Epidemeology Chapter 1

Epidemeology Chapter 1

epidemic
the occurrence in a community or region of cases of an illness, specific health related behavior, or other health related events clearly in excess of normal expectancy
pandemic
an epidemic occurring worldwide, or over a very wide area
epidemiology
is concerned with the distribution and determinants of diseases, morbidity, injuries, disability, and mortality in populations
greek
epi (upon) + demos (people) + logy (study of)
population medicine
epidemiology
distribution
the occurrence of diseases and other health outcomes varies in populations, with some subgroups of the populations more frequently affected than others
Determinant
any factor that brings about change in a health condition or other defined characteristic
exposures
contact with a disease causing factor or the amount of the factor that impinges upon a group or individuals
outcomes
all the possible results that may stem from exposure to a casual factor
quantification
counting of cases of illness or other health outcomes
the natural history of disease
the course of disease from its beginning to its clinical endpoint
pre pathogenesis
the time period in the natural history of the disease before a disease agent (bacteria) has interacted with a host (person)
pathogenesis
happens after the person has interacted with the host
primary prevention
the prevention of disease before it occurs (stage of prepathogenesis). involves health promotion and specific prevention against diseases
Secondary Prevention
takes place during the early stages of pathogenesis and includes activities that limit the progression of the disease. (programs for cancer screening and other chronic diseases)
tertiary prevention
later stages of pathogenesis and includes programs for restoring the patients optimal functioning (physical therapy and fitness programs for recovery)
Interdisciplinary science
epidemiology uses information from many different fields
descriptive epidemiology
epidemiological studies that are concerned with characterizing the amount and distribution of health and disease within a population. etiology of a disease, aim is to prevent disease?
Variables used are:
1. person (ex. race, gender, ethnicity, age)
2. place (countries, region in a country)
3. time (decade, year, month, day,)
Analytic Epidemiology
examines casual (etiologic) hypothesis regarding the association between exposures and health conditions. (take advantage of naturally occurring events in order to test casual hypothesis.)
natural experiments
the naturally occurring events in analytic studies. naturally occurring circumstances in which subsets of the population have different levels of exposure to a supposed casual factor in a situation resembling an actual experiment, where human subjects are randomly assigned to groups. (however usually not random)
History of Epi – Hippocrates
(before 500 AD). Was the first to depart from superstitious reasons for disease outbreaks. environmental factors such as water quality and air were causation for disease
Black Death
middle ages between 1346-1352. hit about 1/3 of the population in europe. from bacterai Yersinia pestis. Bubonic plague.
bites of fleas harbored by rats and other rodents spread the disease. kills 60% of victims
Paracelsus
(1493-1541). one of the founders of toxicology. (it is used to examine the effects of chemicals found in the environment).
Contributions: the dose response relationship
John Grant
aka columbus of statistics. (1600s) first to employ quantitative methods to describe population vital statistics by organizing mortality data in a mortality table.
Ramazzini
the founder of the field of occupational medicine. also studied the manifestations of occupational diseases among many different types of workers
Sir Percival Pott
a london surgeon. first to describe an environmental cause of cancer
chimney sweepers and scrotal cancer
Edward Jenner
developed vaccine for smallpox
John Snow
1800s. Believed that Cholera was transmitted by contaminated water and was able to demonstrate this association. Natural experiment Lambeth Company and the Southwark and Vauxhall Company (cause of disease)
miasmatic theory of disease
belief that disease was spread by maism or a cloud.
William Farr
developed a more sophisticated system for codifying medical conditions than that which was previously in use. used census reports to study mortality in england
Robert Koch
German physician. verified that a human disease was caused by a specific living organism. identified the cause of Tuberculosis .
Pandemic Influenza
spanish flu (1900s). killed 50 to 100 million people globally. about 1/3 of worlds population developed the illness.
Alexander Flemming
discovered penicillin. 1928
epidemiologic Transition
describes a shift in patterns of morbidity and morality from causes related primarily to infectious and communicable diseases to causes associated with chronic, degenerative diseases
demographic transition
a shift from high birth rates and death rates found in agrarian societies to much lower birth and death rates in developed countries
Operations research
a type of study of the placement of health services in a community and the optimum utilization of such services (what services are needed and what services can be discarded)
Disease Management
a method of reducing health care costs by providing integrated care for chronic conditions
risk
the probability that an event will occur
risk factor
an exposure that is associated with a disease, morbidity, mortality, or other health outcome
risk assessment
methodology in which epidemiologic studies provide quantitative measurements of risks to health