Musculoskeletal hurt ( MSI ) as define by Part 4, subdivision 4.46 of the Occupational Health and Safety Regulation of as an hurt or upset of the musculuss, sinews, ligaments, articulations, nervousnesss, blood vass or related soft tissue including a strain, sprain and redness, that may be caused or aggravated by work.
Musculoskeletal hurt ( MSI ) has become, a common type of hurt in the workplace ensuing in lost in productiveness in many industries.
There are a figure of ergonomic tools available for measuring the hazard of musculoskeletal hurt. Of these tools, I have decided to concentrate and discourse three ( 3 ) , they are: –
Rapid full organic structure appraisal ( REBA ) was developed by Sue Hignett and Lynn McAtamney as a postural analysis system sensitive to musculoskeletal hazards in a assortment of undertakings. It divides the organic structure into sections to be coded separately with mention to motion planes. It provides a marking system for musculus activity caused by inactive, rapid changing, dynamic or unstable positions.
REBA plants by detecting places of single organic structure sections. The more divergences from the impersonal position, the higher the mark of each organic structure portion. There are two ( 2 ) groups that are combined, group A includes bole, cervix and legs and group B upper and lower weaponries and legs. The 144 position combinations are transformed to a general postural mark. Additionally, burden handed, matching with the local handled and physical activity are observed and scored. These tonss are entire up to hold one mark for each observation and so compared to tabular arraies saying hazard on five degrees ( negligible – really high ) and actions needed ( none – necessary now ) .
Quick Exposure Check ( QEC ) is scored by delegating values to a figure of ‘Observer ‘ and ‘Worker ‘ factors. For each of four organic structure parts ( back, shoulder, carpus and cervix ) , several braces of variables are fed into a search tabular array to bring forth a series of sub-scores that are so totaled to bring forth a mark for that organic structure portion. You can measure both manual handling and non-manual handling undertakings which do non affect back motion.
QEC follows five ( 5 ) stairss:
Measure 1 – Self Training – first clip users must read the User Guide to understand the nomenclature and assessment classs that are used in the check-list.
Measure 2 – Perceiver ‘s Assessment Check-list – the individual detecting a peculiar undertaking uses the perceiver ‘s assessment check-list to carry on a hazard appraisal. One complete work rhythm is observed before doing an appraisal. If a undertaking can non easy be broken down into undertakings, the ‘worst ‘ event within that occupation when a peculiar organic structure portion in inquiry is most to a great extent loaded should be observed. The appraisal can be carried out by direct observation or by utilizing video footage.
Measure 3 – Worker ‘s Assessment Check-list – the worker being observed must finish the ‘workers assessment ‘ check-list.
Measure 4 – Calculation of Exposure Scores – utilizing the ‘table of exposure tonss ‘ to cipher the exposure scores for each undertaking.
Circle all the letters matching to the replies from the ‘observer ‘s appraisal ‘ and the ‘worker ‘s appraisal ‘ .
Mark the Numberss at the traversing point of every brace of circled letters.
Calculate a entire mark for each organic structure portion.
Measure 5 – Consideration of Actions – QEC rapidly identifies the exposure degrees for the dorsum, shoulder, arm, carpus, manus and cervix and it evaluates an ergonomic intercessions can efficaciously cut down these exposure.
2.3 Ovako Working Posture Analysis System – OWAS
Ovako Working Posture Analysis System ( OWAS ) is a method of coding the position of a worker that allows the injuriousness of the position to be categorized into four ( 4 ) action classs of increasing urgency. It is based upon adept opinions of the injuriousness of peculiar positions. A clip based trying attack can be used with it so that the classification can take history of the length of clip spent in any peculiar position ( Karhu et al. , 1977, 1981, Kivi and Mattila, 1991, Vedder, 1998 ) .
Puting the codifications for the four ( 4 ) sections in the sequence of back, legs, tonss and weaponries form the overall position codification. A evaluation system categorizes seventy two ( 72 ) different positions in footings of uncomfortableness caused, and the attempt on wellness. Back positions are defined as either consecutive set, directly and distorted, or set and distorted. OWAS identifies the most common work positions for the dorsum, which includes four positions ; weaponries three positions, legs seven positions and the weight of the burden handled three classs.
The four ( 4 ) action classs listed below shows the wellness jeopardies of each work position or position combination in the OWAS method on the musculoskeletal system: –
Work positions are considered normally with no peculiar harmful consequence on the musculoskeletal system. No actions are needed to alter work positions.
Work positions have some harmful consequence on the musculoskeletal system. Light emphasis, no immediate action is necessary, but alterations should be considered in future planning.
Work positions have a clearly harmful consequence on the musculoskeletal system. The working methods involved should be changed every bit shortly as possible.
Positions during work have a high harmful consequence on the musculoskeletal system. Solutions should be found instantly to cut down these positions.
2.4 Advantages and Disadvantages of Tools
Provides wellness and safety practicians with a user friendly assessment tool with good cogency.
Helps carry organisations to do ergonomic alterations.
Involves both the practician and the worker in the appraisal, thereby supplying a Fuller apprehension of working patterns.
It is straightforward, speedy and easy to utilize.
Is compatible with HSE hazard appraisal.
Conjectural exposure scores with the suggested ‘action degrees ‘ demand validating.
Extra preparation and pattern may be needed for novitiate users to better appraisal dependability.
Method focuses on physical workplace factors merely.
Low cost and an effectual method.
If valid or accurate can supply valuable penetration into working conditions.
Validity and dependability may be low in relation to specific demands for ergonomic appraisal.
Can be biased.
Time consuming ( both right and left manus hold to be assessed individually ) .
Enables comparings with old research in similar scenes.
Easy to utilize and use with high dependability in field probes.
It is suited to measure dynamic, risky working positions of workers while traveling about their workstations.
Does non divide right and left upper appendages.
Requires thorough preparation.
Appraisals of cervix, cubituss and carpuss are losing.
Does non see repeat or continuance of the consecutive position.
2.5 Critical Analysis of Tools
REBA, QEC and OWAS are all check-list type tools. The lone tools needed to execute this type of appraisal are a pencil and paper. All three ( 3 ) REBA, QEC and OWAS besides exist as computing machine plans, so you can input informations collected directly into the package to cipher the overall mark.
REBA can measure position, burden, force and motion frequence whereas, QEC assesses position, burden, force, motion frequence, continuance, recovery, quiver, etc. and OWAS merely assesses position, burden and force.
REBA, QEC and OWAS use ordinal marking systems and so unite the tonss for different hazard factors. REBA and OWAS were design to bring forth an appraisal of the urgency of remedial action for the undertaking being assessed utilizing action classs. QEC has an exact mathematical theoretical account implicit in its construction with fluctuations in burdening between factors.
REBA and OWAS are performed by one individual who understands how the assessment tool is used, whereas QEC is carried out both by the affected employee and the individual making the appraisal.
When executing anyone of these three ( 3 ) tools, the user must understand to the full the map and nomenclature used, or the appraisal will non be accurate.
OWAS has a broad scope of utilizations but the consequences can be low in item. REBA was developed specifically with sensitiveness to unpredictable on the job positions.
REBA does non cover in item with lower limb place. REBA distinguishes between greater or less than 20 grades of flexure of the caput and cervix but non farther. Both REBA and QEC create overall tonss from a mixture of hazard factors specific to the upper limb and to the lower dorsum.
These three ( 3 ) techniques ( REBA, QEC and OWAS ) are easy and speedy to utilize, comprehensive and dependable to measure exposures and can be flexible adequate to be applied to a scope of occupations.
Observational or subjective opinion techniques such as REBA, QEC and OWAS are non more dependable than direct measuring techniques.
There are a figure of tools used in the appraisal of musculoskeletal hurt in the workplace. It is of import to measure these state of affairss in order to forestall hurt to workers.
The three tools discussed before are a good illustration of common check-list type tools that can measure the hazard of musculoskeletal hurts in the workplace in a quantitative manner. It is of import when taking an ergonomic tool, that it is right for the occupation. There is no, best tool for any one occupation but, one must make up one’s mind on the best attack to what needs to be done.
Rapid Entire Body Assessment ( REBA ) , Quick Exposure Check ( QEC ) and Ovako Working Posture Analysis System ( OWAS ) use ordinal marking systems and so unite the tonss for different hazard factors. Rapid Entire Body Assessment ( REBA ) and Ovako Working Posture Analysis System ( OWAS ) uses action classs based on four ( 4 ) and five ( 5 ) point ordinal graduated tables to give an appraisal of the urgency of remedial action for the undertaking. While the Quick Exposure Check ( QEC ) has an exact mathematical theoretical account implicit in its construction with fluctuations in burdening between factors.
Even though Quick Exposure Check ( QEC ) has non yet been validated it has been wildly and often used along with Rapid Entire Body Assessment ( REBA ) and Ovako Working Posture Analysis System ( OWAS ) .