Furs from trapped wild animals.
c. Rivers for navigation and water supplies
d. Modern agriculture to raise food crops.
d. Modern agriculture to raise food crops.
Which revolutions relied most heavily on fossil fuels?
a. Medical revolution and Industrial revolution
b. Environmental revolution and Medical revolution
c. Green revolution and industrial revolution
d. Neolithic revolution and environmental revolution
c. Green revolution and industrial revolution
Which problem today is primarily the result of the Industrial revolution?
a. Extensive air and water pollution
b. Increased transmission of disease between people living in close proximity
c. Decline in quality of agricultural soil
d. Erosion from deforestation as more fuel wood is harvested
a. Extensive air and water pollution
The five main revolutions of human history have all resulted in
a. A greater reliance upon fossil fuels
b. An increase in human carrying capacity
c. A reduction in the spread of disease
d. Increased need for transportation
b. An increase in human carrying capacity
Better sanitation and nutrition generally resulted from the
a. Industrial revolution
b. Medical revolution
c. Green revolution
d. Environmental revolution
b. Medical revolution
Using the IPAT and ImPACT formula, which of the following would most likely reduce the environmental impact of a society?
a. Construction of industrial plants by wealthy nations to draw on cheaper labor
b. The discovery of large reserves of fossil fuels within a nation’s borders.
c. Increased use of electricity and natural gas by most members of a society
d. Greater use of birth control by most members of a society
d. Greater use of birth control by most members of a society
Both the IPAT and PACT formulas predict that the lowest environmental impact is expected in human populations living in
a. Africa
b. South America
c. North America
d. Western Europe
a. Africa
Although people living in the high-density populations in urban areas generally live long, healthy lives, global overpopulation remains a problem because
a. Environmental impacts are not always experienced where resources are consumed.
b. The greatest environmental problems are concentrated in these high-density populations.
c. People in these regions have the highest fertility rates.
d. The destruction of the ozone layer has affected agricultural output.
a. Environmental impacts are not always experienced where resources are consumed.
If the United States or Sweden had an age structure like a developing country,
a. The current social security system would fail
b. Colleges and universities would expect declining enrollments
c. The educational system would need to double the number of elementary schools
d. The retirement age would need to be raised
c. The educational system would need to double the number of elementary schools
The IPAT or ImPACT formula may be one way to estimate the
a. Carrying capacity of a society
b. Point in which a society undergoes the demographic transition.
c. Point in which a society reaches its replacement-level fertility rate.
d. Environmental footprint of a society
d. Environmental footprint of a society
87. In most developed countries, an epidemiologic transition
a. Was followed by a fertility transition resulting in a demographic transition
b. Prevented a fertility transition resulting in a demographic transition
c. Resulted from increased deaths due to epidemics and social conditions
d. Was followed by an increase in birth rates and an increase in death rates
a. Was followed by a fertility transition resulting in a demographic transition
The GINI index assesses
a. The relative size of national ecological and carbon footprints.
b. The attitudes of stewardship in various nations
c. The rate at which technology is affecting consumption patterns within a nation.
d. The relative economic disparity within nations.
d. The relative economic disparity within nations.
Which of the following demonstrates the best application of justice and good stewardship?
a. Only countries with water shortages should develop policies of water management
b. Restrictions on the use of fossil fuels should be proportional to the carbon footprint
c. Wealthy countries have no obligation to provide fuel and food to developing countries.
d. Countries that mine coal in other countries should be exempt from the environmental damage they cause as long as they provide coal to the nation where it is mined.
b. Restrictions on the use of fossil fuels should be proportional to the carbon footprint
When people in developing countries cannot produce enough food to eat, they
a. Start poaching
b. Start raising drug-related crops
c. Move to cities
d. Begin raising large herds of cattle
c. Move to cities
In the United States, legal immigration
a. Provides about 35% of U.S. population growth
b. Permits more people to enter the United States than the combination of immigrants entering all other nations.
c. Favors skilled applicants, creating a brain drain in other countries
d. All of the above.
d. All of the above.
92. Small subsistence farms in developing nations
a. Had a sustainable use of the environment when populations were small
b. Have mostly depleted the natural environment making farming no longer possible.
c. Can support the developing populations at up to ten times their current population size
d. Have polluted rivers and streams and destroyed surrounding forests.
a. Had a sustainable use of the environment when populations were small
China’s current rush to construct dams and transport water over long distances is a response to
a. The national need to create more water-intensive industries such as mining.
b. Draining areas that can be put into crop cultivation
c. Reducing the amount of water used in crop irrigation
d. Producing more water for crop irrigation, urban use and for hydroelectric projects.
d. Producing more water for crop irrigation, urban use and for hydroelectric projects.
The decline of polar ice caps because of increasing temperatures at the poles will
a. Increase the amount of fresh water available for human use.
b. Decrease the largest reserve of fresh water on Earth.
c. Increase the amount of fresh water available in aquifers.
d. Decrease global sea levels
b. Decrease the largest reserve of fresh water on Earth.
Which of the following are processes that generally reverse each other?
a. Evaporation and precipitation
b. Transpiration and evaporation
c. Precipitation and infiltration
d. Condensation and infiltration
a. Evaporation and precipitation
Which of the following contributes the most as a greenhouse gas?
a. Oxygen levels in the air
b. Water vapor levels in the air
c. Nitrogen levels in the air
d. The amount of pollutants in ocean water
b. Water vapor levels in the air
Humidity is highest when relative humidity is
a. High at low temperatures
b. High at high temperatures
c. Low at high temperatures
d. Low at low temperatures
b. High at high temperatures
Water is naturally purified by
a. Evaporation and condensation
b. Transpiration and evaporation
c. Precipitation and infiltration
d. Condensation and transpiration
a. Evaporation and condensation
Some lakes have river and stream tributaries but no outlet, losing water mainly through evaporation. Over time, we expect that such lakes will
a. Increase their fishing productivity
b. Become deeper
c. Become saltier
d. Be good sources of drinking water
c. Become saltier
Which of the following would we expect on the leeward sides of high mountain ranges?
a. Rainforests
b. Deserts
c. Wetlands
d. Deciduous forests
b. Deserts
In the Western United States, we expect that rain shadows most frequently occur on
a. The leeward, east side of mountain ranges
b. The windward, west side of mountain ranges
c. The northern slopes of mountains, which receive less sunlight
d. The southern slopes of mountains, which receive more sunlight.
a. The leeward, east side of mountain ranges
Hadley cells at the equator consist of
a. Rising, moist air that produces precipitation and rain forests, and falling dry air associated with deserts
b. Rising, dry air that associated with desert and falling moist air that produces precipitation and rain forests.
c. Warm, moist air rising up the sides of mountains and cool, dry air descending on the leeward sides.
d. Cool, dry air rising up the sides of the mountains and warm, moist air descending on the leeward sides.
a. Rising, moist air that produces precipitation and rain forests, and falling dry air associated with deserts
A rural farmer most likely obtains drinking water by drilling a deep well to use
a. Gravitational water that has percolated through soil and accumulated as ground water.
b. Gravitational water that is retained by the soil and accumulated just above the water table
c. Capillary water found in surface waters, located above the water table
d. Capillary water that has percolated through soil and accumulated below the ground water
a. Gravitational water that has percolated through soil and accumulated as ground water.
Which of the following situations is most likely to have the lowest infiltration-runoff ratio?
a. A paved parking lot.
b. A mowed soccer field
c. A beach
d. A grassland
a. A paved parking lot.
Floods are becoming more common primarily because
a. Precipitation has increased worldwide
b. Populations are more concentrated in vulnerable watersheds
c. Land use has changed, altering runoff, erosion, and infiltration patterns
d. The “sponge effect” of forests releases large and unpredictable amounts of water.
c. Land use has changed, altering runoff, erosion, and infiltration patterns
Oceanographers are studying the thermohaline currents to determine
a. Whether they are becoming more acidic
b. Whether global climate change may slow or alter their path
c. Whether they could be replaced with artificial currents if damaged by changing temperatures
d. If warm water from polar and glacial melt is affecting the chemistry of the currents
b. Whether global climate change may slow or alter their path
In developing countries, contaminated water is responsible for the deaths of more than 1.6 million people. Contributing to this problem is the use of
a. Groundwater for consumption and the disposal of human sewage.
b. Groundwater for consumption and the disposal of human sewage in surface water.
c. Surface water for consumption and the disposal of human sewage.
d. Surface water for consumption and the disposal of human sewage in ground water.
c. Surface water for consumption and the disposal of human sewage.
Some city water treatment facilities combine storm water and sanitary sewage systems. During heavy storms, these treatment facilities may be overwhelmed with water, and untreated storm water mixes with sewage and flows directly back into the streams and rivers where treated water usually returns. What might be the best way to address this problem?
a. Do not collect rainwater in storm sewers and let it just accumulate on the roads
b. Collect and treat storm sewer and sanitary sewage systems separately
c. Drain the sewage system onto a field near the stream or river
d. Use the excess sewer water as a source of water for the city
b. Collect and treat storm sewer and sanitary sewage systems separately
When freshwater inflows into estuaries are reduced,
a. Salt water intrudes into the system
b. Exotic species of plants and invertebrates may invade the estuary
c. Populations of native species decline
d. All of the above
d. All of the above
The greatest threats to ground water supplies are
a. Groundwater pollution and depletion
b. Global warming and the construction of dams
c. Increased evaporation and increased precipitation
d. Evapotranspiration and runoff
a. Groundwater pollution and depletion
As cities in the United States grow, they are finding that the increased water demands are best addressed by addressing the water footprint, including especially
a. Building more reservoirs
b. Drilling more wells
c. Building desalination plants
d. Conservation measures
d. Conservation measures
Which of the following is true of the Blue revolution?
a. Less dependence on capturing runoff water
b. Restricting access to aquifers
c. Moving away from desalination toward increased use of bottled water
d. Making harder efforts to conserve, especially in food production
d. Making harder efforts to conserve, especially in food production
All of the following are typically used in developing countries to address water shortages, except
a. Tilling the soil thoroughly and frequently before planting crops
b. Importing food products from regions that have excess fresh water
c. Controlling soil erosion
d. Building small check dams to recharge aquifers
a. Tilling the soil thoroughly and frequently before planting crops
A lawn based on the principle of Xeriscaping
a. Uses at least twice as much water as necessary
b. Uses species that require no water other than natural precipitation
c. Gets its water from redirected urban runoff
d. Includes agricultural crop species.
b. Uses species that require no water other than natural precipitation
Stewardship in water resources includes
a. The needs of natural ecosystems and endangered species
b. The reduction of wasteful use of water
c. The need for good water for developing societies
d. All of the above
d. All of the above
The Dust Bowl experience of the United States in the 1930s was caused primarily by
a. Planting grains in soils that could only support leaf crops sustainably.
b. Lack of any soil conservation practices, continuous cropping, coupled with natural drought.
c. Lack of enforcement of the soil conservation provisions of the 1862 Homestead Act
d. Attempts to farm areas with desert like climate and thin topsoil
b. Lack of any soil conservation practices, continuous cropping, coupled with natural drought.
According to GLASOD, the main risk of continuing degradation of agricultural land is
a. An increasing need to rely upon irrigation
b. Declining agricultural productivity
c. The need to shift from grain crops to soybeans
d. The need to rely increasingly on herbicides and pesticides
b. Declining agricultural productivity
Within the soil, natural cycle of
a. Decomposers break down detritus to release nutrients used by producers
b. Detritus break down decomposers to release nutrients used by producers
c. Decomposers break down nutrients to release detritus used by producers
d. Decomposers break down detritus to release nutrients used by consumers
a. Decomposers break down detritus to release nutrients used by producers
Based upon soil particle size, the largest to smallest are
a. Sand, silt, and clay
b. Sand, clay, and silt
c. Clay, sand, and silt
d. Silt, sand, and clay
a. Sand, silt, and clay
Which one of the following soil types will hold the most water? The most water would be held by a soil consisting of equal masses of
a. Sand and silt
b. Clay and sand
c. Silt and clay
d. Small stones and sand
c. Silt and clay
The very deep roots of many prairie plants that have decomposed over thousands of years have contributed to the high fertility of the
a. C horizon of alfisols
b. A horizon of molisols
c. B horizon of aridisols
d. C horizon of molisols
b. A horizon of molisols
Which of the following farming practices would be expected to produce the least nutrient leaching, and thus contribute most to soil sustainability?
a. Deep plowing, irrigation, and the use of inorganic fertilizers
b. Deep plowing, no irrigation, and the use of inorganic fertilizers
c. No plowing, no irrigation, and the use of organic fertilizers
d. No plowing, no irrigation, and the use of organic fertilizers
d. No plowing, no irrigation, and the use of organic fertilizers
Farmers often appreciate a long, light rain over many hours after a long drought, instead of a sudden downpour. This is because a long, light rain permits better
a. Infiltration
b. Water-holding capacity
c. Transpiration
d. Soil fertility
a. Infiltration
Compaction of soil in a garden harms plants by
a. Increasing aeration, decreasing infiltration, and increasing runoff.
b. Decreasing aeration, decreasing infiltration, and increasing runoff.
c. Increasing aeration, increasing infiltration, and decreasing runoff.
d. Decreasing aeration, increasing infiltration, and decreasing runoff.
b. Decreasing aeration, decreasing infiltration, and increasing runoff.
The sustainability of agricultural practices
a. Decreases if the soil is degraded by erosion or salination.
b. Requires that the soil be plowed at least three times annually.
c. Increases if the field is irrigated in amounts equal to the total annual rainfall.
d. Requires the presence of soil nematodes.
a. Decreases if the soil is degraded by erosion or salination.
Global Assessment of Land Degradation and Improvement (GLADA) recently has started using satellite imagery to estimate above ground plant biomass. From this data we can describe
a. The types of soil below ground
b. The amount of topsoil and the state of its microorganisms
c. How much erosion and salination have occurred
d. How land degradation and productivity changed over time.
d. How land degradation and productivity changed over time.
The planting of strips of trees and shrubs along the edges of plowed fields is used to
a. Decrease wind erosion
b. Form water catchments for irrigation and wildlife conservation
c. Drain off excess water during heavy rainfall events
d. Limit the spread of crop pests
a. Decrease wind erosion
Desertification of North America’s drylands is primarily the result of
a. Plowing for crop production
b. Livestock grazing
c. Fires and the use of modern irrigation systems
d. Global climate change
b. Livestock grazing
Global soil erosion
a. Increase the population of aquatic organisms in streams and rivers
b. Adds soil to streams and rivers, which removes many pollutants
c. Pollutes rivers and oceans and reduces the refill rates of aquifers
d. Creates new ponds and lakes, which help to retain water in aquifers
c. Pollutes rivers and oceans and reduces the refill rates of aquifers
In general, United States subsidies for farmers and ranchers have
a. Been based on a sustainable use of natural resources
b. Produced unsustainable soil conservation practices and increased pesticide and fertilizer use
c. Shown how satellite technology can benefit conservation efforts
d. Demonstrated the benefit of government investment to support conservation efforts
b. Produced unsustainable soil conservation practices and increased pesticide and fertilizer use

Custom writing services

×

Hi there, would you like to get such a paper? How about receiving a customized one? Check it out